According to Cohen, delinquent subcultures are rooted in all but which of the following?
Acceptance of violence as normal
Cohen argues that ? band together to form subcultures in which they can define status in ways that seem attainable to them.
? boys try to make the best of bad situations, according to Cohen.
Which of the following does Cohens theory explain?
Why must delinquents become law abiding individuals even though their position in the class structure remains relatively.
According to Cloward and Ohlin, which type of gang emerges in areas where conventional and illegitimate values and behavior are integrated by a close connection of illegitimate and legitimate business?
One of the main criticisms of differential opportunity theory is that?
it is class oriented
Who introduced the subculture of violence theory?
Wolfgang and Ferracuti
using nationwide data collected for the Presidents Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, Howard Erlanger found?
No major differences in attitudes toward violence by class or gender
Which of the following is not one of the focal concerns identified by Miller?
A lower class persons resentment of external controls, whether parents, teachers, or police, is related to what focal concern?
In studying attachment to lower-class focal concerns, Cernovich found that toughness, excitement, trouble, and ? were related to self reported delinquency in all classes.
Stephen Cernovich concluded that it is ? rather than class that is/are associated with delinquency.
Who published the first major work on the lifestyle of female gang members in New York?
Researchers have identified several types of suburban gangs, Which of the following is not one of these types of gangs?
Mobilization for Youth (MOBY) was based on what theory?
Which of the following would not be a focus of social control theorists?
Individual modes of adaptation to environmental strains
The concept of social control emerged in the early 1900’s in a volume by ?
According to Ross ? rather than specific laws guide what people do and universally serve to control behavior.
Who has been the spokes person for the Microsociological perspective since 1969?
Which if the following is not a form of Hirschi’s first bond, attachment?
Attachment to church
The preoccupation with activities that promote the interests of society would be an example of which type of Hirschi’s bonds?
? is the assent to the society’s value system
One of differences that Michael Hindelang found between his research and Hirschi’s research is that there is ?
No relationship between attachment to mother and peers.
In testing Hirschi’s theory, Michael Hindelang found involvement in delinquency was positively related to ?
Attachment to peers.
According to Matza, when a bond between a person and the law is not in place a youth may enter a state of ? where he or she exists in limbo between convention and crime.
According to Reiss, delinquency is a result of all except the following factors?
attachment to delinquent peers
? theory assumes that for every individual there exists a containing external structure and a protective internal structure, both of which provide defense, protection, or insulation against delinquency.
According to Reckless, the primary containment factor is found in ?
Who developed the notion that multiple control factors determine human behavior?
Francis Ivan Nye
Gottfredson and Hirschi proposed a new model of personal and social control in A General Theory of Crime. Their model assumes that?
offenders have little control over there own behavior and desires.
Labeling theorists are interested in all but which of the following?
Why people commit crimes in the first place.
The intellectual roots of labeling theory can be traced to the work of all but which of the following theorists?
In the 1940’s which of the following theorists formulated the basic assumptions of labeling theory?
The work of Howard Becker suggests that is is the ? who make the rules that define deviant behavior.
Labeling by adjudication was studied by?
Richard Schwartz and Jerome Skolnick
Which theoretical perspective claims that a struggle for power is a basic feature of human existence?
The ? model of lawmaking assumes that members of society by large agree on what is right and wrong, and that law is the codification of these agreed upon social values.
Conflict theorists argue that ?
Laws represent the interests of specific groups that have the power to get them enacted.
Who was the first theorists to relate conflict to criminology?
When Freda Adler studied the importance of non-legal factors in the decision making of juries, she found that the ? of the defendants significantly influenced their judgment.
The leading American spokesperson for radical criminology is ?
Carl Klockars attacks Marxists for focusing exclusively on?
Left realists recognize street crime as ?
An inevitable outcome of social and political deprivation
Radical feminists view the cause of crime in women to be ?
The peacemaking perspective is part of an intellectual and social movement toward ?