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Exam Study Guide

Essay Topic: ,

Egypt- Ancient Egypt was sustained by a river as well. The Nile river valley was named Kempt “the black land” because of the rich black soil that was deposited yearly by the Nile floodwater’s. The Egyptians were skilled in geometry which was important in measuring out the dimensions of property after the floods had destroyed old reporter lines.

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Religion was a major role in Egyptian society, so people made sacrifices to the gods in order to protect their families from the river. This Egyptian society is a great example of how the geography of the land can help shape almost every aspect of a society. . How can the Epic of Galoshes help historians better understand Sumerian Sumerian city-state of Rusk in the third millennium BCC and who was probably responsible for constructing the city walls, which archaeologists later determined had a perimeter of almost six miles. We can also look at how the society is described n the epic, and what kind of place, for example, women had in that society. Pig 17 3. How did Sumerian advances in technology help shape society in the Fertile Crescent? Civilization began in the Fertile Crescent, the arable plain of the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys.

The rivers deposited fertile soil in a rainfall-scant region. Irrigation and technological advances produced food surpluses for population growth. Sumerians, migrating from the north about 4000 B. C. E. , mixed with local groups to establish Mesopotamia civilization. Pig 9 4. What is the concept of matt and how did it influence Egyptian culture and society? Matt concept- truth, balance, order, law morality and Justice; Mat as a principle was formed to meet the complex needs of the emergent Egyptian state that embraced diverse peoples with different interests.

The significance of Mat developed to the point that it embraced all aspects of existence, including the basic equilibrium of the universe, the relationship between constituent parts, the cycle of the seasons, heavenly movements, religious observations and fair dealings, honesty and truthfulness in social interactions. 5. Compare writing systems of Mesopotamia and the Phoenicians. What are the advantages of each? Why are the systems so different? Mesopotamia Writing Systems- the Sumerians used a cuneiform; these tablets provided a valuable source of information of modern scholars.

Phoenicians Writing Systems- it contained thousands of characters each, meaning that it was much easier to learn a very much smaller writing system that encoded the limited number of distinct sounds (phonemes) in a language instead of trying to encode separately all the ideas that the language could express. 6. Describe and explain the differences in the Egyptian and Mesopotamia views of he afterlife. What primary sources can be used as evidence to help answer this question? Mesopotamia afterlife- There is no resurrection.

Egyptian afterlife- Mummification, which, the dead need their bodies in the afterlife. Pictures. 7. Why do the Phoenicians develop a simple writing system (alphabet)? It is much easier to learn and understand. 8. How might a simple writing system like the alphabet developed by the Phoenicians affect a society? It affects the culture, religion, and writing. 9. How does the religion of the Hebrews differ from most other religions of the ancient world? Use the Book of Exodus excerpt we have in our book as evidence for religions, sharing a covenant with one merciful God.

There is no direct punishment. There is a code of ethics which is the Ten Commandments. 10. What are the advantages of monotheism as illustrated through the experiments of Generation in Egypt and the Hebrew nation? What are the disadvantages? Advantages of monotheism of Generation- Sharing a covenant with only one God. Disadvantages of Monotheism of Generation- There are three, which are, impersonal, priests are now unemployed, and there is a new capital and monuments, which, drains resources.