Dances danced to Bebop included the lindy hop and the apple Jack emerged-both also seen as resistive - double v double time (time refers to the speed in bebop) -A type of music that focused on asymmetry and dissonance, made so white artists loudest play it (involved technical mastering), lots of improve that moved away from sheet music. Very similar to Jim Hendrix taking an American style (Jazz) and transforming It to fit a new culture with the wave of Immigrants. Often played In clubs where coot suitors loitered, acted as a form of musical protest and resistance against the white mainstream Jazz.
Birth of a new kind of Jazz, one that symbolizes youth and change within American society. Shifted focus from white/swing black/ bebop Bracers Program "An emergency farm labor plan that was extremely successful at meeting its goal of supplying cheap labor. -After WI there were several "bracer's" (manual laborers) that stopped working as farm laborers on their own side of the border and came to El Paso center to be recruited for agricultural labor. Bracers translates too "manual laborer who works with arms" The program was started in 1942 by FED and it allowed Mexican agricultural laborers to have a temporary contract.
Mexico was viewed as a part of the Allies during WI. Brought hundreds of thousands of Mexican people to the U. S and fostered the Idea that Mexican workers were entirely dispensable and that once they were no longer 1942 and 1947 continued after WWW Operation wetback's" MM Mexican and Mexican Americans who were U. S citizens or legal residents deported back to Mexico. Buffalo Bill -Creator of the popular commercial entertainment business "Buffalo Bills, Wild West" from 1883-1916, that reduced complex events into romanticizes scenes of the frontier. The creator, William F. Codswallop Bill"-the main attraction of the show- because he was a "real" man of the frontier who became popular for killing a young Indian warrior named Yellow Hand, through scalping. -Led people to believe the acts during the show were real, even though they were often traumatized and left out the Indians side of the story -scenes drawn from buffalo bills dime novels and was considered "American national entertainment" and exemplified American history in an inaccurate way.
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Buffalo bill is considered the hero and a self-made man. Richard Slotting Reading: From reading Cultural US Imperialism. -Romanticizes view of the American frontier, not an accurate representation. Double -An attempt by African Americans soldiers during WWW; victory at home (against discrimination) and victory abroad with the war. By fighting in the war, they hoped to gain respect and become equals. It was a response to what happened during WI, hen they were promised equality if they fought in the war, but it never happened. It was an attempt by black soldiers in WWW to demonstrate that by helping to win victory in the war, that they could establish conditions domestically for victory over discrimination. It's immediate effect was the end of racial discrimination in the military services -A Philip Randolph and the march on Washington -Double V, double time related to bebop and coot suit, each examples or resistance and fighting the war at home. The Double V Campaign became a symbol of pride for Black Americans during a time when Jim Crows laws were prevalent and so many of he rights that soldiers fought for abroad were denied them at home.
Article from The Pittsburgh Courier from James Thompson small acts of resistance that led to a revolution during the civil rights movement Gill Scott-Heron A Jazz and Spoken word musician, Scott-Heron's songs discussed such matters as the superficiality of media and consumerism, as well as the idea that true revolution is not seen through publicity but through the actions of the people that go unpublished. Singer to "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised" in 1970, it was a politically conscious hip hop song, that explained how revolution is not found in hinges that give us comfort like television.
It questions where we find resistance, shows how racial issues begin from within and laws are Just temporary solutions to a seemingly permanent problem. -If you want 'revolution', you can't sit and wait for it to come on your TV. Set Talking about racial equality and thus the "revolution" will not be put on television; it will be live, as said in the last line. -Nine's ad: The revolution will be not be televised... Yet it was -The significance to class views. Countercultures Hurricane Strain The 2005 Hurricane that devastated Louisiana and, most famously, New Orleans after the levees broke.
There was a large disparity between the opinions of the people on the ground and those portrayed by the televised news casting. The film Trouble the Water (2008), addressed the idea that Strain was a man-made disaster opposed to a natural one. Showed the depths of structural racism in that there was an unequal distribution of resources based on race. -African Americans were denied assistance, and rescuing was prioritize to whites. In addition, white housing and tourist attractions were restored much faster than black neighborhoods and housing.
Demonstrates how racism is still prevalent in society even after the Civil rights Movement, shows how solving racial issues begins from within, and laws are Just temporary solutions to a seemingly permanent problem. Institutional Racism: Racism that is hard to see but usually is stronger racism. - institutionalized racism, hegemony widespread agreement that things were getting better but were truly not for certain colors and poor people Elevation -First truly massed produced suburbs that had identical designs to lower housing costs.
Known as the archetype for postwar suburbs across the country -In 1957, Alfred Levity created the first Elevation, a suburban area of standardized homes that rated several suburbs and a defined middle class. It became a symbol of the American dream, but was restricted to white families only, a part of the housing segregation seen back then. Displays the hegemony of racial inequality ideologies, keeping races segregated and whites as "superior" and blacks and "others" as "inferior". -All residents must be Caucasian so owners had business because whites wouldn't live there otherwise.
Documentary: "Race: The power of illusion" deal with systemic racism in the development of suburbs and the impact of color-blind policy. FAA specifically redline families of color. White flight Malcolm Little The birth name given to Malcolm X, a black Muslim civil rights activist Was part of nation of Islam? Began as a coot suit wearing hustler In Robin Kelly's Riddle of the Coot, he tells the story of Malcolm Little, also known as Malcolm X, a young African American growing up during the Coot Suit era and an increasing time of forming American identities.
He acquired all of the fashionable adornments of the time such as the coot suit and the conk to erase his background and identity. -Committed a series of burglaries targeting wealthy white families He his Scottish maternal grandfather -He endured a lot of pain and self-degradation to kook like a Whitman because he internalized the idea that black people were "inferior" and white people were "superior". Shows the American values at the time, and the segregation of races despite the melting pot mentality.
McDonald's A multinational corporation which has, in the past, been indicative of social and economic challenges created by multinational corporation operations. The world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants worldwide since it is a transnational company, as talked about in McDonald's in Beijing by Hanging Yawn. -Represents Americanization and American exceptionalness by instilling American culture onto there countries through advanced technologies and products.
American globalization is spreading American culture and ideologies worldwide, trying to force conformity among other nations to merge the superior American culture. "I'm loving it" expo transnational: going beyond national boundaries or interests Michael Jordan -Served as an analog to the self-made man and also hinted at how rationalization occurs as we view professional basketball players and athletes in general. -Michael Jordan is arguably one of the greatest basketball players in the NAB. He Joined the Bulls in 1984 and made the team come back alive.
Jordan was certainly the most effectively marketed professional sports player and credited for making NAB popular. Famous American basketball player that played on the Chicago Bulls from 1984 to 1998. Was the world's first globalizes sports figure, becoming the global face of Nikkei advertisements worldwide. Importance represents the transnational of Nikkei and the globalization of American culture and values worldwide. Self-made man Marketing based on race "blackness" as a marketing scheme Nikkei -A transnational cooperation. Just do it" One of the first companies to actually hold a worldwide advertising campaign for its products. Use top athletes to sponsor their products and produces single products in multiple countries ex: "air Max penny is inspired by a basketball player whose nickname is Penny... Shoe contains 52 separate components produced in five different countries" -Just do it! Is the slogan of Nikkei, which is a transnational corporation. It shows that beyond American imperialism of advancing technologies and products, there is also a globalization of American ideals being sold, a form of cultural imperialism.
Demonstrates how the boundary of American ideals spreads past US borders, using production and sale of manufactured goods as a vessel of transport. An example of the spread of American ideas and ideologies Sitcom suburbs -"cookie cutter" homes -The sass's model of similar houses with an emphasis on the white middle class family. These suburbs were often an example of institutional racial segregation, with "red zone" areas being unable to get loans and land development. -Sitcoms such as "Leave it to Beaver" and "Father Knows Best" in the asses that portrayed a nuclear family living in the suburbs.
Portrayed the transmission of gender roles and the ideals of a traditional family, for example women as the housewife that should clean cook and raise the kids, while men are the ones to work outside the house. Represents hegemonic forces reinforcing gender inequality ideologies onto the nation during a time that women were fighting for their independence. An example of state sanctioned racism towards African American homeowners. Also an example of the family unit becoming socially prominent.
Sleepy Lagoon Murder/Hank Leaner's -Trial began in 1942 Jose was found on the ground already stabbed and beaten The boys went into the house and fought, came outside and punched Jose but was not responsible for his death Trial went on for 3 months 12 defendants found guilty; Hank was sentenced to life After several advocates tried o get boys out of Jail and finally did, Hank walked out of Jail with a coot suit on -Race was the central part of the riot Riots broke out between Mexican-Americans and army personnel stationed in LA.
White Americans believed coot suits were extravagant and unpatriotic during war time. While Mexican Americans saw the trial as discriminatory. Coot Suit Riots (1943): The trials found these Mexican-Americans guilty without any sufficient evidence because of their race: presumed to be dangerous and guilty. Social model of disability The idea of the social model of disability was presented by guest lecturer, Ryan Cartridge. It suggests that there is a public view that there is something inherently different about those we consider to be "Disabled.
As such, there are institutional precedents to treat those with disabilities differently. Race can influence this -White male is seen as the ideal/ normal in our society, so the disabled are held to this standard impairment + scatterbrained Being in a wheelchair limits the person, but not as much as society makes it out to be. -Overcoming narrative Propaganda that says despite the disability people can do things. -Often parameterized -Ex: someone with down syndrome is asked to the prom is put in the newspaper, hen this shouldn't be a big deal If the disabled can do it then so can you. Thus saying that if disabled people want to succeed at something, they only have to try hard. -This type of propaganda is used in the dual purpose of motivating those without disabilities, while simultaneously degrading those with disabilities, by saying that what a normal person has to overcome is equivalent to what a disabled person has to overcome. Concept Explanations: Transnational and Transnational Corporation -The idea that the economy, and especially large corporations, are increasingly operating across several nations.
As such, they have vested interests in multiple countries and their economies. Overall the idea that corporations now have global effects rather than local ones -Watson Definition: "Transnational describes a condition by which people, commodities, and ideas literally cross--transgress-- national boundaries and are not identified with a single place of origin. " "Transnational Corporations are popularly regarded as the clearest expressions of this new adaptation(transnational)... Mode of production controlled from a headquarters complex located somewhere in the First World" -Watson Reading:
Transnational, Localization, and Fast Foods in East Asia -McDonald's-localization rather than transnational -Nikkei -Coca-Cola American Capitalism Enlightened sexism -Douglass definition "Enlightened Sexism is a response, deliberate or not, to the perceived threat of a new gender regime. " -"insists the women have made plenty of progress because of feminism-aka full equality has allegedly been achieved... So now it's okay to have sexist stereotypes of girls and women" because it's funny since we obsessing over one man, because we all know women "aren't" actually like that" Where the Girls Are;
Enlightened Sexism -goes hand in hand with embedded feminism. American Dream-America's possibilities are limited to select groups of people, in this case women are left out Frontier thesis -The Thesis proposed by American historian Frederick Turner in 1893. It was the idea that American democracy/identity was established by the American Frontier. He stressed that by moving the frontier line it shaped America.. "Gained new strength each time it touched a new frontier. " Also by pushing out the frontier America was cutting ties with British culture and customs. The idea was that the frontier land was free... Oh wait.
Native Americans were there first. The frontier is a place where savagery and civilization meet. Domesticating nature -Homestead Act of 1862 Signed by Lincoln at the beginning/during the Civil War. Meant that Union supporters were the ones granted land... "Any person... Who has never borne arms against the United States Government. " -First granted 160 acres, increased to 640 acres in 1904. This in itself sets up white privilege through the descendants of homesteaders. Manifest Destiny American Empire The American Empire is the idea that America has, in its past, utilized military tactics to increase land and resource holdings.
The Philippines example from class "taking them for their own good", as well as the Spanish-American war of 1896 -Hegemony, -American Exceptionalness -American imperialism (ex: eagle spreading its wings over many countries) Reading concept explanation: What does the author mean? What does it mean in a larger context? Example outside of class The Globalization of Michael Jordan by Walter Leveler: "The September 11 horrors raised, in the most stark and bloody terms, questions about the new capitalism that had shaped American-led globalization of the previous thirty years" (165-66).
The terrorists who committed the crimes of 9-11 were a part of AH Qaeda, a religious organization that hated the US for corrupting their homelands and Saudi Arabia. The terrorists saw the US as the source of capitalism which they hate. Where the Girls Are by Susan Douglas: "American women today are a bundle of contradictions because much of the media imagery we grew up with was itself filled with mixed messages about what women should and should not do, what women could and could not be. This was true in the asses and it is true today' (9). The American woman has thus emerged as a bundle of contradictions, seeking to be simultaneously passive and active, outspoken and diet, selfish and selfless, thrifty and profligate, daring and scared, and who had better know which persona to assume when" double standards The media has done number of things to confuse the roles of women. One such example is the producer ethos versus consumer ethos. At first the media was portraying a producer ethos, but then there was a conflict, because they needed consumers to consume the produce of the producers.
Therein lays contradiction nature of the media imposition on women. Magazines; pageants; Double V, Double Time: Bebop's Politics of Style by Eric Lott: "Bebop was about asking disciplined imagination alive and answerable to the social change of the time" (597). Bebop was not protest music but it was played during a time of protest. I would say that according to black they saw it as more of their own thing not a rebellion Something they had and whites didn't,. It was something for them to identify with. It was kind of like a voice for them I'd say, not so much a rebellion if that makes sense at all. And while bebop said there was a riot going on, it was hardly protest music" (597) -Double V- African Americans wanting equality at home and actor in Germany -Bebop: fast paced, lots of solos, said to be too loud and aggressive -Wanted something that whites couldn't play. Identity for blacks Change the way people think along with the times, opening up the mind -Bebop was about making a change for blacks, a social change -Bebop, which breaks the paradigms established by its contemporaries, was seen as rebellious to WHITES and seen by blacks as something that was fully theirs. White culture interpret it as another coot suit riot -Punk Rock/metal, EDM? , youth in revolt, counter-culture in general Disability and the Justification of Inequality in American History by Douglas Boonton: "Thus, while disabled people can be considered one of the minority groups historically assigned inferior status and subjected to discrimination, disability has functioned for all such groups as a sign of and Justification of inferiority' (34). Disability has been used to justify other historically inferior groups Boonton mentions Women's suffrage, African American civil rights, and restriction of immigration -Women were deemed too emotional to vote, to have rights. Emotionality was used as a disability against women o say that they weren't good enough -Race was used as a disability saying that others were inferior because of something like blindness, deafness, mental illness to justify segregation and immigration restrictions Disability that they weren't as developed.
People were too weak. Didn't look strong enough”couldn't enter US- immigration restriction -The same reasons/differences that are used to assign inferiority and give rise to discrimination are the same reasons the people with disabilities use to argue for were helping out lesser races but really we were going in for land and resources-- babe?
Immigrations exclusion acts: -Early 20th century: you look like you have poor physique- can't immigrate 1903- epilepsy, insanity- can't immigrate 1907-mental or physical defect which may affect you-can't immigrate Haunted America by Patricia Limerick "Somewhere in the asses, the term [frontier] might undergo a crucial shift, toward the reality of la frontier and away from the fantasy of the frontier. That shift in meaning will be the measure of great change in this nation's understanding of its own origins" (92). She argues that overall it is not very useful to look back at one's story since all this does is make an individual conscience of the fear to repeat it, and that the only way to learn is through an action. Says that by the white man's conquest we have intertwined the lives of native Americans and Anglo Saxons and we now have a more Joined nation through the tragedies experienced by both sides. -In terms of 'la frontier' this is reference to the Mexican American border. Wild west; manifest destiny -The Last Samurai, you can literally draw direct parallels from white men pushing west in America to the new Chinese government extermination of the old Samurai ay of life Cultural studies scholar Priscilla Wald: "Institutional racism and structural violence share the assumption that the distribution of power through which the state regulates life is a form of violence" (191). Structural and institutional racism see the ways in which people of color are disadvantaged by government where it is avoidable -They aren't given the same opportunities or help as white people -The way that the government doesn't help these struggling races is a how there is structural and institutional racism and it is an act of violence even though it is not direct physical violence. Ignoring them is violence Individual vs.. Institutional racism natural disaster vs.. Structural violence Hurricane Strain: blacks not helped.
Tourist (white) parts of the city rebuilt 100% but dominantly black neighborhoods still devastated. Government said they would come in to help but never did. American Studies is about making connections and asking good questions, and then making an argument based on the appropriate evidence. Your essay should engage with the ideas and arguments of at least four different primary or secondary texts from class. The primary texts can include any of the films, songs, novels, memoirs, or poems that we have covered so far in class.
Your essay should at least cite one primary or secondary text (but no more than two) from before the midterm. An exemplary essay will have a clearly stated argument that is developed through your examples/ evidence. (You might even want to underline your argument to be absolutely clear). Be sure to explain and analyze the connections you are making between the texts and/or course themes that you are citing. You are not limited to material explicitly discussed in lecture and discussion and, in fact, are encouraged to cite examples that have not been discussed in lecture and discussion as it will reveal
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