Essays on Cancer

Cancer is an illness caused by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the human body. Cells proliferate erratically taking over organs and eventually striking the entire body with metastasis. This rapid growth can be caused by many factors. One important factor to mention in the etiology of cancer is that all cancer is caused by mutations of DNA. DNA is the genetic material that controls how cells behave. Abnormal cancer cells are produced in the most common formations known as tumors. This is not always the case. Other cancers exist which do not form tumors such as leukemia, which begins in the bone marrow and blood.

Normal body processes allow cells to divide, grow, differentiate, and perform their essential functions in an orderly fashion. Cell division is regulated flawlessly in the body and has mechanisms such as tumor-suppressing mechanisms within itself to prohibit cells to grow uncontrollably. When abnormal cells grow, normal cell division in the cell cycle is disrupted. This disruption can be caused by many different factors such as mutations caused by viruses, the environment, tobacco, etc.

In order for tumors to thrive, blood has to reach the cells. To provide a blood supply for all the cells in the tumor it must form new blood vessels. A process called angiogenesis is where tumor cells make growth factors that induce formation of new capillary blood vessels (Huether & McCance, 2019). These new vessels supply the cells in the center with nutrients and oxygen. Without a blood supply tumor cells cannot spread or metastasize to other tissue. “Thus malignant transformation, the process by which a normal cell becomes a cancer cell, is directed by progressive accumulation of genetic changes that alter the basic nature of the cell and drive it to malignancy” (Huether & McCance, 2019, p. 358). Without this effect a tumor is considered in situ in which is encapsulated and at the time does not cause metastasis but warrants surveillance for any growth.

Metastasis

Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells that have broken away to new areas of the body usually through the lymph system or bloodstream. The lymph system carries lymph fluid throughout the entire body. A tumor that has spread to other regions of the body is said to have metastasized. Primary tumors are named after the original site in which the cancer was found. Tumors formed from cells that have spread or “seeded” elsewhere are called secondary tumors. These in particular have to be able to break away from the original (primary) tumor and get into the bloodstream or lymph system, which can carry them to another part of the body. At some point they need to do the following: attach to the wall of a blood or lymph vessel and move through it, out into a new organ, then need to be able to grow and thrive in their new location (American Cancer Society, 2017). Invasive cancer cells have the ability to degradate the extracellular matrix by secreting protease. Once this secretes it breaks down the tissue boundaries and invades the adjacent tissues causing cells to migrate.

A cancer diagnosis is made through biopsy after a specific suspicious lesion or growth is found. Biopsies are then sent to a pathology lab for confirmation of malignancy.

CT scan is often used after a report of pain or abnormality where the images of the site being investigated is chopped into multiple sections for a closer look. A whole body Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET SCAN) is also ordered to observe if any FDG (fludeoxyglucose) reuptake in order to prove metastasis to other regions of the body. PET Scans are used to see the entire body and also note any FDG uptake. This is done after confirmation of a malignancy to diagnose or look for metastasis.

The main treatments for metastasis include: medications as well as chemotherapy which affects your entire body. This is considered “systemic therapy”. It includes chemotherapy and other medications, such as targeted therapy, hormone therapy, and biologic treatment. “Local” therapy includes surgery, radiation therapy, and some other treatments.

The majority of cancers are incurable. The above treatments help keep patients more comfortable for a better quality of life while they are dealing with cancer. “These treatments pursue the following: shrink the cancer, slow its growth, help relieve symptoms, and help you live longer” (Mayo Clinic2018).

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We've found 310 essays on Cancer
COPD – Symptoms and Causes

Smaller conducting airways are a major site of obstruction in COPD and studies have shown that in smokers there are structural abnormalities in small airways whether they have COPD or not. Furthermore, a correlation between severity of COPD and extent of airway occlusion by inflammatory …

CancerDiseaseEpidemiologyMedicine
Words 1875
Pages 8
The History of the Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a disease that causes uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells. It begins in the respiratory area of the body that take over healthy human cells, tissues and organs which ultimately result in death (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2020). Medical advancements …

BiologyBiotechnologyCancerLung CancerMedicine
Words 2547
Pages 11
Lung Cancer in the UK

Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the UK, accounting for about one out of five malignancies in men and one out of nine in women. However worldwide Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men. There are many factors that can …

BiologyCancerEpidemiologyLung CancerMedicine
Words 1527
Pages 7
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What Is Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is a cancer that starts from the lung. There are three different types of lung cancer. Such as- non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer and lung carcinoid tumor. Compare to other cancer, lung cancer, it’s difficult to detect lung cancer in …

AnatomyBiologyBiotechnologyCancerChemistryLung Cancer
Words 1657
Pages 7
The Role of The Uno In Preserving and Promoting International Peace and Security

The main aims which inspired those who founded the United Nations Organization in 1945 were to preserve and promote international peace and security , and to secure international co-operation for establishing political, economic and social conditions conducive to maintaining peace on earth ” to save …

CancerPeacePoverty
Words 1385
Pages 6
Should New Jersey Turn Into The “Garden State”

Marijuana, also known as cannabis, weed or Maryjane, is a drug that is seen as a popular discussion in the media. It is brought up so much in the media because of the debate over whether or not it should be legalized. Also the government …

CancerDrugsGardensMedicineTax
Words 1501
Pages 7
Medication: The Health of America

The request of introducing lifefones by liu hcd company to nursing homes to help elderly take their medication at the correct time. The overall cost is on average of $36 with a special offer of giving a blood pressure measurement device. The plan requires a …

CancerHealthHospitalMedicineNursing
Words 1363
Pages 6
What Is Self-Care Theory?

Nursing is needed when self-care demands are more significant than the self-care abilities. An intervention is an action of the nurse that is carried out in handling a patient’s health problem based on nursing care plans by the nurse’s diagnosis that was determined beforehand by …

CancerNursingTheoriesTherapy
Words 1046
Pages 5
Literature Review on Breast Reconstructive Surgery

Introduction Research is from the French word “research” which literally means to investigate thoroughly. It is a process of systematic enquiry into a particular subject (phenomenon) which intends to create new knowledge and is governed by scientific principles (Cormack 1996). The department of health (DOH) …

CancerDataLiteratureNursing
Words 5414
Pages 22
Causes and stages of cancer

Introduction The World Heath Organisation (2011) estimates that without intervention 84 million people will die from cancer between 2005 and 2015. In 2008 156,723 people died in the UK alone of malignant neoplasm and 1 in 3 people will be diagnosed with the disease in …

BiologyBiotechnologyCancerEssay ExamplesMedicine
Words 3870
Pages 16
Scientific Experiments On Animals

Introduction Almost Two years ago some people work for animal rights (who work against vivisections) attacked a Neuroscientist who works in California University by sitting a fire in his car, which was parked in front of his house (Guardian 2009). This shows that many people …

AnimalsCancerExperimentMedicineVaccine
Words 1267
Pages 6
Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom

Introduction Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom with approximately 35,000 new cases diagnosed each year. 1 in 16 men and 1 in 20 women will develop colorectal cancer at some point in their lives. It is also the second …

CancerDiseaseMedicine
Words 4445
Pages 18
Association of Human papillomavirus and Breast Tumours

Abstract: Cancer arises due to abnormal changes or mutations, in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the aetiological agent for many cancers including cervical cancer. HPV causes disruption and loss of some of the viral genes such …

BiologyBiotechnologyCancerHumanMedicine
Words 7139
Pages 29
Investigate the feasibility of Pan-European controlled drug legislation

Abstract Background This research project focuses on the controlled drug legislative profile of two European countries (UKandGreece). An extensive review of the current legislation systems is made and any similarities and differences are underlined. The need of setting a pan-european legislation surrounding the safe and …

CancerCrimeDrugsMedicine
Words 23166
Pages 93
Critical Study of The NHS breast screening programme

Introduction The NHS Breast Screening Programme began in 1988 and was set up by the Department of Health in response to the recommendations of a working group, chaired by Professor Sir Patrick Forrest. The report Breast Cancer Screening was published in 1986, and popularly known …

CancerEssay ExamplesMedicineNursingRadiology
Words 4604
Pages 19

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