PSC 105 Exam #1 Test Questions

Before the pilgrims traveled to the New World on the Mayflower, the most common reason for settlement in North America was
A) Religious Freedom
B) Fatal disease in their homeland
C) Commerce
D) Independence from the crown
E) To create “a city on a hill”
C) Commerce
Which of the following settlements was not found primarily religious reasons?
A) Connecticut
B) Portsmouth
C) Jamestown
D) Massachusetts Bay
E) Boston
C) Jamestown
As the population of the New World increased, the town meeting form of government was gradually replaced with an indirect democratic system colonists called a(n)
A) Direct Democracy
B) Monarchy
C) Oligarchy
D) Republic
E) Democracy
D) Republic
Which of the following is NOT a function of American government listed in the Preamble?
A) Establish justice
B) Promote equality
C) Provide for the common defense
D) Secure the blessings of liberty
E) Ensure domestic tranquilty
B) Promote equality
Which American ideal, central to the Declaration of Independence, was derived from the social contract theory?
A) Majority rule
B) Popular consent
C) Religious freedom
D) Natural law
E) Political equality
B) Popular consent
Which of these is a major contribution to American population growth since 1940?
A) Longer life expectancy
B) Western European immigration
C) Industrial growth
D) New states added to the United States
E) Higher birthrates
A) Longer life expectancy
Which of the following statements best describes recent demographic trends in the United States?
A) Population has grown largely in Midwestern and Mid-atlantic states
B) African Americans have consistently composed the second largest minority group.
C) Couples favor having more children than in the mid-twentieth century
D) The average age of Americans has increased
E) More than 50 percent of American children today live with only one parent.
D) The average age of Americans has increased
According to political scientists, which of the following is NOT considered a function of political ideologies?
A) Political program
B) Evaluation
C) Orientation
D) Explanation
E) Partisanship
E) Partisanship
Which political ideology is most associated with a limited role of government in personal and economic affairs?
A) Liberal
B) Conservative
C) Moderate
D) Libertarian
E) Statist
D) Libertarian
For most Americans, the definition of achieving the American Dream includes obtaining
A) Incredible wealth
B) A job in business
C) A job in government
D) A happy and successful life
E) Children
D) A happy and successful life
Which organization functioned as a powerful molder of public opinion against the British?
A) Stamp Act Congress
B) Committees of Correspondence
C) First Continental Congress
D) Second Continental Congress
E) The Boston Massacre
B) Committees of Correspondence
The first major gathering of the colonies was the
A) Committees of Correspondence
B) First Continental Congress
C) Second Continental Congress
D) Stamp Act Congress
E) Congress of Confederation
D) Stamp Act Congress
The Declaration of Independence was most directly influenced by which political philosopher?
A) John Locke
B) Thomas Hobbes
C) Isaac Newton
D) Montesquieu
E) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
A) John Locke
Why did the Articles of Confederation create a national system of government where power was derived from the states?
A) Disagreements in the Continental Congress necessitated a compromise between those who wanted a strong national government and those who supported strong state governments.
B) The articles formalized the system of government proposed by the Declaration of Independence
C) The Framers sought to create a system similiar to that of other democracies
D) It was a reaction to Great Britain’s unitary system of government
E) The states wanted to cede power to a stronger national authority.
D) It was a reaction to Great Britain’s unitary system of government
What was the greatest weakness of the Articles of Confederation?
A) Congress had no specific power to tax
B) Congress was allowed to regulate only international trade
C) The central government was too strong
D) There was no provision for a legislative branch
E) There was no provision for a judicial system
A) Congress had no specific power to tax
What was the major differences between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan?
A) The Virginia Plan created a two-house legislature, while the New Jersey Plan created a one-house legislature
B) The Virginia Plan proposed a new national government deriving its powers from the people, while the New Jersey Plan proposed revising the Articles to maintain a government deriving its power from the states.
C) The Virginia Plan gave the legislature the power to select the executive and the judiciary; and the New Jersey Plan created an elected president and Supreme Court
D) The Virginia Plan created a unicameral legislature, while the New Jersey Plan created a bicameral legislature
E) The Virginia Plan created a government that favored small states, while the New Jersey Plan created a government that favored larger states
B) The Virginia Plan proposed a new national government deriving its powers from the people, while the New Jersey Plan proposed revising the Articles to maintain a government deriving its power from the states.
When James Madison wrote the famous words “ambition must be made to counteract ambition,” he was describing what?
A) The bicameral legislature
B) Creating a nonpartisan judiciary
C) The separation of powers and checks and balances between the three branches of the national government
D) The division of states and national power under the Articles of Confederation
E) Citizens’ role in electing public officials
C) The separation of powers and checks and balances between the three branches of the national government
What does Article III of the US Constitution address?
A) The supremacy of the Constitution
B) The executive branch
C) Procedures for ratification
D) The legislative branch
E) The judicial branch
E) The judicial branch
Which of the following exemplifies the Anti-Federalists’ views?
A) The most elite groups of society are the most fit to govern
B) A strong central government could strip powers away from the states
C) Separation of powers will prevent any one group from dominating the national government
D) The United States should pursue alliances with the French
E) The US Constitution, in its original form, provided sufficient protections for the citizens
B) A strong central government could strip powers away from the states
In which of the following ways has the US Constitution NOT been amended?
A) Ratification of an amendment by legislatures in 3/4 of the states
B) Judicial interpretation
C) Social and cultural change
D) Ratification by conventions called in 1/4 of the states
E) Proposal by 2/3 vote in both houses of Congress
D) Ratification by conventions called in 1/4 of the states
Under the Constitution, both the national and state governments
A) are totally autonomous
B) do not share any powers
C) are accountable to the people
D) can regulate interstate commerce
E) are able to establish local governments
c
The 10th Amendment provides for
A) states’ reserved powers
B) states’ implied powers
C) concurrent state and federal powers
D) enumerated federal powers
E) taking private property for public purposes
A) states’ reserved powers
In Gibbons v. Ogden, the US Supreme Court
i. articulated an expansive view of congressional powers
ii. gave Robert Fulton the exclusive right to operate steamships on the Hudson River.
iii. concluded that commerce should be given a broad definition.
iv. declared that the states had sole authority to regulate commerce
A) i only
B) ii and iii
C) i and ii
D) iii and iv
E) i and iii
E) i and iii
The Supreme Court held in Barron v. Baltimore that
A) Congress had broad powers to regulate interstate commerce
B) the Bill of Rights did not apply to state governments
C) Congress lacked the ability to ban slavery
D) the city of Baltimore could not nullify laws passed by Congress
E) States could not tax the federal bank
B) the Bill of Rights did not apply to state governments
Nullification
A) was used to justify South Carolina’s refusal to abide by federal tariff laws
B) is a political maneuver in which Congress purposefully invalidates state laws by passing national laws
C) is a principle that allows states to invalidate laws from other states
D) played no part in the development of the Civil War
E) was deemed unconstitutional after the Supreme Court invalidated the Alien and Sedition Acts
A) was used to justify South Carolina’s refusal to abide by federal tariff laws
The Great Depression led to
A) a variety of innovative programs to combat terrorism
B) greater adherence to the philosophy of dual federalism
C) a growth in national government activity
D) a provision allowing the election of President Franklin D. Roosevelt for four terms
E) the increased use of unfunded mandates
C) a growth in national government activity
New Federalism favors ____ over ____ grants.
A) block/ categorical
B) categorical/ block
C) funded mandates/ categorical
D) block/ unfunded mandates
E) block/ funded mandates
A) block/ categorical
In general, the Rehnquist Court’s federalism decisions empowered
A) both state and national governments
B) the states governments at the expense of the national government
C) the national government at the expense of the states
D) neither the state nor the national government
E) local governments at the expense of the state and national governments
B) the states governments at the expense of the national government
The No Child Left Behind Act is an example of
A) a block grant
B) returning power to the states
C) a funded mandate
D) preemption
E) a categorical grant
D) Preemption
According to the text, which of the following best exemplifies the cooperative aspects of progressive federalism?
A) Bailing out the failing automobile industry
B) Health care reform
C) Allowing states to set emissions standards
D) Creating of the US Department of Education
E) Reforming Social Security and Medicare
C) Allowing states to set emissions standards
Which amendment did the Court use to make some provisions of the Bill of Rights applicable to the states?
A) 5th
B) 10th
C) 11th
D) 14th
E) 15th
D) 14th
Which of the following was NOT used as an argument against adding the Bill of Rights to the Constitution?
A) A constitutional republic is founded upon the idea of popular sovereignty and inalienable rights
B) Federal guarantees were unnecessary because most state constitutions contained their own bills of rights
C) The government should not enumerate what it could not do.
D) A national bill of rights would be nearly impossible to enforce
E) The Constitution already contained protections for individual rights
E) The Constitution already contained protections for individual rights
The US Supreme Court has interpreted the establishment clause to mean that
A) reciting prayer in classrooms in constitutional, as long as the prayer in nondenominational
B) state university grounds cannot be used for worship
C) a privately owned display of the 10 commandments in a courthouse is unconstitutional
D) faculty-led prayer at high school football games is constitutional
E) governments may provide aid to religious schools as long as the aid goes to children and not to religious goals
E) governments may provide aid to religious schools as long as the aid goes to children and not to religious goals
Which form of speech is protected under the 1st amendment?
A) libel
B) symbolic speech
C) slander
D) fighting words
E) obscenity
B) symbolic speech
Which is NOT considered a protected form of speech?
A) Carrying a “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” banner during a school-sanctioned parade
B) Wearing black armbands to protest a war
C) Publishing secret documents in a newspaper
D) Displaying a symbol of opposition to the US Government
E) Burning the American Flag
A) Carrying a “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” banner during a school-sanctioned parade
The US Supreme Court first ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual’s right to own a firearm in certain jurisdictions
A) in the early 1800s, when laws were passed to limit possession of firearms by slaves
B) when Justice Roget B. Taney considered the right to own and carry arms a basic right of citizenship
C) in DC v. Heller in 2008
D) when a law that made sawed-off shotguns illegal was overturned in the 1930s
E) in Barron v. Baltimore in 1833
C) in DC v. Heller in 2008
Traditionally, the Supreme Court has ruled that the 4th amendment requires a warrant for police to search
A) the person arrested
B) things in plain view of the accused
C) employees of the federal or state governments
D) places or things in the arrestee’s immediate control
E) the home of the accused
E) the home of the accused
When suspects are arrested and read their Miranda rights, the authorities are informing the of their ____ Amendment rights
A) 2nd
B) 3rd
C) 4th
D) 5th
E) 7th
D) 5th
The US Supreme Court ruled that the controversial 2003 federal Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act was
A) a law that could be passed only by the state
B) unconstitutional because it contained no health exceptions for the mother
C) constitutional despite its lack of a health exception for the mother
D) unconstitutional because it violated the three-trimester approach created by Roe v. Wade (1973)
E) constitutional based on the precedent established in Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992)
C) constitutional despite its lack of a health exception for the mother
The major act passed in the aftermath of September 11, 2001, to combat terrorism in the United States was the
A) Military Justice Act
B) LIBERTY Act
C) Detention and Retention Act
D) Habeas Corpus Act
E) USA PATRIOT Act
E) USA PATRIOT Act
Which of the following was founded as a Catholic colony?
A) Virginia
B) Maryland
C) New York
D) Massachusetts
B) Maryland
Which of the following accurately describes the indigenous people who lived in the United States prior to the arrival of the first colonies?
A) They shared one culture
B) They created the system of democracy
C) They had varied political systems
D) They shared one political system
C) They had varied political systems
Which of the following best describes Pennsylvania settlers?
A) a motley crew of moneyed interests
B) Catholics and other evangelical Christians
C) a diverse lot of persecuted Europeans
D) utopians hoping to escape economic persecution in France
C) a diverse lot of persecuted Europeans
What is the relationship between a democracy and a republic?
A) A republic is a type of democracy that relies on elected representatives
B) A democracy is a type of republic that emphasizes economic and political equality
C) A republic gives equal power to the states and the national government; a democracy gives more power to the people
D) A democracy emphasizes elites; a republic emphasizes ordinary people
A) A republic is a type of democracy that relies on elected representatives
In a(n) ____, those few with wealth or high social status are able to control government so that it benefits themselves.
A) oligarchy
B) aristocracy
C) monarchy
D) democracy
A) oligarchy
Which of the following is an example of how the government ensures domestic tranquility?
A) police departments
B) petitioning government
C) military
D) health care
A) police departments
Which of the following is an example of how the government promotes the general welfare?
A) military
B) health care
C) petitioning government
D) police departments
B) health care
How has the concept of personal liberty changed since the founding of the United States?
A) The concept of freedom is now a freedom to rather than a freedom from
B) Popular consent now dictates the laws that are created by the government
C) Citizens can now do whatever they like without government reprisal
D) All citizens now have the liberty to interpret the law as they see fit
A) The concept of freedom is now a freedom to rather than a freedom from
In a democracy, what effect might a large number of nonvoters have on the system?
A) erodes the protections of natural law
B) threatens the legitimacy of eroding popular consent
C) ensures majority rule
D) protects minority rights
B) threatens the legitimacy of eroding popular consent
What is the fastest growing racial or ethnic group in the US?
A) whites
B) Asian Americans
C) Hispanics
D) African Americans
B) Asian Americans
Which of the following is true about the views much of the South holds about government in the US?
A) Government should be larger
B) Power should be returned to the states
C) Government should be more involved in individuals’ lives
D) Civil rights should be a major thrust of government
B) Power should be returned to the states
Where is the Republican Party most likely to have support?
A) West Coast
B) New England
C) rural areas
D) Northeast
C) rural areas
What differentiates the conservative ideology from the social conservative ideology?
A) Conservatives believe government should foster the well being of all its citizens through government largesse.
B) Conservatives favor a stronger government with more intervention in people’s lives.
C) Conservatives believe it is the responsibility of government to regulate social and sexual behavior
D) Conservatives want less government regulation than do social conservatives.
D) Conservatives want less government regulation than do social conservatives.
Which of the following would a liberal most agree with?
A) The government should spend generously on social welfare programs
B) The government should further moral teachings
C) The government should refrain from interfering in the economic sector
D) The government should never infringe on one’s liberty.
A) The government should spend generously on social welfare programs
Why do many Americans fail to credit the government for things it does well?
A) The government rarely does anything well
B) Many Americans lack faith in US political institutions
C) The actions of government rarely affect Americans’ daily lives
D) Many Americans credit religious institutions instead of the government when things go well.
B) Many Americans lack faith in US political institutions
What is the difference between a monarchy and a tyranny?
A) Monarchies benefit the one; tyrannies benefit the few
B) Monarchies are rule by the one; tyrannies are rule by the few
C) Monarchs earn their authority through hard work; tyrants have their authority given to them
D) Monarchs rule in the best interests of their subjects; tyrants rule in the best interest of themselves.
D) Monarchs rule in the best interests of their subjects; tyrants rule in the best interest of themselves.
Which of the following policies are younger voters more likely to support than older voters?
A) Social Security
B) Immigration reform
C) Medicare
D) New schools
D) New schools
Which of the following voters is most likely to support the Democratic Party?
A) An accountant from Alabama
B) A teacher from California
C) A pastor from Kansas
D) A rural resident of Texas
B) A teacher from California
Which of the following is true about how the national government has changed over the course of our nation’s history?
A) It has taken on more responsibilities
B) It has lost power compared to state governments
C) It has faced fewer demands from citizens
D) It no longer involves itself in the economy.
A) It has taken on more responsibilities
Why were many Americans uncomfortable with the term “democracy” when the Constitution was written?
A) It conjured up images of mob rule
B) It was considered to be an outmoded form of government
C) It was thought that it would eventually lead to the creation of an aristocracy and monarchy
D) The people did not believe that power could be entrusted to a political class
A) It conjured up images of mob rule
Widely shared values, beliefs, and attitudes that citizens hold about the role of government and how it operates are known as
A) federalism
B) social contracts
C) political ideology
D) political culture
D) political culture
Those with a conservative ideology are more likely to
A) support well-funded government social welfare programs
B) take a centrist view on most political issues
C) believe in extensive government regulation to smooth out the rough edges of the free market
D) be a defender of the status quo
D) be a defender of the status quo
What pamphlet galvanized the American public against reconciliation with Great Britain?
A) The Republic
B) Second Treatise on Civil Government
C) Declaration of Rights and Resolves
D) Common Sense
D) Common Sense
Many of the ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence were based on
A) authoritarianism
B) divine right
C) social contract theory
D) oligarchy
C) social contract theory
In 1772, at the suggestion of Samuel Adams, colonists created ____ to keep each other abreast of developments with the British.
A) the Boston Harbor blockade
B) the Intolerable Act
C) majority rule
D) Committees of Correspondence
D) Committees of Correspondence
Which of the following is a correct description of Locke’s social contract theory and the Declaration of Independence?
A) Both proclaim that for rebellion to be legitimate, a list of grievances must be declared openly
B) Both forbid rebellion against a government that violates the rights of its citizens
C) Both argue that government exists for the good of the government and the benefit of those who govern.
D) Both hold that governments exist based on the consent of the governed.
D) Both hold that governments exist based on the consent of the governed.
Why do historians refer to the period from 1781 to 1789 as the critical period?
A) Congress was constantly in session, redefining the goals of the new nation
B) The United States considered joining the French Empire
C) The central government in the United States was at its strongest point in history
D) The newly independent national government was struggling to survive
D) The newly independent national government was struggling to survive
Who thought that the Constitution was “an economic document drawn with superb skill by men whose property interests were immediately at stake”?
A) Charles Beard
B) George Washington
C) Benjamin Franklin
D) John Locke
A) Charles Beard
What was the main task of the Committee on Unfinished Portions?
A) ironing out disagreements concerning the office of chief executive
B) resolving the issue of slavery
C) deciding how many senators each state was to have
D) making sure the Constitution was ratified
A) ironing out disagreements concerning the office of chief executive
Which constitutional provision suggests that the Framers did not have complete trust in the ability of ordinary citizens?
A) the Supremacy of the national government over the state governments
B) the full faith and credit clause
C) the Electoral College
D) the Bill of Rights
C) the Electoral College
Which Article of the Constitution created the presidency?
A) III
B) IV
C) I
D) II
D) II
What did those who favored the newly proposed, stronger national government choose to cal themselves?
A) Anti-Federalists
B) Federalists
C) Republicans
D) Democrats
B) Federalists
Which state was among the first to ratify the Constitution?
A) Massachusetts
B) Delaware
C) Rhode Island
D) North Carolina
B) Delaware
Which political institution can most easily bring about informal change to the Constitution?
A) the Senate
B) state governors
C) the Supreme Court
D) the House
C) the Supreme Court
To raise money to pay for the French and Indian War and the expenses of administering the colonies, what did Parliament enact?
A) the Slave Act
B) an export tax
C) the Stamp Act
D) the Sugar Act
D) the Sugar Act
What was the purpose of the First Continental Congress?
A) to express solidarity with the people of Boston
B) to express support for the Coercive Acts
C) to iron out the differences between the colonists and the king
D) to declare independence from Great Britain
C) to iron out the differences between the colonists and the king
Which of the following did the Articles of Confederation contain?
A) a judicial branch
B) state governments that are subservient to the national government
C) a simple majority requirements for enacting laws
D) a legislative branch
D) a legislative branch
By which method can an amendment to the Constitution be ratified?
A) popular vote
B) a vote in specially called conventions in 3/4 of the states
C) a vote in 2/3 of the members in both houses of Congress
D) approval of a majority of the Supreme Court
B) a vote in specially called conventions in 3/4 of the states
An amendment to the Constitution can be proposed by ___
A) special conventions in 3/4 of the states
B) a vote of 2/3 of the members of both houses of Congress
C) the president of the United States
D) citizens, through the initiative process
B) a vote of 2/3 of the members of both houses of Congress
How did the Framers design the Constitution so that it could adapt over time?
A) The Supreme Court was given the power to change the text of the Constitution in order to protect individual liberty
B) The legislative branch is permitted to disregard outdated amendments
C) The president was given extensive emergency powers to help the US successfully navigate through times of crisis
D) The language in the Constitution was left intentionally vague so that it could remain flexible
D) The language in the Constitution was left intentionally vague so that it could remain flexible