Japan Civ Terms

alternate attendance (sankin kôtai)
during Tokugawa period; the system in which the daimyo had to go and spend time in Edo with the shogun every other year; it was a way of ensuring their loyalty; their families stayed in Edo the whole time; it took a lot of money to do so they were unable to wage proper war; it also encourage road building due to constant travel; and stimulated local economy due to constant traveling; system perfected by third shogun iemitsu
Akô incident
Background: Asano Naganori gets angry and wounds Kira Yoshihisa Because thats bad he ordered to commit seppuku (1701), which leave 47 samurai behind, becoming ronin.

Event: 2 years later, the 47 ronin sneak into Yoshihisa’s house thing and kill him and everyone else in order to regain honor for their dead master. Since its not right, forced to commit seppuku. They were very polite about it and warned all the other people beforehand. Kira was hiding, but they got him in the end

Significance: There’s a kabuki play Chushingura based of it. It was seen as a great example of bushido and loyalty to one’s master. It’s important in their national narrative. The 47 Ronin were later known as Gishi (Dutiful Samura/ Exemplary Standards)

Battle of Sekighara
End of Azuchi-Moyomama Period:

Battle that Tokugawa Ieyasu won against Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s son (Hideyori). This battle pretty much marks the beginning of the Tokugawa period, which was a super long period of peace and a united Japan.

Bluestocking (Seitô)
Taisho Period- 1911: Start

Founded by Raicho Hiratsuka. Began as just a literary magazine for women, where they sent in literature and poetry. However once Noe Ito in 1915 began to become more controversial and deal with feminist topics.

castle town
Tokugawa Period

The towns that surrounded the castles of the daimyo. The samurai also had to live in here. Gave more opportunity for the merchants to establish themselves.

chônin
New social class during the the Tokugawa Period. Basically the merchant class.
They were kinda looked down upon because money and they werent doing shit, while the samurai was losing money.
Chôshû
Anti-tokugawa domain during Tokugawa period. Towards the end of the period, teamed up with Satsuma domain and they overthrew the Tokugawa.
Civilization and Enlightenment (bunmei kaika)
Movement in the Meiji Period.
Looking towards Western culture for all the ideas on how to do all the shit. And Learning their science and shit.
China no longer the source of enlightenment, it’s now the West.

“promoted empiricism and practical studies instead of abstract reasoning in order for each person to attain an understanding of truth”

daimyo
Originally generals first appeared during Muromachi period. During Tokugawa were basically feudal land owners. Subordinate only to the shogun, to whom they had to show their reverence and stuff during the Tokugawa. Their role/existence ended durinng Meiji Restoration, when prefectures became a thing.

Had to show respect to the shogun and were the ones responsible for paying the samurai.

3 levels:
shinpan–related to Tokugawa
fudai–allies or vassals of the Tokugawa
tozama–not allied with Tokugawa before battle of Sekigahara

Dejima (Deshima)
the Dutch island built in the bay of Nagasaki during the Tokugawa Shogunate and thats where all the Dutch had to stay. No women were allowed there. They where not allowed to go outside of it, except on New Years when they went to pay tribute to the emperor in Edo. Only place that trade with Western world permitted. Because of them Japan basically stayed really up to date on other worldly events.
eta/hinin
The lowest class of people. (In addition, they existed outside of the social order prescribed by Buddhism) Their jobs generally had been ones that made them “unclean”, such as tanning, executioners. Also tied to the areas that people live. Also distinguished by what they wore.

The Social class is burakimin, but this is what they were called. Eta during Tokugawa. Hinin included ex-convicts.

During start of edo, eta made to live in certain areas–which is why stigma still exists today.

Social class determined by their hereditary jokes, mandatory style of dress, and place that they had to live.

Edo
Tokyo. The capital during the Tokugawa period. Center of the ukiyo movement.
Fabian Fucan
He’s the one that wrote Deus Destroyed, which was a text written before the Tokugawa period and basically gave “reasons” as to why Christianity was evil. He was converted to Christianity at one point and wrote things promoting it.

Some points of contention:
1- Japan is the center of the universe, their religion is just an appropriation of our kami and stuff that have existed for so long.
2- God is cruel because he didn’t protect Adam and Eve and he let Satan just have free reign
3-They want to subvert and destroy Japanese society. KILL THEM WIF FIRAAHHH!!!!11!!

floating world (ukiyo)
During Tokugawa period. Based of the buddhist idea/concept of the whole impermanence of things. So in order to combat that they captured the moments from which they derived pleasure and human joys. Started in the Yoshiwara district (lol of course).
Typical subjects include: bridges, prostitutes, kabuki theater, sumo, landscapes.
four estates
the four divisions of society
1) samurai
2)peasants
3)artisans
4)merchants

Artisans and merchants just lumped into the class chonin

Fukuzawa Yukichi
Meiji Period.
He went to the first mission to America, stayed in San Fransisco. He believes that the west has a lot to offer and that Japan should do EVERYTHING possible to learn from them. Doesn’t care too much about possibly losing identity in the process.
genrô
Meiji Period
the elder statesmen that the members of the Diet would always consult and take their responses very seriously for political affairs. Started to lose power after 1883, when the people in parliament and stuff started getting in because of the exams, so they didn’t really owe them anything like the previous generation.
Great Kanto Earthquake
Taisho Period.
Sept 1, 1923.
The damage was immense and devastating and felt from a distance away.
Importance/aftermath.
1. Choas gave rise to group killings of Chinese and Korean people.
2. Gov’t used confusion to eliminate political enemies. Like Noe Ita, union people, socialists, anarchists.
3. Showed strength/importance of media and journalism. The following day there was still a very crude newspaper done. So the whole country als got to see it.
4. Asukusa tower was destroyed. Which kind of hurt their national pride/identity.
Greater Learning For Women
Tokugawa Period. Written by Kaibara Ekken.
Women must obey parents while at home, husband while married, and adult male children once a mother.
Can’t get jealous. If can’t bear child, then cause for divorce. Must worship husband. Must keep husband household in order–primary job.
Hagakure
Written down by Tsuramoto Tashiro, but its the thoughts of Yamamoto Tsuetomo, who was a samurai that was not allowed to follow his master into death. Representative of Bushido stuff. Willingness to sacrifice oneself, samurai is dead. Discusses homosexuality. Kinda iffy about it. Adapted the Confucian systems to imbue Samurai with their special code of ethics. Loyalty to ruler was paramount.
Ihara Saikaku
Wrote Life of an Amorous women. And was crucial in the ukiyo literature movement. Mainly wrote stuff about male-male relations.
Imperial Rescript on Education
Instituted during the Meiji Period. Made all the schools recite it and the goal was to breed a shitton of loyalty for the emperor. Abolished by Diet during the Showa period.

Revival of Confucianism ideals

japonisme
the influence that Japanese art had on Western artists. Two styles that greatly influenced this:
1) Presence of flat blocks of color( lack of a gradient)
2) Off-center placing of the subject
junshi (oi-bara)
Following ones master into death through seppuku was banned during. (Vassal suicide is okay of Master has died of natural causes). Outlawed by Saga domain, in 1661 (Tokugawa), then by the shogunate in 1665, but ppl still kinda did it anyways
Sho-bara: suicide driven by material benefit rather than honor
Rob-bara: Hesitating suicide. Needs a lot of convincing.
kabuki
Form of theater that was founded by a woman in 1703 during Tokugawa Shogunate. Linked to ukiyo. Eventually woman actors were banned from performing. Not respectable for the samurai to go to (but they did anyways). Social classes would mix in audience at these performances
Katsu “Otani” Kokichi
Wrote Musui’s story. A samurai that married into some family and basically just gambled and sold weapons to make ends meet. He represents the decreased wealth and influence that the samurai class had towards end of Tokugawa Period.
Kokutai no hongi (Fundamentals of Our National Polity)
Early Showa Period:
“Kokutai” means something like national pride identity thing.
Issued by Japanese government in 1936. Contained the official teachings of the gov’t on all the things. The goal was to unite and Japan and get them all on the same page with the idea of one single nation. Taught to put nation before self and not to seperate self from it.
loyalty (chu)/ filial piety (ko)
Confucian ideas. Chu is loyalty to da ruler. Ko is loyalty to ones parents. Both important because possibly linked to honor killings?
Manchukuo
The puppet state that Japan established in China (specifically Manchuria) during Early Showa period and just before WWII but during Japan’s 15 years war. They did this because Japan needed the colonies and the resources in order to become more sufficient and ready for total war. Also to make themselves seen as taken more seriously by the rest of the world? Positive propaganda also made sure that the Japanese public was on board with it.
Manchurian Incident
Early Showa Period in 1931:
The Japanese had wanted to take Manchuria for a while so they japanese officials there “lie” (mainly just blow a minor event out of proportion) and say that a railroad was attacked by the people there so they need to go to war as revenge. The military basically starts to conquer them without the knowledge/approval of the Gov’t in Japan, so they can do little to stop it.
Matthew Perry
His arrival was one of the things that marked the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and beginning of Meiji period. He forced Japan to open their ports to the US (they needed a fueling and resting stop for many reasons). Japan then realized how much catching up they had to do with the rest of the world.

His arrival had a dramatic affect on daimyo-shogun relations.

Established the Treaty of Kanawaga (1854) which opened Japan up to US and other Western powers.

Meiji Constitution
Written during Taisho Period and Ito Hirobumi was the main architect of it. 1890.

Established limits on Emperors power (constitutional monarch) and established the parliament. Granted basic civil rights and liberties. Was their first constitution. Establish the draft/conscription thing.

Meiji Restoration
Spanned from late Tokugawa Period to Early Meiji Period.

Were the events that restored imperial rule to Emperor Meiji. Responsible for making Japan into a modernized country. Got Rid of the daimyo system and the strict social hierarchy. Samurai’s not allowed to carry swords. Also attempts to more strictly centralize/regulate shinto

Nakae Chômin
During Meiji Restoration

Was educated in the West. Knew French.
Wrote “A Discourse on Gov’t by Three Drunkards”. (1887)A book that discusses the benefits of democracy vs pure aggression for the course that Japan should try to take now. Champion (Realist) and the Gentlemen (Idealist). Ultimately seems to preach a message of moderation.

Namamugi Incident
Late Tokugawa Period:1862

Also called the Richardson Affair. There were some british dudes who were going along a road and didnt get off their horse and properly bow down the Satsuma daimyo who was passing. So one of the daimyo’s samurai attacked and killed the British National.

Significance: Outrage. Brought up the question of extraterratoriality rights. It also showed the strain in power that the shogun had over the daimyo. Because the British government was demanded than the shogun get the Satsuma daimyo to pay reperations, but they refused to. And Britain attacked Kagoshia.

Also since Britain then got more aggresive, demanded that they get extraterriorality, Japan starts to feel like their being invaded and want to increase their defenses.

Namban (nanban: Southern Barbarian)
Used to mean southern babarians, but once they met the Portuguese, it meant them. There was a who cult of personality around the foreigners, the Japanese were curious, but still didn’t know everything about them
Oda Nobunaga
Azuchi-Momoyama Period. (Nobunaga’s castle was at Azuchi, Hideyoshi’s castle was at Momoyama)

The First guy that was instrumental in the unification of Japan. He won the battle of Nagashima in (1575) against the Takeda. He was also an important general during the warring state period.

in 1573 he expelled the last Ashikaga shogun. Didn’t have a problem with the Jesuits. By his death he united 1/3 of Japan.

Was concerned with religion and was aware of the immense power have combined church and state.

In Popular culture is viewed as ruthless and ambitious.Takes over the Ikko Sect’s HQ. He also attakced Mt. Hiei (Tendai sect HQ) and burned 100,000

rangaku (Dutch learning)
Tokugawa Period

Stuff the japanese learned from the Dutch. Western ideas on medicine and philosophy and such. So even though they were closed off to the world, they still knew a shitton of what was going on

rônin
During Tokugawa era-a samurai without a master.

Well, technically it means a “floater” and it refers to people that do not fit into the norm. From it we know what was considered normal. Now it refers to a student who didnt get into college. During Nara, it referred to a peasant that didn’t pay their taxes.

Russo-Japanese War
Meiji Period (1904-1905)

Reason: Japan was in process of proving itself, while Russia wanted to extend their power more into asia
Japan won.

Significance. It gave Japan a lot of street cred and helped to improve their national identity. Like by being able to defeat a Western power, it proved that they had really come so far. And was first step in their power hungry campaign thingy.

Ryûkû
The islands to the south of Japan that were tributaries to both Japan and China. The Satsuma domain eventually like owned them by 1609. It gave Japan an avenue to trade with China during the Tokugawa shogunate because they were to proud to say that they were below them. It also gave the Satsuma domain more power and kinda let them remain a bit more independent then some of the other domains.
Satsuma
ruled by Shimazu clan. Southern most domain. Were most powerful daimyo and were tozomo daimyo.

Only had to make the journey every two yeara (exception to the once a year visit). Acquired power of the Ryuku islands. Refused to listen to Emperor in Richardson affair, which caused Britain to bomb Kagoshima. Teamed up with Choshu domain to overthrow the Tokugawa Shogunate.

seppuku/harakiri
ritual suicide by disembowlment. It gives you honor. There was someone who stood behind and would cut off your head so person did not suffer too much.
Munen-bara: visible demonstration of protest of a seppuku statement.
Ichi-monji bara: First horizontal slive,
Ju-monji bara: Cut in Shape of the Japanese character 10 (looks like Christian Cross upright).
Kaishakunin: Second vassal that executed the seppuku offender in order to prevent prolonged suffering. This second execution was often the real cause of death.
Daki-kubi: (“hug” “neck”) To leave a little bit of skin to attach to the back so that the head doesn’t roll off.
Shimabara Rebellion
Tokugawa Period (1637-1638)
Christianity had been banned earlier (1614), but this was a peasant uprising and Christianity’s last stand. After this, Christianity pretty much disappeared. ronin also played a role
There was a long siege and Hara castle and as a result of this whole thing the daimyo of Matsukura was beheaded

LEgacy: hidden christians. constraints on society. no more christian symbology or art, so hidden crosses and stuff. Ban on Japanese leaving islands. Forced to register at buddhist temple. Forced to destroy christian shit. Language includes romanized words.

First Sino-Japanese War
Meiji Restoration: 1894-1895

Japan won. The seat of regional power in Asia shifted to Japan. Fighting through/over Korea. This was Japan’s first conflict after ending their seclusion. Both wanted control over Korea. Most of it fought on sea. Japan also won Taiwan because of this.

Some Prefer Nettles
Written by Junichiro Tanizaki during the Meiji Period.
It deals a lot with the confusion/struggle of the whole modernizatoin vs holding on to their traditional ideas.
Dealt a lot with puppet culture. Set against modernized environment and how man makes a difference between japanese woman taking western ideas and a western prostitute woman.
sonnô jôi (“honor the emperor, expel the barbarian”)
During 1840-1850s

Anti-western sentiment that began with the arrival of Matthew Perry during the Late Tokugawa period.

Also used during Bakumatsu as a cry to get rid of Tokugawa shogunate. Their uselessness was highlighted during the signing of the Treary of Kanagawa and how they couldnt really do anything, so we need to put our efforts into a powerful emperor that can actually do shit.

The idea is learn from the West, then use their own ideas and stuff to destroy them and kick them out.

Taiwan Expedition
Meiji Restoration (1874)

They went there to punish them for murder of Japanese nationals (Ryukuan sailors) some years earlier. Kinda their first attempt at imperialism. We see how they kinda looked down on others.

Significance: Made the Ryukuan islands be more closely associated with Japan and showed how China did not have that much control over Taiwan.

Tôkaidô
Constructed during Tokugawa shogunate:

One of the most important road thingies built that the daimyo travelled along to get to Edo pay their respects. Through Kanto, had a lot of views of Mt. Fuji which is why a lot of the art has a lot to do with it. Had 53 stations. Estab

Tokugawa Ieyasu
Establish control in 1600.

Third man in establishing peace and a unified Japan, only one that established a lasting legacy.
With the Battle of Sekigahara he managed to unify Japan and first shogun establish the Tokugawa shogunate. Retired early and transferred power whilst alive.

Tokugawa Shogunate
Longest Shogunate was extremely peaceful. (2 and a half centries). They mainly turned and closed off from outside world for the most part.
Important Events:
1) Battle of Sekigahara (claim to power)
2) Siege of Osaka Castle (to overthrow Hideyoshi’s heir)
3) Shimabara Rebellion is quashed.

How was peace achieve–
1) suppressed Christianity.
2)direct control of most of the city
3) established alternate attenduce
4) modified and used Confucianism
-social mapping

Toyotomi Hideyoshi
The Second man who helped unify Japan.
Azuchi-Momoyama period. (The Momoyama part)

By 1590 he controlled most of the Japanese Islands.
Had humble background. His style was very flashy and wanted to establish emperor’s seat in China. Establishes legitimacy via “imperial” claim.

Made it so that only samurai could carry swords. And helped introduce the rigid class structure. Is the one that ordered the killing of the 26 Matyrs.

tozama (outsider) daimyo
Daimyo that did not side with the Tokugawa during the Battle of Sekigahara.

Two main ones Satsuma and Choshu were the ones that were responsible for the overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

Tsushima
An island between Japan and Korea.

Unofficial trade to China done through here. Had an establishment on Korean mainland. They were responsible for handling relations between Japan and Korea (included editing the letters, would call japanese shogun the okimi so it would subscribe to Chinese worldview)

unequal treaties
The treaties that they were forced to sign after defeat or intimidation by Western powers that basically screwed them over. Ex: Treaty of Kanagawa.
Japan made Korea sign one.
Yokohama
The city/port that Matthew Perry landed. Eventually became a major trading point with the rest of da world
Yoshiwara
The pleasure district of Edo during the Tokugawa Shogunate. Only place where prostitution was legal. There were also a lot of other pleasures there, like kabuki. Samurais technically not allowed to be there, but they went. Government-run prostitution. Outside looking in and outside looking out.
Warring States (Sengoku) Period
After/during the Muromachi Shogunate and lots of fighting amongst daimyo. It was Nobunaga, Ieyasu, and Toyotomi lowly ended it by bringing unification.
Constant military conflict.
Significance of Confucianism in Tokugawa Period
What does it bring to the table?
1) social ideology (Buddhism did not bother with social ties as priests were asked to absolve any ties to the material world).
2) Concern with present reality than the afterlife (contrast to Buddhist afterlife images: Amida)
3) 5 filial relationships: parent-child, ruler-minister(The Japanese version has this one first), husband-wife, elder-sibling-younger-one, friend-friend
Samurai
The Warrior class of Japan, important political power during times of war (Sengoku period).During Hideyoshi’s reign, they were divided into two categories, some could hold land but others couldn’t. After the wars ended, they evolved into city-dwelling bureaucrats who served in politics and were deprived from the economic profits of the booming merchant class.
Vendetta rules in the Tokugawa Period
1) Must register vendetta with local daimyo.
2) When crossing domain borders, vendetta must be registered with the Shogun
3) No vengeance for vengeance
Merchant Class
A new social mid-order that formed during the Tokugawa period, and flourished exceedingly due to lack of war and access to castle towns. Rice began to be phased out as an monetary unit, and cash and coins were used instead. Customers were allowed to browse through stores instead of letting proprietors display samples.