CMST 4101 Test 2

Phases of socialization
anticipatory, encounter, metamorphasis
Anticipatory phase
before entering the organization
3 Areas of focus: Learning at work, Learning at careers/ occupation (vocational), Learning at specific organizations (Org)
encounter phase
new employee enters the organizations and lets go of old roles and values in adapting to expectations of new organization
metamorphosis phase
reached at completion. now accepted as organization insider
2 components of asssimilation
socialization, individualization
The organization influences the adaptation of individuals. Occurs when an individual learns about the requirements of the job or decides that dressing formally will help him fit in better.
The individual influences the organization by trying to change some aspect of the organization to better suit her needs. Develops new strategy
rational model of decision making
all info should be gathered to make best choice possible. ideal way of decision making. theoretical and linear in approach and implementation
rational model sequence
formulation, concept development, detailing, evaluate solution alternatives, implement the chosen alternative
limitations on rational model
human beings do not always find the best information before making a decision
limited rational model of decision making
humans don’t/can’t absorb and use all the information available to them. time pressures force individuals to make decisions with incomplete info. satisficing
limited rational model sequence
no defined sequence
limited rational model limitations
satisficing, decision taking
political model of decision making
based on self-interests, conflict, negotiation and compromise
political model sequence
get preferred solutions, build case against alternatives, get group to converge on preferred solution, implement solution
political model limitations
may become harmful to the organization
garbage can model of decision making
conen and march. non-linear
garbage can model limitations
solutions when problem doesn’t exist, choices may not solve problem, problems may linger
“The Mud, the Blood and Beer Group”
organizational osmosis
organizational osmosis
the relatively effortless absorption of organization values, beliefs and understandings on basis of pre-existing socialization experiences. may speed up/strengthen the formation of identification with the organization.
emotions in the workplace
emotional labor, emotional work, burnout
emotional labor
surface acting and deep acting. managing emotion and emotional expression to be consistent with organization on occupational display rules.
Dissonance (lack of agreement) often cited as key component of emotional labor
When you are mad at work but do not show you are mad
Hochschild 1983
key component of emotional labor
dissonance. lack of agreement
emotional work
miller, 2007. genuine emotion on the job. genuine and managed overlaps with emotional behavior. being able to show genuine emotions when you feel it
freudenberger. Wearing out from the pressures of work
3 dimensions of burnout
emotional exhaustion, lack of personal accomplishment, depersonalization
Great Man Theories of Leadership
gendered in nature. leaders were thought to be born into positions of privilege.
Trait Theory Approach
Ralph Sogdill. certain attributes are leaders and they’re born with them. innate. ambition, competitiveness, confidence,naturally persuasive
Situational Theories
can be developed. traits and behaviors vary by situation.
Humanistic Theories
Enabling people, work with individuals that play to your strengths.
behavioral theories
how a leader’s behavior affects followers. reciprocity. Coach K at Duke
Exchange Theories
communication and interaction. nature of interaction between leaders and followers. each relationship between the leader and follower is different.
transformational leadership
change. James McGregor Burns. Get people to do things they never thought they would do. inspirational and motivational.
visionary leadership
future. present a vision and do so in palatable ways. all about communication. helps people look to the future.
servant leadership
Greenleaf. focused on other people. care for others. Follow ethical principles. Draws from religion, philosophy and contemporary values.
emergent leadership
democratic. Manz and Sims. Grounded in principle that anyone can be leaders.
leadership is about much more than a position. can happen at any level of the hierarchy in an organization.
connective leadership
connection. Lipman-Blumen. about building relationships.
characteristics of connective leadership
people-focused, enable others, task masters
are incredibly gifted at managing meaning, make sense of things for people around them, understand their followers.
the desire for agreement overrides the ability to realistically appraise alternative courses of action
causes of groupthink
over-estimation, closed-mindeness, pressure toward uniformity
how to avoid groupthink
open climate for discussion, avoid insulating group, being too directive, assign critical evaluators
work is accomplished by people at the same time in a different place
paradox 1 of telework
increased flexibility and increased structure. Requires manager to keep better track of schedules and meetings because “chance encounters and informal discussion do not occur”
paradox 2 of telework
greater individuality and more teamwork
paradox 3 of telework
more responsibility and less control. Managers often fear losing control of workers who are out of sight. Teleworks fear that if they are out of sight they will be less likely to be considered for promotions
organizational crisis – methodist hospital
Rhetoric of Atonement: repentance, prayer and charity
Authenticity: how quickly and openly does the organization respond
No clear cut way to respond: Plan for crisis, try to be open and quick with response
work/life conflict – time-based
too many things to do
stress from work permeates life issues and possibly vies versa
expected behaviors of one role don’t match up with the other role
media richness model
Adoption of technology explained by match between richness and ambiguity
social information processing model
Fulk. adoption of technology. better explained by social environment. communication between coworkers, supervisors, customers, etc. affects media usage
5 factors influence the emergence of W/L
industrial age, world wars, dual-career couples, technology, diversity
why are organizations interested in w/l balance
turnover, absenteeism, productivity, employer of choice, morale, legal requirements
stressors that lead to burnout
too much work, too difficult work, tole conflict, role ambiguity, stress outside workplace
outcomes of burnout
turnover, physiological, lower-level of commitment
Causes of burnout
Emotional labor… emotional dissonance
Emotional work
coping with burnout
communicative coping – participation in decision making, communication coping – social support
Social Support
any process through which social relationships might promote health and well being
function of social support
emotional support, informational support, instrumental support
Common sources of social support
supervisors, coworkers, friends and family
For many people, work-life conflict exists in the way that they enact multiple roles. For example, a kindergarten teacher at work is expected to control the environment, to decide exactly what should be happening and when it should be happening for all of the students, to make decisions for the students, and to engage the children in an upbeat, encouraging, sometimes strict, and nurturing manner. Now, let’s imagine that our kindergarten teacher leaves work, returns home, and begins to engage her college-aged children, husband, and friends in exactly the same way as she does in her work role. What type of work-life conflict is being described in this example?
behavior based conflict
This tool for framing in leadership puts a subject in a positive or negative light.
A leader should avoid using metaphors to frame communication when a word or phrase is in danger of overuse.
A leader who models the behavior he or she wants followers to do is fulfilling which concept of transformational leadership?
Imagine that it is finals week and your roommate has not slept well for a number of days. You notice your roommate getting increasingly agitated, quick tempered, and emotional as the stress of finals week begins to take over. Then, you hear your roommate speak angrily to a friend on the phone, though you know this is not how your roommate and that particular friend usually speak to each other. This scenario describes what type of work-life conflict?
Strain-based conflict
Discursive leadership is a way of looking at how leadership occurs through interactions among organizational actors.
When we consider the role of communication in work-life issues, it is important to acknowledge that the communication we engage in and receive impacts our perceptions of accessibility and appropriateness of organizational work-life policies.
When reading about the Thompsons, most of their discussions about work-life issues dealt with their creative approaches to restructuring their work schedules and to envisioning “non-traditional” schedules that contributed to more time at home while still committing adequate time at work. Having a general understanding of the Thompsons’ story, which of the following types ofwork-life conflict most closely describes their situation:
Time-Based Conflict
Recent research has indicated that changes have occurred in regard to individuals’ perceptions of work-life issues. The underlying changes cited in the research include: 1) Men and women being less likely to embrace traditional gender roles, 2) Among millennials,women being just as likely as men to want jobs with greater responsibility, and 3) Employed fathers increasingly wanting to spend more time with children. These changes have been cited as having led to:
An increase in Work-Life conflict for men
The “match” of the leadership style to the characteristics of the situation is addressed in which of the following theories?
Contingency Theory of Leadership
The social information processing model and the dual-capacity model both build on the ideas found in the media richness model.
In order to save money on real estate costs, Julie’s company asked her to begin teleworking. What is Julie most likely to feel concerned about?
a. Her loss of productivity
b. Her inability to service her clients
c. Her isolation from the rest of the company
Proponents of the social information processing model argue that communication with coworkers and supervisors has an influence on media usage.
Proponents of the social information processing model argue that task ambiguity and media richness have no influence on media usage.
An individual who thinks technology’s role in the workplace is always good is sometimes called a(n):
As demonstrated in the traffic mess that occurred during Hurricane Rita and the many organizational failures that occurred in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, there is little organizations can really do to anticipate and prepare for the consequences of a natural disaster.
Reactions to organizational change by lower level employees that interfere with change implementation processes are called:
Organizations often experience periods of change. Coombs has described one type of organizational change as “an event that is an unpredictable, major threat that can have a negative effect on theorganization, industry, or stakeholders if handled improperly.” This type of organizational change is referred to as:
Organizational crisis
When using a distributive approach to bargaining and negotiation,organizational members aim to:
maximize their own gains and minimize their own losses
What are the three key components of Putnam and Poole’s definition of conflict?
Incompatible goals, interdependence, interaction
Brooks is a manager in a high-technology software company and often finds herself called into conflict situations between her employees to help resolve the conflict. When placed in these situations, Brooks generally responds by working to change the organization in order to keep similar problems from occurring in the future. This third-party conflict managerial role is referred to as:
Max and Kalia have been coworkers for a long time and have always gotten along well. Lately, though, Kalia has felt Max has taken advantage of her by asking her to make excuses for his tardiness due to his personal problems. Kalia hasn’t said anything to Max yet, but she has been thinking of ways to address the problem. According to the phases of organizational conflict, Kalia and Max are in the
Felt conflict stage
Communication is enacted at which phase in the conflict process?
Manifest conflict
If Mike says he has been reasonable throughou this conflict with Callie over a budgeting issue, he is framing the conflict from which perspective, according to Putnam and Peterson?
Identity frame
Typical problems identified with the change process
Lack of meaningful participation
Unrealistic expectations
Purpose of the program was not clear
Planned change always involves top management dictating change processes to lower level employees.
Kline et al. argue that in crisis situations, it is important for organizations to focus on a message that portrays the company as a public ally.
Molly has a conversation with her supervisor, Claire. She asks Claire about a rumor that the nursing home is about to be sold to a newcompany. Claire knows the rumor is true, but tells Molly that as upper management has said, there are no plans for the home to be sold at this time. Which strategy for communicating about change is Claire using?
Withhold and uphold
Withhold and uphold is the most effective strategy to communicate change.
A traditional model of conflict and negotiation includes which of the following characteristics?
Mutual gain
Elise works as a conflict arbitrator for the federal government. Her role differs from a management/union mediator because
Elise can make a binging decision about the conflict
In viewing conflict from a cultural perspective, a negotiator would want to consider the tension that may exist between the underlying values of the parties involved in the controversy.
The managerial strategy for communicating about change where the management focuses on fundamental issues related to change success and allows employees the creative freedom to explore various possibilities is:
Underscore and explore
Let’s imagine that Mississippi State University is competing with other state universities, Ole Miss, Jackson State, and Southern Miss, for a bigger share of limited state funds. What level of conflict is this?
Apologizing for mistakes the organization has made is likely to occur during which stage of a crisis?
Post-crisis stage
Bargaining and Negotiating
Bargaining-formal activity
-understanding of rules of negotiation
-individuals serve as representatives
-used to settle intergroup or interorganizational conflict
-distributive bargaining – just you
-integrative bargaing- org as a whole
Strategies for communicating change
Spray and pray: throwout info and hope they figure it out
Tell and sell: mgmt: tell them what you want and persuade them
Underscore and explore:
Identify and reply: See a change is happening and respond
Withhold and uphold: Not forthcoming
Outcomes to burnout
Physiological, attutidal:lower level of satisfaction, lower level of commitment, organizational turnovers
Coping strategies for burnout
Dysfunctional reaction: drinnkning, drug use
Coping strategies: problem-centered coping, appraisal centered, emotional centered
Participation in decision making: can improve satisfaction and productivity, can decrease burnout, reduces role conflict
Social support: emotional, informational, instrumental
Conflict is viewed as a breakdown of communication. Conflict is managed (often by third parties) to the extent that existence of conflict detracts from organizational efficiency
Human Relations
Conflict is viewed negatively, as evidence by faulty relationships among organizational members. Conflicting parties are encouraged to avoid conflicts or compromise in order to return to harmonious work relations
Human Resources
Conflict is viewed as a possible means for growth and developed in the organization. Conflicting parties are encouraged to collaborate on solutions that will satisfy both parties and contribute to better future organizational functioning
Conflict is conceptualized as cycles of activities that can escalate and de-escalate. Possibility for conflict varies with interdependencies created through communication network structure.
Conflict stems from and can be revealed through differential metaphors and value systems of individuals and groups. Organizational cultures vary in terms of their level of conflict
Superficial organizational conflicts reflect deeper imbalances of power based on class structure, economic, or gender and are revealed and sustained through organizational discourse
Communication is enacted at which phase in the conflict process?
Manifest conflict
In this conflict style, there is very little concern for the other person’s goals.
Which of the following third-party negotiators has the power to make decisions about the outcome of the conflict?
In what type of bargaining do the parties try to maximize their gains and minimize their losses?
An organizational conflict that is long standing and eludes resolution is a intractable conflict.
The conflict style that shows a high concern for the goals of the other party is the compromise style
The communication in integrative bargaining is characterized by open and accurate information.
Both parties need to know that a conflict exists for it be a real conflict.
There are several levels of organizational conflict.
Which approach views organizational change as a reflection of organizational values and assumptions?
The “match of the leadership style to the characteristics of the situation is addressed in which of the following theories?
Contingency Theories of Leadership
A management strategy for communicating change that involves selecting a limited set of messages regarding core organizational issues is
Tell and sell
Organizations advocating a trait approach to leadership often use personality tests to select people for leadership roles.
Determination is a personality trait associated with effective leadership.
Because emotional contagion can lead to burnout, researchers suggest that caregivers learn and practice
Empathic concern
Social support from coworkers is likely to be in the forms of
Informational and emotional
Which of the following communication processes can have an important influence on decreasing role ambiguity?
_____________ are aspects of the environment that create strain on an individual.
Burnout tends to have a negative impact on work satisfaction and employee commitment.
Support from supervisors is most likely to come in the form of informational and instrumental support.
communication at work is only stressful if the emotions communicated are “fake” or non-genuine.