Anthro 2

In which kind of society is it most likely that leaders will acquire their positions as a result of their personal backgrounds or abilities, rather than heredity?
Tribal Society
For most of human history, people lived in societies characterized by what kind of sociopolitical organization?
Band
What is a “big man”?
A person of influence and prestige
Which of the following statements about non-state societies is true
Economic, political, and religious activities are often interrelated
In band societies, what typically determines the amount of respect or status that an individual enjoys
Culturally valued personal attributes
Which of the following was not traditionally used by the Inuit to handle disputes
Courts of law
What is the primary difference between a village head and a big man
A big man has supporters in multiple villages
Why does a big man accumulate wealth
Big men do not keep the wealth they accumulate but rather redistribute it to create and maintain alliances with political supporters
A big man’s position depends on all the following except
inherited status
What term do social scientists use to refer to the soicially approved use of power
Authority
Which of the following is the most important factor in determining an individuals power and prestige in a state
Personality
What is the basis of political organization in states
Monopoly of force by a central authority
What is the term for a social status based on talents, actions, efforts, choices, and accomplishments
achieved status
The nuclear family and the band are the two basic social groups typically found in forager societies
True
Since bands lack formalized law, they have no means for settling disputes
False
Most bands and tribal groups in the world today are completely cut off from the other human societies
True
States are complex systems of sociopolitical organizations that aim to control and administer everything from conflict resolution to fiscal systems to population movements
True
A fiscal system includes judges, laws and courts that resolve conflicts
False
What particular aspect of life in industrial nations makes the nuclear family practical
Family isolation arising from geographic mobility and living where jobs are available means that most middle class couples, much like foraging people, establish households and families of their own
What is the name of the postmarital residence pattern in which a married couple is expected to live in the husband’s community
Patrilocality
Which of the following statements about the incest taboo is true
The incest taboo does not eliminate incest
What term refers to a unilineal descent group whose members claim, but cannot demonstrate common descent from an apical ancestor
Lineage
What are the two basic social units typically found in foraging societies
Nuclear family and bands
Gezon and Kottak argue that the relatively high incidence of expanded family households among poorer north americans is
an adaptation to poverty
What is the name of the family in which a child is raised
family of orientation
What is the name of the custom in which a widow marries the brother of her deceased husband
Levirate marriage
The anthropological term for a socially recognized mother is
Mater
In matrilineal societies
descent groups include only the children of the group’s women
What term refers to the practice of marrying a person outside of the group to which one belongs
exogamy
What is polygyny
A situation in which a man has more than one wife
The zadruga is a type of extended family household found in what part of the world
Western Bosnia
In unilineal descent ones ancestry is traced through either the male or female line (not both)
True
Your nuclear family includes you, your parents, and your grandparents
False
Your family of procreation is the one in which you were born
False
Although the nuclear family is found in many societies around the world, it is not a cultural universal
True
Industrialization increases mobility, which has played a major role in the decline of extended families in the US
True
Polygyny has not occurred in Turkey since it was outlawed by the government in 1926
False
Taboos against incest prevent it from ever occurring in human societies
False
Polygynous marriages often serve important economic and political functions; for instance the number of wives a man has is an indicator of his wealth and status
True
Exogamy is the practice of seeking a mate within ones own group
False
Which of the following is not culturally constructed
Race
Cross Cultural studies indicate that
in most societies women tend to be the primary child caregivers
Which of the following is an example of a matrilineal-matrilocal society
Betsileo
More than half of American households with incomes below the poverty line
are headed by women
A political system ruled by men in which women have inferior status is known as a
patriarchy
Gender roles are the instinctual associated with each sex
True
Cross Culturally women’s activities tend to be associated with the home, whereas men are generally more active in the public domain
True
The specific roles assigned to each gender vary from culture to culture
True
The reasons why single parent families headed by women are becoming increasingly common include male migration, divorce, abandonment, and the idea that child care is women’s responsibility
True
Which one of the rituals or ceremonies below is not used to mark a passage to a new status or stage of life
rally preceding a basketball game
According to Tylor what is the sequence through which religion evolved
Animism, polytheism, monotheism
Polytheism refers to
belief in multiple gods
What kind of magic is based on the belief that whatever is done to an object will affect a person who once had contact with it
Contagious magic
What term refers to the manipulation of the supernatural to accomplish specific goals
Magic
Rites of passage usually consists of what phases
separation, liminality, and incorporation
What frequently occurs during the liminal phase of rite of passage
Reversals of ordinary behavior
What is the term for the marginal or in between of a rite of passage
Liminality
Witchcraft accusations are often aimed at
socially marginal people
What is communitas
a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness
The use of voodoo dolls is an example of
imitative magic
Malinowski found that the Trobriand Islanders used magic
in stressful situations like sailing
What did Handsome Lake initiate among the Iroquois at the beginning of the 19th century
A revitalization movement
What term refers to a custom or social action that operates to reduce status differences and bring standouts in line with community norms
Leveling mechanism
The largest religion in the world in terms of # of practitioners is
Christianity
In Melanesia mana was a sacred force that could reside in people, animals, plants, and objects
True
According to Malinowski religion provides people with emotional comfort during times of stress or uncertainty
True
In rite of passage people experiencing liminality together form a community of equals
True
By participating in a ritual performers signal that they accept a common social or moral order
True
Rites of passage involve three phases: separation, liminality, and totemism
False
Totems are animals plants or geographical features from which members of a totemic group claim to be descended
True