Last Updated 12 May 2020

Mobile Phone Industry in UK

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THEORY OF RESEARCH METHOD

The primary objective of this chapter was to identify the research method and test the research questions, based upon the conceptual framework of this study. This study used quantitative research and surveys the consumer’s decision-making styles to compare shopping pattern differences between High Street Shopping and Online Shopping method consumers in the UK. In order to determine the level of customer awareness to Internet home grocery shopping, it was necessary to carry out some primary research because currently there are no published figures detailing the opinions of consumers to this service.

It was decided that a questionnaire would be the most appropriate method for collecting the data required as there was a need to obtain results quickly and efficiently throughout the U.K. Questionnaires should distributed to various consumers with diverse interest in shopping. Questions should be concise and covered the important matters with regards to the subject of this research. Observation in major retail stores was considered to assess consumer behaviours but would take too much time and it was felt that all the necessary information could be collected more easily through a questionnaire.

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The self-completion questionnaires were carried out at the homes of the consumers randomly chosen to partake. A total of 100 questionnaires were carried out. The main weakness with the methodology of the questionnaire was the size of the sample. Preferably it should have been larger. The consumers were chosen in particular areas not all areas of the U.K. were approached. This could possibly lead to a few unreliable interpretations.

STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

The process of consumers’ decision-making is becoming increasingly a complex phenomenon for consumers. In recent years, mobile phone retailers have introduced various changes to their business that has enabled them to constantly maintain market share, advance sales and customer service. There is presently much activity in the telecommunication sector in the area of remote shopping and particularly Online shopping. With the near saturation of the U.K. High street market it is now more significant than ever for retailers to preserve their existing customers. Retailers are continuously looking for new areas of growth, which are sufficiently diverse and attractive to win over customers from their competitors. Online shopping is one alternative that various retailers are currently studying. Most retail shops develop an enormous arrangement of choices for the consumers. Moreover, retailers consider a shop’s environment to make consumers consider more expenditure. More stimuli in retail shops can excite more consumers to visit and to buy or browse and buy. There were competitions between High Street and Online retailers. Online shopping provides large benefits to manufacturers and suppliers. Access to a direct market will set manufactures brands on an even footing with retailers’ own brands and the facility to sell directly to consumers will bypass the retailer and re-assert the superiority. The market in UK is nearing saturation. As a result, retailers require operating a strategy of differentiation. Ideally the businesses require to continuously distinguishing themselves from their competitors.

There is a positive future for Online shopping, as it provides retailers with the opportunity for personalisation and innovation to meet the changes in retail competition, technological advances and social conditions. It is a particular niche that will probably always exist, except in rural areas where the logistics may prove too much for national operations to service. In the fullness of time, it may be that a high proportion of phones will be delivered to the home, supplemented by local stores that specialise in mobile phones. The Online shopping is getting wider and bigger. Some consumers are buying using the net but still the Online retailers would not replace high street stores completely since there are still people who are not comfortable to buy online and not all locations in the UK have reliable internet connections. Online sales of mobile phone keeps rising, the high street sales (retail) also increase as well (Kunkel & Berry, 1968). The number of consumers for both High street and Online shopping is increasing. Therefore, online stores complement the sales of high street stores.

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH

The fundamental objective of this study was to identify shopping pattern differences between High Street Shopping and Online Shopping method in UK, relating particularly to Mobile Phone. To analyze the effect on consumer’s decision-making, quantitative research was conducted; this study compared the nationality, gender, highest educational attainment classification to identify differences in shopping patterns between High Street Shopping and Online Shopping method in UK. This study used a type of paper-and-pencil survey technique.

A questionnaire was designed and the objectives were established as follows: to identify shopping behaviours, including where and why people shop, how much they spend and method of travel to the store; to identify awareness of the Internet; and to identify opinions of Online shopping, potential effects on society and future of this service. The respondents chosen were involved in purchasing mobile phones and consumers who have plan for future purchasing of mobile phone.

PHILOSOPHY

In this research the Hermeneutics is used. Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. In contemporary usage, hermeneutics often refers to study of the interpretation of Biblical texts (Bruns, 1992). Heuristics is a type of phenomenological query that brings to the fore the personal experience and opinion of the researcher. To carry out heuristic inquiry the researcher must have personal knowledge with and extreme curiosity in the phenomenon under study and the respondents must share strong point of experiences with the phenomenon. In this case, the shared intensity of experiences entails the phenomena of High Street shoppers and Online shoppers. It was throughout shared reflection and inquiry between researcher and respondents as intensely experienced and reflected on the phenomenon in question that I worked to recognize, first and foremost, my own process of High street and Online shopping development process, as well as High street and Online shopping development processes of the participants. However, it is more broadly used in contemporary philosophy to denote the study of theories and methods of the interpretation of all texts. The concept of "text" is here also extended beyond written documents to any number of objects subject to interpretation. A hermeneutic is defined as a specific system or method for interpretation, or a specific theory of interpretation (Caputo, 1987). Hermeneutics means the interpretation and understanding of social events by analysing their meanings to the human participants and their culture.

Hermeneutics is used for the reason that the resources of philosophical hermeneutics are deployed in an effort to break out of the epistemic, dualistic paradigms of modern philosophy, and to open new philosophical ground no longer haunted by the spectres of relativism and scepticism, or by the dream of foundational justification (Grondin, 1995). Now, it may seem paradoxical that a mode of thought that emphasizes exactly our beholden ness to tradition should be instrumental in what is often presented as a deliberate break with tradition. However, this impression of paradox ought to be fleeting. One of the lessons of philosophical hermeneutics is exactly that intellectual innovation of this sort depends on—indeed, is a manifestation of—the self-renewing power of tradition, of its dynamism, and its interpretability and reinterpretability. The current appropriation of hermeneutics for revisionist philosophical purposes illustrates the hermeneutic notion of effective history (Wachterhauser, 1986). While transcending anything the early interpretation-theorists could ever have imagined, the deployment of Gadamerian thought to break with subjectivism would not have been possible without them. This effective-history, moreover, is dialectical—our reading of the early hermeneuticians, our understanding of the potential inherent in their thought, is shaped essentially by this very effective-history, which both separates us from them and makes them understandable to us (Dilthey, 1996). Appreciating hermeneutics as a living tradition is not, in the end, a matter of identifying a theory or a family of theories. It is fundamentally a matter of perceiving a moving horizon, engaging a strand of dialogue that is an on-going re-articulation of the dynamically historical nature of all human thought.

RESEARCH STRATEGY

Survey research plays an important part in creating a successful study. The success of this study depends upon whether the questions will be clearly understood and answered, as well as upon whether or not the respondents honestly and diligently answer the questions and complete the survey for this study. There were four research questions. The first research question was: will there be significantly different shopping patterns in brand consciousness, quality consciousness, recreation consciousness, confusion consciousness, fashion consciousness, impulse consciousness, and price consciousness between consumers in the High Street Shopping and Online Shopping in UK? To test the first question, this study consisted of seven dependent variables and one independent variable. The seven dependent variables of the consumer decision-making styles were designated as brand consciousness, quality consciousness, recreation consciousness, confusion consciousness, fashion consciousness, impulse consciousness, and price consciousness. High Street Shopping and Online Shopping were the independent variable of this study.

The second research question was: will there be significant gender-specific shopping pattern differences in brand consciousness, quality consciousness, recreation consciousness, confusion consciousness, fashion consciousness, impulse consciousness, and price consciousness between the High Street Shopping and Online Shopping? To determine the second question, this study consisted of seven dependent variables and one independent variable. The seven dependent variables of the consumer decision-making styles identified were designated as brand consciousness, quality consciousness, recreation consciousness, confusion consciousness, fashion consciousness, impulse consciousness, and price consciousness. To test gender specific differences between the subjects in the High Street Shopping and Online Shopping, male and female were the independent variable.

The third research question was: will there be significant highest educational level classification differences in brand consciousness, quality consciousness, recreation consciousness, confusion consciousness, fashion consciousness, impulse consciousness, and price consciousness between consumers? To examine the question, this study consisted of seven dependent variables and one independent variable. The seven dependant variables of the consumer decision-making styles were designated as brand consciousness, quality consciousness, recreation consciousness, confusion consciousness, fashion consciousness, impulse consciousness, and price consciousness. To test highest educational level classification differences, pre GCSE's/O levels, following GCSE/O levels, following A levels or equivalent, following college/ university, post-graduate, and other level were the independent variable.

The last research question was: what interaction exists among nationality, gender, and highest educational level classifications in brand, quality, recreation, confusion, fashion, impulse, and price consciousness? To identify interactions among nationality, gender and highest educational level classifications, seven dependent variables and three independent variables were tested. The seven dependant variables of the consumer decision-making styles were designated as brand consciousness, quality consciousness, recreation consciousness, confusion consciousness, fashion consciousness, impulse consciousness, and price consciousness. To test nationality, gender and highest educational level classification differences, these categories were the three independent variables.

The questionnaire design included both quantitative and qualitative questions, because the questionnaire literature review showed that both elements were necessary to effectively measure customer awareness of Online shopping (Moser ; Kalton 1981). The primary research results needed, as far as possible, to accurately reflect the population as a whole throughout the U.K., rather than the behaviour and opinions of consumers in just one area. For this reason, it was decided that primary research would be conducted in numerous areas throughout the U.K. Although this would not give a precise analysis of the total U.K. population, it would give a geographical spread of the overall perception and knowledge of this service nation-wide. The principal weakness with the methodology of the questionnaire was the size of the sample. Ideally it should have been larger. The consumers were selected in specific areas, some of which have small samples, and not all areas of the U.K. were approached. This could potentially lead to some unreliable interpretations.

In this methodology, a pilot test was conducted to develop the appropriate instrument for testing. The pilot study was performed to determine whether or not the questionnaire was valid and reliable. As a result of the pilot study, the questionnaire was developed to determine shopping pattern differences between Online shopping and High Street Shopping. This study was conducted by a non-probability sampling method, also known as a convenient sampling method, on the basis of quantitative research method. To identify demographic variables, descriptive statistic was performed.

DATA COLLECTION

The questionnaire used is structure for the reason that it will cover the subject of the research. The questionnaire is distributed to the consumer in Leeds because Leeds is one of large innovation city where is high number of population, ranging in age/rank. The respondent chosen have knowledge with the subject of this research. The total sample size of this study was approximately 100 consumers in UK. This study was conducted using a non-probability sampling method, also known as a convenient sampling. This sampling method is “useful for exploratory research, to get a feel for what’s going on out there, and for pre-testing questionnaires to make sure that the items are unambiguous and not too threatening” (Bernard, 1988, p.97).

This study used the convenient sampling method to collect the data. For data collection, the consumers were offered during the month of May to June, 2006, in UK. Prior to distribution of the questionnaires, the researcher informed consumer about the purpose of this study and explained how to complete the survey. Participation in the survey was voluntary. To collect consumer data from UK, 100 questionnaires were given to consumer, who was trained by the researcher.

DATA ANALYSIS

In order to develop a more appropriate instrument to test the variables used in this study, it was necessary to conduct a pilot study. The pilot study verified that researchers can correctly manage the test and treatments for this study, using appropriate subjects (Thomas ; Nelson, 1996). Through the pilot study, the instrument for shopping characteristics was developed. This study used an appropriately developed instrument to test specific shopping pattern differences between the High Street Shopping and Online Shopping in UK.

The pilot study used consumer in UK, ranging in age/rank to develop the appropriate instrument to identify consumers’ shopping styles. The total number of participants in the study consisted of forty-nine male and fifty-one female students. Validity can be defined as the degree to which a test or instrument measures what it purports to measure, and can be categorized as logical, content, criterion, and construct (Thomas ; Nelson, 1996). Of the aforementioned categories of validity test, content validity was conducted in the pilot study. Content validity is defined as a condition that is claimed when a test adequately samples what was covered in the course (Thomas ; Nelson, 1996).

Factor Loadings and Reliability of Each Factor
Strongly
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly

Agree

Disagree

Brand consciousness

In a physical store they give better information
15
20
16
5
0
on mobile phones and contracts than on the

Internet.

Quality consciousness

I have had a great customer service after purchase
2
9
11
4
2
online

I have had a good purchasing experience on the
15
39
27
13
6
Internet

Physical stores have a better service than web
8
33
31
26
2
based shops

The problem in Online purchases is the lack of
6
31
33
25
5
Human contact.

I have had a great customer service after purchased
6
12
29
6
3
on high street.

The product was delivered on time
12
11
3
0
2

Recreation consciousness

Online stores offer more products than high street
12
5
11
0
0
stores

Going to a high street shop make my shopping more
14
36
28
19
3
lively

I always want to have the latest type of mobile
4
27
23
27
19
phones

Confusion consciousness

I am not familiar with Internet use
6
6
16
29
43

I don’t have an easy access to the Internet
2
10
14
29
45

I think that it is more convenient to buy from internet than high street
15
27
33
22
3

I believe that buying on the Internet is not safe
4
16
33
42
5

There is no difference between shopping on the
9
18
25
35
13
Internet and shopping in a high street shop

Impulse consciousness

My experience encourages me to make future
11
10
4
3
0
purchases on the Internet

I love shopping at home
15
15
39
23
8

The problem with high street shopping is the
12
40
20
18
0
pressure/influence put on you by salesmen.

My relatives/friends find it normal to buy products
15
36
29
16
4
via the Internet

I find it normal to buy products over the Internet
28
38
18
11
5

I am happy with the promotion and price offer
10
15
24
7
0
from the+A50 shop

Fashion consciousness

It was easy to view the phone picture on net
10
14
1
3
0
.

I prefer to look at a mobile phone physically before
30
18
4
4
0
buying it

Price consciousness

Internet retailers give me a good overview of prices
8
13
4
2
1

I’ve had a secure payment when I purchased my
8
13
5
2
0
phone online

Purchase prices are lower on Internet
15
9
4
0
0

Going out for shopping cost me more than Internet
16
36
31
17
0
shopping

ETHIC OF RESEARCH

Good ethics create a better environment for research. Complete informed consent increases respondents' attention and reduces questions of how long, who is doing research, and how they are "doing" it. It allows respondents to focus better and they are less concerned with the possible outcomes. Informed consent empowers interviewers because they are can be honest (Solomon, 2002). The respondents feel more comfortable with the questionnaire. More honest answers are possible when privacy is ensured (Ward, 1974). Good procedures ensure that the research benefits those who participate in the survey. High quality science has more value than poor science. The researcher provided sufficient information about the survey to allow the respondent to determine if s/he wants to participate. I have described risks and benefits. The time of the respondent lost by answering the questionnaire should be clear. Research should maximize positive outcomes. This is often difficult to achieve because in reality, only some research and some parts of a research project will turn out as expected. Also, the research should provide some benefit to those being researched. In general, the research should also provide some new knowledge. Balancing these is a challenge.

Researchers are responsible for protecting the autonomy and freedom of individuals while conducting research. This is a basic tenet that requires me as a researcher to ensure that I use procedures that do not diminish human dignity. That is, I design and conduct research so that it protects those being studied. Our responsibility is to ensure that only those who need to know the identities of the respondents can have access to the information.

SUMMARY OF RESULT

The purpose of this study was to use a model of consumer decision-making styles to compare shopping pattern differences of High Street shopping and Online Shopping for mobile phone. To obtain the results of this study, data from consumer in Leeds, were collected and analyzed. This chapter consists of results and discussion. The result section consists of two subsections. The first section contains the demographic description of the samples. The second section presents the findings for each research question. A discussion section is presented based on the findings. The population of this study was the consumer in Leeds because Leeds is one of large innovation city where is high number of population, ranging in age/rank. The total sample size of this study was approximately 100 consumers in UK.  It was necessary to first determine and understand the profile of those who responded to the questionnaire.

Age and Gender of Respondents

Age Range
Frequency
%

Under 18
7
7

18-29
49
49

30-49
29
29

More than 50
15
15

TOTAL
100
100
The table above shows the age of respondents. It shows that the majority of respondents were consumers with the age ranging from 18 to 29. Some of the additional comments by the respondents are listed below:

High Street Shopping Consumers

‘ The main reason I like to buy phones from a high street shop ,is that I’m more certain of the goods being what I want and in working condition’ (M,under 18,Following GCSE level).

‘In a way I prefer shopping the high street because you know you are buying from and what the product is like. I feel the online can be unsafe. I would buy cheaper things off the internet because if you loose your money it is not so bad.’(F, under 18).

‘I think internet shopping is bad because you don’t get human contact. Also is not good as may not be too safe. Although I think sales people are not that honest and will say something to get you to buy their phone, at least you can ask them question. How can you ask a computer question? A computer won’t be able to give me the answer I need, but probably my view is a bit old fashioned.’ (F, 18-29, Postgraduate).

‘Buying from internet I think it’s not easy for everyone because someone can’t use internet and have to know the specific website which they want to buy. And I think it’s unsafe to give credit/debit card number through website. Also not everyone can afford buying own computer.’ (F, 18-29, Following University).

‘I don’t feel face to face shopping is more reliable as I feel I am forced to buy whichever product the sale consultant is on commission for. Only reason I don’t buy phone online is because I need to see how buttons feel, how heavy phone is. Next time I get a phone, I will phone orange customer service or visit their online shop, after looking at phone models on high street shop. As I believe I will get a better deal online. Last phone I purchased received free minutes deal from orange+£ 240 cash back offer phone dealership.’(18-29, F).

‘Though I have not really used online to do most my purchases but I think that high street shop are better because you are sure of receiving what you paid for. For online you never can say to dealer in genuine or not. My friend once told me he bough a laptop from eBay and when he receive it ,he realised that it was not what he paid for. Imagine buying a laptop without a CD drive. So that make me and most people prefer high street shop.’(M, 18-29, Following University).

Online Shopping Consumers

‘Buying mobile from net is so easy, save time and can get amazing price. Delivery is so quick in next day with no problem of security payment. Also 14 peace of mind guaranteed is offered. Such a great deal. I got the phone one net with 12 months free line rental, by claim for cash back later. But it’s hassle with the process of cash back claim which take quite a while to get it back, eg, after 4th,6th,8th,10th,and 12th bill in 30 days of cash back claim period.’ (F, 18-29, Postgraduate).

‘I bought my phone online a long ago while ago. I would not buy an item from a high street shop now as I think they have more overheads and have to inflate their prices. Some item for which you need to make sure the tactile aspect is satisfactory must be tried before buying. I have on many occasions been to a shop to play with the item before buying it online for very much cheaper. one problem with buying online is that some carrier such as city link throw parcel around and do not seem to care about an item reaching the destination fully intact!.’(M, 18-29, following university).

The population of this study was the consumer in Leeds ranging in age/rank from Pre GCSE’s/O levels, following GCSE/O level, following A level or equivalents, college/University level, Post-graduate and other professional in UK. To collect data from UK, a total of 100 questionnaires were distributed to consumer in Leeds in a period lasting from May to June, 2006. All of the questionnaires were administrated and returned to the researcher.

Gender
Frequency
%

Female
51
51

Male
49
49

TOTAL
100
100
The table above shows the frequency distribution and percentage of the classification in the UK. For the 100 respondents 51% is Female and 49% is male. Research question was intended to identify specific shopping pattern differences between the High Street shopping and Online shopping in UK. The results of this study revealed that respondents were found to have statistically significant differences on quality, confusion, price, and brand consciousness. However, in accordance to the result of the survey there were no statistically significant differences among consumers on in reference to recreation, Fashion, and impulse consciousness in High Street shopping and Online shopping in UK. According to Best and Williams (1993), gender differences are based on social roles. The diversity in male and female roles demonstrates that different circumstances between genders are the result of environment (Buss, 1990). It has been argued, however, that men and women are much more biologically and psychologically similar than different (Best & Williams, 1997). The different characteristics between men and women result in different preferences in relation to shopping. Men are believed to be more aggressive, dominant, autonomous, exhibitionistic, and achievement-oriented, whereas women are believed to be more emotional, nurturing, deferential, and self-abasing (Suzuki, 1991). Moreover, while men have greater responsibilities in relation to external activities, women have greater accountabilities in relation to internal, economic, activities. Because male consumers are more active and stronger than the female (Best & Williams, 1997), it can be said that male and female college-aged students demonstrate different shopping styles due to the characteristics of men and women.

Up to this point, there were significantly different shopping characteristics found. According to previous researches (Best & Williams, 1993; Darley & Smith, 1995; Best & Williams, 1997; Fan & Xiao, 1998; Walsh et al., 2001), it can be assumed that the differences between genders and between nationalities were affected by culture, sex roles, economic situations, and environments. Therefore, Mobile Phone companies should more carefully study cultural backgrounds, gender characteristics, and environmental differences before developing marketing strategies. Three main findings of importance resulted from this study. There were statistically significant differences in relation to quality, recreation, confusion, fashion, impulse, and price, and brand consciousness among consumers in UK. The High street consumers demonstrated a statistically greater tendency toward quality, recreation, fashion, impulse, price, and brand consciousness than the Online consumers. The Online consumers demonstrated higher confusion consciousness than the High street consumers due to the fact that in High street shopping items were physically present to be inspect.

CONCLUSION

As indicated previously in the literature reviewed, consumer decision-making styles have been studied broadly. Decision-making styles provide an important key which a company may develop a precise marketing strategy to sell its products to specific consumers. Previous consumers have been conducted relating to general shopping styles with general products. Therefore, to find specific shopping styles for mobile apparel, this study used a survey strategy to investigate shopping pattern differences among consumers at Leeds UK. This study used a consumer decision-making style, to determine consumer’s shopping pattern differences in relation to mobile phone. To identify shopping pattern factors for athletic apparel, a pilot study was conducted with 100 respondents. The pilot study identified 100 surveys, organized under seven factors: brand, quality, recreation, confusion, fashion, impulse, and price consciousness. After the pilot test was performed, the study of shopping pattern differences between the High street and Online shoppers’ participants was conducted, using only seven shopping factors with four major research questions. A questionnaire containing 17 questions was distributed in Leeds. After data were collected, from the total 100 samples were deemed usable for this study. The questionnaire consisted of two main parts: Demographic information and shopping style questions. The findings demonstrated that UK consumers reflected differences in relation to patterns of quality, recreation, confusion, fashion, impulse, price, and brand consciousness. The High Street consumers demonstrated significantly higher levels of quality, recreation, fashion, impulse, price, and brand consciousness than the consumers online, whereas the Online consumers reflected a significantly greater tendency toward confusion consciousness than the consumers in High Street.

Examining shopping-pattern differences is an important area of inquiry in the vast understanding of consumer behaviour. Primarily, because consumer shopping patterns differ significantly in previous studies, this study has been focused on the specific shopping-pattern differences, in relation to mobile phone, between High Street and Online consumers in the UK. Telecommunication supports the way people communicate and helps business to simplify their day-to-day operations. This advantage of digital age, in turn, enables us to experience the era where people can communicate in many forms: voice and video. The development of mobile or cellular phones, the technology has changed the way individuals communicate and lessen the business operate. For instances, the existence of cell phones enable employers to reach their employees anywhere, anytime as long as they are covered by Base Transceiver Station of their service providers/ mobile phone carriers. Consumers’ shopping characteristics are important factors when mobile phone companies develop promotional and distribution strategies. Consumers’ exhibit different characteristics and market behaviours, and they often have different shopping orientations, which may be based upon nationality, age and educational attainment. These differences are affected by culture, gender role, economic situations, and environment according to previous research (Buss, 1990;; Suzuki, 1991; Williams, 1993). Mobile phone companies must, therefore, learn more about the distinctive characteristics of mobile consumers.

In comparing consumers between High Street and Online Shopping in UK, the results of this study demonstrated consumers reflect shopping-pattern differences in relation to quality, recreation, confusion, fashion, impulse, price, and brand consciousness. Culture has a substantial effect on consumer behaviour (Best & William, 1993). Due to cultural diversity, consumers’ characteristics and preferences may manifest differently. Consumers react with different environment it goes with the capacity and knowledge of the person. Most previous studies have been conducted with the aim of identifying a theoretical framework for measuring consumer decision-making styles in general business, as developed by Sproles and Kendall (1986). The findings of this study have implications for developing consumer education in the UK. The proposed model for this study consisted of shopping consciousnesses in consumer decision-making styles, in the specific area of mobile phone, between High street and Online shopping. The shopping consciousnesses in this model are important concepts in consumer decision-making styles.

This study may be used as a source for more detailed information when educating mobile management students about consumer shopping behaviours, for mobile phones shoppers, in UK. According to the results of this study, the similarities and differences between High Street and Online consumers in UK can be used to assist other researchers, in consumer economics and marketing, in better understanding the commonalities and differences of consumer behaviour from different shopping method.

Profiling consumers by combining their decision-making styles and demographic information between High street and online shoppers in UK can provide more meaningful ways to identify and understand various consumer segments and to target each segment with more focused marketing strategies. Brand conscious shoppers usually focus on higher quality with higher price; therefore, mobile phone marketers display diverse brands in stores. Price conscious shoppers are sensitive to price and attempt to find the lowest price with the best value; therefore, mobile phone marketers develop precise marketing strategies with diverse and reasonable prices introduced through advertising. Fashion and Quality conscious shoppers desire high quality with new styles. Therefore, mobile phone marketers focus on diverse designs, sizes, and colours, and can introduce their products through fashion shows, magazines, Internet and television. According to this study, high street consumers were more concerned with brand, quality and fashion. For targeting these consumers, mobile phone marketers should focus on strong fashionable and functional styles to better appeal to the demographic through the various magazines and television advertising. Marketers should always be innovative and aware of the needs of every consumer. On the other hand the Online shoppers are more focused on price. They were more focused on the price of the Mobile phone offered Online compared to the price of phones in High street. Due to this sensitivity to brands, mobile phone marketers need to develop diverse and reasonable prices, with high quality products, to better fit high street consumers’ consideration.

RECOMMENDATION

Based on the results of this study, the following recommendations are offered primarily to Mobile Phone marketers and retailers:

1. This study used a convenient sample rather than a random sample for the reason that it was difficult to collect a UK sample. The consumers were chosen in particular areas not all areas of the U.K. were approached. If Mobile Phone marketers and retailers use the results of this study in the “real world,” subtle differences may exist. It is, therefore, recommended that randomly selected diverse and geographical samples should be used to find specific shopping patterns in each mobile product.

2. This study compared High Street and Online consumers in relation to shopping consciousnesses for Mobile Phone. As shown in the findings, different consumers had different shopping characteristics for mobile phone. Consumers have their own preference with regards to the method they want to execute in buying mobile phone. Innovation and marketing strategy for quality of the product should continuously be executed by the market to avoid the fall of the market.

3. This study focused on shopping ways for mobile phone. There are various kinds of items under the heading of mobile phone; therefore, it is recommended that questions be developed to in relation to shopping characteristics associated with specific mobile phone, such as accessories.

5. The population of this study used consumers in Leeds. The choice of population is very important when mobile phone marketers attempt to sell products, because different populations exhibit different shopping styles. It is therefore recommended that studies examining religion, race, job status, and income level should be conducted in relation to specific target markets.

6. The numbers of Internet users who are interested in mobile phones have been growing rapidly. Finding an internet shopper’s characteristics is very significant when developing marketing strategies and marketing products, considering e-commerce growth. It is, therefore, recommended that a study of Internet consumers’ shopping characteristics should be conducted in the future.

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