Essays on Disease

The biological transformation through the movement of diseases and peoples across the Atlantic known as the Columbian exchange had major impacts on both Native Americans and European. Foods of the Western Hemisphere—especially maize, potatoes, manioc, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes— increased the population of China while …

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Introduction The nervous system is involved in the transmission of signals for communication and for coordination of body systems. The principle cell of the nervous system is a neuron, the neuron components are a cell body, dendrites, axon, synaptic terminals and myelin sheath (not always). …

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Introduction Norovirus is currently recognized as the most important non-bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis. It is believed that majority of gastroenteritis that occur throughout the globe is attributed to Norovirus. Norovirus was first recognised through immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) in 1972. However, it is only over the …

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Introduction Recently, vector-borne bacterial and parasitic diseases have developed or re-developed in a lot of geographical regions inducing economic problems and global health which include livestock, companion animals, wild life and humans. Globally diseases that their transmission occurs via arthropod vectors are the main significance …

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Introduction: Valvular heart valve disease caused a major problem worldwide, result in increasing rate of morbidity and mortality (Rashid et al., 2004). Each of the four valves of heart can be affected by dysfunction (Mol et al., 2009). The common solution is the replacement of …

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1.0. Introduction Head and Neck cancer is increasingly becoming a very serious public health issue in the world, correlated with high incidence and mortality rates mainly in developing countries(Jeffries and Foulkes 2001). Deformities caused by the malignancy such as facial and neck injuries profoundly affect …

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Introduction Measles is a contagious human disease that mainly affects children. The measles virus (MV) that causes this systemic infection is a single stranded ribonucleic acid virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the Paramyxovirus family.(2,3) As transmission is via air droplets, initiation of the …

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Abstract: Current treatments of Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain symptomatic, for example Levadopa, and results in a number of negative side effects after a foreseen period of time. However, investigations into using human embryonic stem (ES) cells to generate dopaminergic neurons hold huge potential for future …

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Introduction Lou Gehrig’s disease is often referred to as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), this is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Motor neurons come from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord …

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Introduction Research into the genetic causes of Alzheimer’s disease have progressed considerably and currently at least three different genes are known to be linked with AD pathogenesis. Of these the apolipoprotein gene E (APOE), an amino acid glycoprotein, is one of the main focus of …

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