Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s theory is grounded on satisfying needs in order of: 1) physiological needs (lunch breaks, wages, etc), 2) safety needs (medical insurance, job security, etc), 3) social needs (sense of community, social events, etc), 4) esteem needs (recognize achievement, show appreciation, etc), and 5) self actualization (provide challenges, opportunity to reach potential, etc). According to Maslow, a person starts with meeting physiological needs and must work up to self-actualization. An important limitation to note is that “there is evidence that contradicts the order of needs specified by the model. Furthermore, “some cultures appear to place social needs before any others” (Netmba 3). The most important implication for management in Maslow’s theory is the manager’s ability to recognize the needs level at which the employee is operating in order to motivate. For example, if a group or individual is operating on the basic needs of physiological and safety, a good levering tool for motivation would be to offer an office party once a goal is met. Theories 3 Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory is a “content theory” similar to Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory.
Herzberg suggested a two-step approach to understanding employee motivation and satisfaction including hygiene factors and motivator factors. Hygiene factors ensure that an employee does not become dissatisfied. These include, but are not limited to, wages and salaries, policy and administration, quality of supervision and inter-personal relations, working conditions, and job security. “Meeting hygiene factors does not lead to high levels of motivation” (Value Based Management 1). Motivation factors lead to psychological growth and job satisfaction.
These include, but are not limited to, status, advancement opportunity, gaining recognition, responsibility, stimulating work, and the sense of personal growth and achievement in a job. Motivation factors must be present to motivate an employee into higher performance. Management should “focus on rearranging work so that motivator factors can take effect” (Cuthers, 2). He said this could be done through job enlargement, job rotation, and/or job enrichment. For example, in a low hygiene-high motivation situation, workers are challenged but salaries and work conditions are not up to standards.
By adding some hygiene factors, such as a slight increase in wages and a cleaner, safer working environment, management would be motivated and have fewer complaints. Theories 5 McClellan’s Need Theory David McClellan proposed that an individual’s needs are specific and acquired over time and life experience. Most of these needs can be classified as achievement, affiliation, or power. “A person’s motivation and effectiveness in certain job functions are influenced by these three needs” (Peace 2). People who measure a high need for achievement are less likely to take risks because they seek to excel.
They prefer work with a fair probability of success and need regular feedback to monitor their progress. Affiliation seekers value pleasant relationships with others and have a high need for acceptance. They prefer jobs with a lot of personal interaction and tend to conform to their work group. Employees who have a high need for power fall into two categories – personal power seekers and institutional power seekers. Those who want personal power tend to direct others. Those who prefer institutional power “want to organize the efforts of others to further the goal of the organization” (Peace 3).
McClelland’s theory allows for the shaping of a person’s needs and management should learn to recognize different profiles. For example, a person with a high need for personal power will probably fail in a position that is associated with a high need for affiliation. Theories 6 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor proposed two theories founded on the premise that
They dislike work, have no ambition, resist change, and do not care about organizational goals because they are self-centered. Management approaches under Theory X range from a hard approach (essentially an environment of command and control) to a soft approach (hoping that employees will cooperate). Both approaches, McGregor later reveals, are inappropriate because Theory X is incorrect because it relies on lower needs as levers of motivation. Theory Y is based on esteem and self-actualization. These higher-level needs are never fully met and are great tools for motivation.
Under Theory Y, people are self-directed and committed to objectives, and they will seek responsibility through creativity and ingenuity. “Here lies the opportunity to align personal and organizational goals by using the employee’s own quest for fulfillment as the motivator” (Netmba 2). McGregor acknowledges that not all employees are mature enough to function at the Theory Y level and might need more elements of Theory X management until further developed. Theories 7 Expectancy Theory The Expectancy Theory by Vroom is a perception-based theory about the associations people make toward expected outcomes.
In addition to the internal needs of employees and their efforts to fulfill them, Vroom classifies effort into three categories of effort (arising from motivation), performance, and outcomes that must all be linked. Within these categories are three variables: Valence, Expectancy, and Instrumentality. According to Arrod, expectancy is the belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance. In order to excel here, the employee must have the right resources, skills, and support. Instrumentality is the belief that if you perform well, a valued outcome will be received.
This requires clear understanding between performance and outcome, trust in those who decide the outcome, and transparency of the process that decides who gets what outcome. Valence is the importance an individual places on the expected outcome. Vroom stresses that all three variables are essential for positive motivation. “The idea is that the individual then changes their level of effort according to the value they place on the outcomes they receive from the process and on their perception of the strength of the links between effort and outcome” (Arrod 2).
Basically, an individual needs to know – 1) if I work harder, this will be better, 2) if I do a good job, there is something in it for me, and 3) Is it worth it. For example, offering benefits of additional time off to an individual may not be worthwhile if he was expecting an outcome of a bonus for his performance. Theories 8 Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory is grounded on the shaping of behavior through controlling consequences. Any behavior that brings about a consequence is termed an operant behavior.
An operant behavior is learned through associated consequences that can include positive and negative reinforcement and punishment. In order to be effective, reinforcement needs to be continuous or intermittent. Positive reinforcement results in the repeating of a desired behavior. For instance, Sally works in collections for an auto-finance company. She is expected to make a minimum of 300 phone calls daily. The company provides incentive (a 5% commission) on every additional 25 phone calls per day where money is collected.
This motivates her to make more productive use of her time by rewarding her on a continuous basis (every paycheck may include commission). Negative reinforcement results when an undesirable consequence is withheld, with the effect of strengthening the probability of the behavior being repeated. For example, John is working hard to increase sales in his territory of Highland Park, which is followed by a decision not to reassign him to an undesirable sales route of Oak Cliff. He is likely to continue exerting the efforts necessary to stay in the area in which he is most productive.
Punishment, often confused with negative reinforcement, attempts to decrease the probability that a particular behavior will be learned and repeated (Barnett 2). It is a common reinforcement tool, but experts agree that it should only be used if positive and negative reinforcement are not effective. Theories 9 References Arrod. Co. UK. (2006). Expectancy Theory of Motivation. Retrieved 9/15/08 from http://www. arrod. co. uk/archive/concept_vroom. php Barnett, Tim. (2004). Reinforcement Theory. Retrieved 9/15/08 from http://www. referenceforbusiness. com/management Cuthers, Joshua. (2006). Motivation in Theory – Herzberg Two Factor
Theory. Retrieved 9/15/08 from https://tutor2u. net/business/people/motivation_theory_herzberg. asp NetMBA. (2007). Theory X and Theory Y. Retrieved from http://www. netmba. com/mgmt/ob/motivation/mcgregor Peace, A. (2008). McClellan’s Theory of Needs. Retrieved from http://motivationcentre. blogspot. com Value Based Management. (2008). Motivation Factors. Retrieved 9/15/08 from http://www. valuebasedmanagement. net/methods back. Plagiarism Warning The essay examples on Anti Essays are for research purposes ONLY. Do NOT submit an essay example as your own. If you use any information from a sample essay, please cite it.
MLA and APA citations can be found at the bottom of this free essay. Citations MLA Citation “Theories Of Management”. Anti Essays. 30 Nov. 2011 <http://www. antiessays. com/free-essays/20897. html> APA Citation Theories Of Management. Anti Essays. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from the World Wide Web: http://www. antiessays. com/free-essays/20897. html Related Essays Role Of Manager Creating Value Corperate… Hrm Vs Personnel Management Theory Of Management Rights Frederick Taylor: Hero Or… Fayol’s Management Theory Organizational Behavior… The Role Of a Manager Classical And Neo…