Event: 2 years later, the 47 ronin sneak into Yoshihisa’s house thing and kill him and everyone else in order to regain honor for their dead master. Since its not right, forced to commit seppuku. They were very polite about it and warned all the other people beforehand. Kira was hiding, but they got him in the end
Significance: There’s a kabuki play Chushingura based of it. It was seen as a great example of bushido and loyalty to one’s master. It’s important in their national narrative. The 47 Ronin were later known as Gishi (Dutiful Samura/ Exemplary Standards)
Battle that Tokugawa Ieyasu won against Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s son (Hideyori). This battle pretty much marks the beginning of the Tokugawa period, which was a super long period of peace and a united Japan.
Founded by Raicho Hiratsuka. Began as just a literary magazine for women, where they sent in literature and poetry. However once Noe Ito in 1915 began to become more controversial and deal with feminist topics.
The towns that surrounded the castles of the daimyo. The samurai also had to live in here. Gave more opportunity for the merchants to establish themselves.
They were kinda looked down upon because money and they werent doing shit, while the samurai was losing money.
Looking towards Western culture for all the ideas on how to do all the shit. And Learning their science and shit.
China no longer the source of enlightenment, it’s now the West.
“promoted empiricism and practical studies instead of abstract reasoning in order for each person to attain an understanding of truth”
Had to show respect to the shogun and were the ones responsible for paying the samurai.
shinpan–related to Tokugawa
fudai–allies or vassals of the Tokugawa
tozama–not allied with Tokugawa before battle of Sekigahara
The Social class is burakimin, but this is what they were called. Eta during Tokugawa. Hinin included ex-convicts.
During start of edo, eta made to live in certain areas–which is why stigma still exists today.
Social class determined by their hereditary jokes, mandatory style of dress, and place that they had to live.
Some points of contention:
1- Japan is the center of the universe, their religion is just an appropriation of our kami and stuff that have existed for so long.
2- God is cruel because he didn’t protect Adam and Eve and he let Satan just have free reign
3-They want to subvert and destroy Japanese society. KILL THEM WIF FIRAAHHH!!!!11!!
Typical subjects include: bridges, prostitutes, kabuki theater, sumo, landscapes.
Artisans and merchants just lumped into the class chonin
He went to the first mission to America, stayed in San Fransisco. He believes that the west has a lot to offer and that Japan should do EVERYTHING possible to learn from them. Doesn’t care too much about possibly losing identity in the process.
the elder statesmen that the members of the Diet would always consult and take their responses very seriously for political affairs. Started to lose power after 1883, when the people in parliament and stuff started getting in because of the exams, so they didn’t really owe them anything like the previous generation.
Sept 1, 1923.
The damage was immense and devastating and felt from a distance away.
1. Choas gave rise to group killings of Chinese and Korean people.
2. Gov’t used confusion to eliminate political enemies. Like Noe Ita, union people, socialists, anarchists.
3. Showed strength/importance of media and journalism. The following day there was still a very crude newspaper done. So the whole country als got to see it.
4. Asukusa tower was destroyed. Which kind of hurt their national pride/identity.
Women must obey parents while at home, husband while married, and adult male children once a mother.
Can’t get jealous. If can’t bear child, then cause for divorce. Must worship husband. Must keep husband household in order–primary job.
Revival of Confucianism ideals
1) Presence of flat blocks of color( lack of a gradient)
2) Off-center placing of the subject
Sho-bara: suicide driven by material benefit rather than honor
Rob-bara: Hesitating suicide. Needs a lot of convincing.
“Kokutai” means something like national pride identity thing.
Issued by Japanese government in 1936. Contained the official teachings of the gov’t on all the things. The goal was to unite and Japan and get them all on the same page with the idea of one single nation. Taught to put nation before self and not to seperate self from it.
The Japanese had wanted to take Manchuria for a while so they japanese officials there “lie” (mainly just blow a minor event out of proportion) and say that a railroad was attacked by the people there so they need to go to war as revenge. The military basically starts to conquer them without the knowledge/approval of the Gov’t in Japan, so they can do little to stop it.
His arrival had a dramatic affect on daimyo-shogun relations.
Established the Treaty of Kanawaga (1854) which opened Japan up to US and other Western powers.
Established limits on Emperors power (constitutional monarch) and established the parliament. Granted basic civil rights and liberties. Was their first constitution. Establish the draft/conscription thing.
Were the events that restored imperial rule to Emperor Meiji. Responsible for making Japan into a modernized country. Got Rid of the daimyo system and the strict social hierarchy. Samurai’s not allowed to carry swords. Also attempts to more strictly centralize/regulate shinto
Was educated in the West. Knew French.
Wrote “A Discourse on Gov’t by Three Drunkards”. (1887)A book that discusses the benefits of democracy vs pure aggression for the course that Japan should try to take now. Champion (Realist) and the Gentlemen (Idealist). Ultimately seems to preach a message of moderation.
Also called the Richardson Affair. There were some british dudes who were going along a road and didnt get off their horse and properly bow down the Satsuma daimyo who was passing. So one of the daimyo’s samurai attacked and killed the British National.
Significance: Outrage. Brought up the question of extraterratoriality rights. It also showed the strain in power that the shogun had over the daimyo. Because the British government was demanded than the shogun get the Satsuma daimyo to pay reperations, but they refused to. And Britain attacked Kagoshia.
Also since Britain then got more aggresive, demanded that they get extraterriorality, Japan starts to feel like their being invaded and want to increase their defenses.
The First guy that was instrumental in the unification of Japan. He won the battle of Nagashima in (1575) against the Takeda. He was also an important general during the warring state period.
in 1573 he expelled the last Ashikaga shogun. Didn’t have a problem with the Jesuits. By his death he united 1/3 of Japan.
Was concerned with religion and was aware of the immense power have combined church and state.
In Popular culture is viewed as ruthless and ambitious.Takes over the Ikko Sect’s HQ. He also attakced Mt. Hiei (Tendai sect HQ) and burned 100,000
Stuff the japanese learned from the Dutch. Western ideas on medicine and philosophy and such. So even though they were closed off to the world, they still knew a shitton of what was going on
Well, technically it means a “floater” and it refers to people that do not fit into the norm. From it we know what was considered normal. Now it refers to a student who didnt get into college. During Nara, it referred to a peasant that didn’t pay their taxes.
Reason: Japan was in process of proving itself, while Russia wanted to extend their power more into asia
Significance. It gave Japan a lot of street cred and helped to improve their national identity. Like by being able to defeat a Western power, it proved that they had really come so far. And was first step in their power hungry campaign thingy.
Only had to make the journey every two yeara (exception to the once a year visit). Acquired power of the Ryuku islands. Refused to listen to Emperor in Richardson affair, which caused Britain to bomb Kagoshima. Teamed up with Choshu domain to overthrow the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Munen-bara: visible demonstration of protest of a seppuku statement.
Ichi-monji bara: First horizontal slive,
Ju-monji bara: Cut in Shape of the Japanese character 10 (looks like Christian Cross upright).
Kaishakunin: Second vassal that executed the seppuku offender in order to prevent prolonged suffering. This second execution was often the real cause of death.
Daki-kubi: (“hug” “neck”) To leave a little bit of skin to attach to the back so that the head doesn’t roll off.
Christianity had been banned earlier (1614), but this was a peasant uprising and Christianity’s last stand. After this, Christianity pretty much disappeared. ronin also played a role
There was a long siege and Hara castle and as a result of this whole thing the daimyo of Matsukura was beheaded
LEgacy: hidden christians. constraints on society. no more christian symbology or art, so hidden crosses and stuff. Ban on Japanese leaving islands. Forced to register at buddhist temple. Forced to destroy christian shit. Language includes romanized words.
Japan won. The seat of regional power in Asia shifted to Japan. Fighting through/over Korea. This was Japan’s first conflict after ending their seclusion. Both wanted control over Korea. Most of it fought on sea. Japan also won Taiwan because of this.
It deals a lot with the confusion/struggle of the whole modernizatoin vs holding on to their traditional ideas.
Dealt a lot with puppet culture. Set against modernized environment and how man makes a difference between japanese woman taking western ideas and a western prostitute woman.
Anti-western sentiment that began with the arrival of Matthew Perry during the Late Tokugawa period.
Also used during Bakumatsu as a cry to get rid of Tokugawa shogunate. Their uselessness was highlighted during the signing of the Treary of Kanagawa and how they couldnt really do anything, so we need to put our efforts into a powerful emperor that can actually do shit.
The idea is learn from the West, then use their own ideas and stuff to destroy them and kick them out.
They went there to punish them for murder of Japanese nationals (Ryukuan sailors) some years earlier. Kinda their first attempt at imperialism. We see how they kinda looked down on others.
Significance: Made the Ryukuan islands be more closely associated with Japan and showed how China did not have that much control over Taiwan.
One of the most important road thingies built that the daimyo travelled along to get to Edo pay their respects. Through Kanto, had a lot of views of Mt. Fuji which is why a lot of the art has a lot to do with it. Had 53 stations. Estab
Third man in establishing peace and a unified Japan, only one that established a lasting legacy.
With the Battle of Sekigahara he managed to unify Japan and first shogun establish the Tokugawa shogunate. Retired early and transferred power whilst alive.
1) Battle of Sekigahara (claim to power)
2) Siege of Osaka Castle (to overthrow Hideyoshi’s heir)
3) Shimabara Rebellion is quashed.
How was peace achieve–
1) suppressed Christianity.
2)direct control of most of the city
3) established alternate attenduce
4) modified and used Confucianism
Azuchi-Momoyama period. (The Momoyama part)
By 1590 he controlled most of the Japanese Islands.
Had humble background. His style was very flashy and wanted to establish emperor’s seat in China. Establishes legitimacy via “imperial” claim.
Made it so that only samurai could carry swords. And helped introduce the rigid class structure. Is the one that ordered the killing of the 26 Matyrs.
Two main ones Satsuma and Choshu were the ones that were responsible for the overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Unofficial trade to China done through here. Had an establishment on Korean mainland. They were responsible for handling relations between Japan and Korea (included editing the letters, would call japanese shogun the okimi so it would subscribe to Chinese worldview)
Japan made Korea sign one.
Constant military conflict.
1) social ideology (Buddhism did not bother with social ties as priests were asked to absolve any ties to the material world).
2) Concern with present reality than the afterlife (contrast to Buddhist afterlife images: Amida)
3) 5 filial relationships: parent-child, ruler-minister(The Japanese version has this one first), husband-wife, elder-sibling-younger-one, friend-friend
2) When crossing domain borders, vendetta must be registered with the Shogun
3) No vengeance for vengeance