Essays on Cancer

Cancer is an illness caused by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the human body. Cells proliferate erratically taking over organs and eventually striking the entire body with metastasis. This rapid growth can be caused by many factors. One important factor to mention in the etiology of cancer is that all cancer is caused by mutations of DNA. DNA is the genetic material that controls how cells behave. Abnormal cancer cells are produced in the most common formations known as tumors. This is not always the case. Other cancers exist which do not form tumors such as leukemia, which begins in the bone marrow and blood.

Normal body processes allow cells to divide, grow, differentiate, and perform their essential functions in an orderly fashion. Cell division is regulated flawlessly in the body and has mechanisms such as tumor-suppressing mechanisms within itself to prohibit cells to grow uncontrollably. When abnormal cells grow, normal cell division in the cell cycle is disrupted. This disruption can be caused by many different factors such as mutations caused by viruses, the environment, tobacco, etc.

In order for tumors to thrive, blood has to reach the cells. To provide a blood supply for all the cells in the tumor it must form new blood vessels. A process called angiogenesis is where tumor cells make growth factors that induce formation of new capillary blood vessels (Huether & McCance, 2019). These new vessels supply the cells in the center with nutrients and oxygen. Without a blood supply tumor cells cannot spread or metastasize to other tissue. “Thus malignant transformation, the process by which a normal cell becomes a cancer cell, is directed by progressive accumulation of genetic changes that alter the basic nature of the cell and drive it to malignancy” (Huether & McCance, 2019, p. 358). Without this effect a tumor is considered in situ in which is encapsulated and at the time does not cause metastasis but warrants surveillance for any growth.

Metastasis

Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells that have broken away to new areas of the body usually through the lymph system or bloodstream. The lymph system carries lymph fluid throughout the entire body. A tumor that has spread to other regions of the body is said to have metastasized. Primary tumors are named after the original site in which the cancer was found. Tumors formed from cells that have spread or “seeded” elsewhere are called secondary tumors. These in particular have to be able to break away from the original (primary) tumor and get into the bloodstream or lymph system, which can carry them to another part of the body. At some point they need to do the following: attach to the wall of a blood or lymph vessel and move through it, out into a new organ, then need to be able to grow and thrive in their new location (American Cancer Society, 2017). Invasive cancer cells have the ability to degradate the extracellular matrix by secreting protease. Once this secretes it breaks down the tissue boundaries and invades the adjacent tissues causing cells to migrate.

A cancer diagnosis is made through biopsy after a specific suspicious lesion or growth is found. Biopsies are then sent to a pathology lab for confirmation of malignancy.

CT scan is often used after a report of pain or abnormality where the images of the site being investigated is chopped into multiple sections for a closer look. A whole body Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET SCAN) is also ordered to observe if any FDG (fludeoxyglucose) reuptake in order to prove metastasis to other regions of the body. PET Scans are used to see the entire body and also note any FDG uptake. This is done after confirmation of a malignancy to diagnose or look for metastasis.

The main treatments for metastasis include: medications as well as chemotherapy which affects your entire body. This is considered “systemic therapy”. It includes chemotherapy and other medications, such as targeted therapy, hormone therapy, and biologic treatment. “Local” therapy includes surgery, radiation therapy, and some other treatments.

The majority of cancers are incurable. The above treatments help keep patients more comfortable for a better quality of life while they are dealing with cancer. “These treatments pursue the following: shrink the cancer, slow its growth, help relieve symptoms, and help you live longer” (Mayo Clinic2018).

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COPD – Symptoms and Causes

Smaller conducting airways are a major site of obstruction in COPD and studies have shown that in smokers there are structural abnormalities in small airways whether they have COPD or not. Furthermore, a correlation between severity of COPD and extent of airway occlusion by inflammatory …

CancerDiseaseEpidemiologyMedicine
Words 1875
Pages 8
The History of the Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a disease that causes uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells. It begins in the respiratory area of the body that take over healthy human cells, tissues and organs which ultimately result in death (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2020). Medical advancements …

BiologyBiotechnologyCancerLung CancerMedicine
Words 2547
Pages 11
Lung Cancer in the UK

Lung cancer is the third most common cancer in the UK, accounting for about one out of five malignancies in men and one out of nine in women. However worldwide Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men. There are many factors that can …

BiologyCancerEpidemiologyLung CancerMedicine
Words 1527
Pages 7
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What Is Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is a cancer that starts from the lung. There are three different types of lung cancer. Such as- non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer and lung carcinoid tumor. Compare to other cancer, lung cancer, it’s difficult to detect lung cancer in …

AnatomyBiologyBiotechnologyCancerChemistryLung Cancer
Words 1657
Pages 7
The Role of The Uno In Preserving and Promoting International Peace and Security

The main aims which inspired those who founded the United Nations Organization in 1945 were to preserve and promote international peace and security , and to secure international co-operation for establishing political, economic and social conditions conducive to maintaining peace on earth ” to save …

CancerPeacePoverty
Words 1385
Pages 6
Should New Jersey Turn Into The “Garden State”

Marijuana, also known as cannabis, weed or Maryjane, is a drug that is seen as a popular discussion in the media. It is brought up so much in the media because of the debate over whether or not it should be legalized. Also the government …

CancerDrugsGardensMedicineTax
Words 1501
Pages 7
Medication: The Health of America

The request of introducing lifefones by liu hcd company to nursing homes to help elderly take their medication at the correct time. The overall cost is on average of $36 with a special offer of giving a blood pressure measurement device. The plan requires a …

CancerHealthHospitalMedicineNursing
Words 1363
Pages 6
What Is Self-Care Theory?

Nursing is needed when self-care demands are more significant than the self-care abilities. An intervention is an action of the nurse that is carried out in handling a patient’s health problem based on nursing care plans by the nurse’s diagnosis that was determined beforehand by …

CancerNursingTheoriesTherapy
Words 1046
Pages 5
Literature Review on Breast Reconstructive Surgery

Introduction Research is from the French word “research” which literally means to investigate thoroughly. It is a process of systematic enquiry into a particular subject (phenomenon) which intends to create new knowledge and is governed by scientific principles (Cormack 1996). The department of health (DOH) …

CancerDataLiteratureNursing
Words 5414
Pages 22
Causes and stages of cancer

Introduction The World Heath Organisation (2011) estimates that without intervention 84 million people will die from cancer between 2005 and 2015. In 2008 156,723 people died in the UK alone of malignant neoplasm and 1 in 3 people will be diagnosed with the disease in …

BiologyBiotechnologyCancerEssay ExamplesMedicine
Words 3870
Pages 16
Scientific Experiments On Animals

Introduction Almost Two years ago some people work for animal rights (who work against vivisections) attacked a Neuroscientist who works in California University by sitting a fire in his car, which was parked in front of his house (Guardian 2009). This shows that many people …

AnimalsCancerExperimentMedicineVaccine
Words 1267
Pages 6
Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom

Introduction Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in the United Kingdom with approximately 35,000 new cases diagnosed each year. 1 in 16 men and 1 in 20 women will develop colorectal cancer at some point in their lives. It is also the second …

CancerDiseaseMedicine
Words 4445
Pages 18
Association of Human papillomavirus and Breast Tumours

Abstract: Cancer arises due to abnormal changes or mutations, in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the aetiological agent for many cancers including cervical cancer. HPV causes disruption and loss of some of the viral genes such …

BiologyBiotechnologyCancerHumanMedicine
Words 7139
Pages 29
Investigate the feasibility of Pan-European controlled drug legislation

Abstract Background This research project focuses on the controlled drug legislative profile of two European countries (UKandGreece). An extensive review of the current legislation systems is made and any similarities and differences are underlined. The need of setting a pan-european legislation surrounding the safe and …

CancerCrimeDrugsMedicine
Words 23166
Pages 93
Critical Study of The NHS breast screening programme

Introduction The NHS Breast Screening Programme began in 1988 and was set up by the Department of Health in response to the recommendations of a working group, chaired by Professor Sir Patrick Forrest. The report Breast Cancer Screening was published in 1986, and popularly known …

CancerEssay ExamplesMedicineNursingRadiology
Words 4604
Pages 19
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region: Pathophysiology & management of the disease

1.0. Introduction Head and Neck cancer is increasingly becoming a very serious public health issue in the world, correlated with high incidence and mortality rates mainly in developing countries(Jeffries and Foulkes 2001). Deformities caused by the malignancy such as facial and neck injuries profoundly affect …

AnatomyBiologyCancerManagementMedicine
Words 4800
Pages 20
“Wit”: One Life for the Lives of Many

Introduction In the play Wit written by Margaret Edson, the main character, Vivian Bearing, decides to donate her body to medicine to help better understand the ruthless disease of cancer and death itself. While many seem to believe that the theme of the play deals …

CancerDiseaseLIFEMedicine
Words 1714
Pages 7
The effect of Vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer risk

Abstract The impact of vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer prevention and diminishment has become a matter of sustained debate. This study proposes to utilize a combination Post-Positivism approach to assess the practice. With emerging studies both upholding and decrying the efficacy of Vitamin D …

Breast CancerCancerDataMedicine
Words 1361
Pages 6
Compare and Contrast (Cancer and Colera)

I am a healthy human being. These words are said daily by people with confidence; although they may not truly be positive of their health status. We would all like to believe that we are immune to all types of diseases. We are ignorant that …

CancerDiseaseEpidemiologyEssay ExamplesMedicine
Words 527
Pages 3
The ABCD Rule: Detecting the Symptoms of Skin Cancer

Mary noticed a large, brown spot on her skin. She has been playing tennis in the sun for several years without sun protection. She reported the discovery to a friend, who told her to apply the ABCD rule to determine whether or not she had …

AnatomyBiologyCancerMedicineSkin Cancer
Words 1702
Pages 7
Critical evaluation of a research article

Introduction This work presents a critical evaluation of the research article entitled, ‘How traumatic is breast cancerPost-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and risk factors for severe PTSS at 3 and 15 months after surgery in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer’, …

Breast CancerCancerData Analysis
Words 2240
Pages 9
Treating Cancer Patients With the Cyberknife

Introduction To evaluate the use of CyberKnife therapy in local cancer centres, an overview of the evidence needs to be obtained for the clinical and cost-effectiveness of such therapy in different types of cancer. Cancer is a broad group of diseases, where cells grow and …

CancerMedicineTherapy
Words 2052
Pages 9
Health Promotion and Preventions

Health promotion and disease prevention are processes that enable individuals to improve their health. Health promotion seeks to increase an individual’s control over their health by addressing behavior under the control of the individual. Disease prevention is associated with medical and public health activities to …

CancerDiseaseExerciseHealth PromotionMedicine
Words 1434
Pages 6
Slavery by Another Name

Matt Henderson Dr. Hilbert The Cigarette Century March 23, 2009 The Cigarette Century Book Review The Cigarette Century, the undisputed rise and dramatic decline of cigarette consumption in the United States. There are powerful cultural values that account for the resilience of the cigarette and …

AdolescenceAdvertisingCancerSlaverySmoking
Words 3451
Pages 14
Effects of Hormones in Our Food

In 2006 our world’s human population was approximately 6. 7 billion. It is projected to increase to 9. 2 billion by 2050. With this many people in the world you need a substantial amount of food to feed them. But, this leads to a problem …

CancerFoodPubertySex
Words 645
Pages 3
Animal Rights vs. Human Health – Comparative Essay

Jackie Dansky English 1A – 69 David Banuelos March 10, 2011 Animal Rights vs. Human Health Developments of cures, vaccines and treatments for human illnesses have been done through animal testing. Over 25 million animals are tested each year in the United States (Stephanie Ernst, …

Animal RightsCancerDiseaseExperimentHumanMedicine
Words 1106
Pages 5
Working at Your Desk All Day Could Be Killing You

Not to sound like an alarmist, but your desk could be killing you – and your business. An estimated due primarily to our sedentary, sitting-saturated lives. All that discomfort adds up to a roughly $100 billion price tag each year, which is well over half of …

CancerDiabetesDiseaseSpecial Day
Words 667
Pages 3
Psychology Paper on Pain

Pain Veronica Tran Essay #1 Psy 1 (#48954) Pain Everyone everywhere will experience pain; whether it is everyday or once a week. Paper cuts, pinches, or even simply jamming your fingers between your door, are all painful accidents. Pain is the undesirable feeling; the red …

BrainCancerMedicinePsychology
Words 1015
Pages 5
The Problem Of Skin Cancer

It mostly found in Caucasians and is usually found on fair-skinned people. It may appear as nodules, or as red spots, scaly patches on the skin. This topic is very crucial, for all of you today, because you or someone you care about may be …

CancerEpidemiologyMedicineSkin Cancer
Words 677
Pages 3
Breast Cancer Persuasive Essay

Informative Speech Course Title: Public Speaking Course Code: COM 101 Title: Breast Cancer Presented by: Anna Kokkoni Reg. Number: K2005444 Do you know what is the link between Kylie Minogue, Sheryl Crow, Olivia Newton-John? Let me tell you a small story before I answer this …

BiologyBreast CancerCancerGenetics
Words 321
Pages 2

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Cancer is a disease in which some of the body's cells grow uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells.
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Includes Diseases: Squamous cell carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma.

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