In the past decade fast fashion has become the main feature fashion industry in UK. (liz Barnes, Gaynor Lea-Greenwood, 2010 ) ‘Fast fashion’, as it has come to be called, it has become rising popular among retailers already. So lots of chain stores adopt business model of the vertically integrated, this idea originally comes up from the ‘Just-in-time’ manufacturing philosophy and generating rapid-response strategies (Birtwistle et al., 2003) Excellence in the development of fast fashion retailers can be attributed thanks to the high means of buy from consumer behavior, which is more fashion-hungry. (Constanta and Grete, 2010)
This proposal investigates from the consumer perspective which factor attracts the consumer in the fast fashion clothing purchase. So, in the research, it will investigate the consumer behavior of fast fashion. Then, it will reveal the reason why consumer buys their clothes, which of the 2 brands is more popular and explore also the interest of the consumer. Finally the proposal will let the reader knows which factor leads the consumer to buy or not, fast fashion in both brand of products.
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Chapter 1. Literature review
1.1 Chapter summary
The purpose of this chapter is to know what fast fashion is, and to know which factor influence fast fashion.
1.2 Background of fast fashion
Fast fashion is an idea in mind that retailers of targeting business strategies to reduce product of fashion into the store, and working in a system for a buy-season when product ranges are constantly updated through the season. (Doyle et al, 2006; Sull and Turconi, 2008) Fast fashion means that there between the time scale of a new fashion trend and time spent for the company to respond of trend exists with product sold in the market. (Michael, 2006) To defining fast fashion is ‘a business strategy which aims to reduce the processes involved in the buying cycle and lead times for getting new fashion product into stores, in order to satisfy consumer demand at its peak’ (Barnes and Lea-Greenwood, 2006, p.259) Otherwise, the reason for the significant increase of fashion apparel market, can be explained due to high demand since recent years for cheap fashion. Indeed, fast fashion has won some market share and it represents now like a fifth of total in UK clothing marketing (Defra, 2008a). This phenomenon has led consumers to buy and processing of growing batch of clothing. In the UK, more than one billion kilograms of textiles send to landfills each year. (Waste Online, 2008). Fast fashion retailers used to respond to market time in a very short time: they just need few weeks, compare to the traditional industry which usually needs six month. (Sull and Turconi, 2008) The basic of fast fashion principle is to shorten lead time and obtain products from concept to consumer. (Bames and Lea-Greenwood, 2006; Sull and Turconi, 2008) An example of fast fashion retailers: H&M, ZARA, New Look and Top shop etc. It has launched a newline average two or three weeks for a very low price. Thereby raise sales via impulse buying. (Constanaza and Grete, 2010)
In Europe the fast fashion is dealing with the service of the youth and young adult women who desire stylish, short, and relatively cheap clothes, and who are willing to buy small retail shops and boutiques. (Nagurney and Min Yu, 2010) According to the apparel marketing and literature, in general fashion leader are often young consumers. (Mason and Bellenger, 1974; Gutman and Mills, 1982; Horridge and Richards, 1984; Goldsmith et al., 1991). The reason of this, is that young consumers have courage and are interested in trying new style and new fashion. At the same time, new fashion always starts in young consumer. (Ka Ming, Zhi-Ming and Chung-Sun, 2004). Fashion apparel sales grew steadily and competitiveness in the traditional British Fashion Market. It increased 21.4% from 2000 to 2005, and is expected a further 19.5% from 2005-2010. (Verdict, 2005) Fashion is the key factor for a consumer to buy fast fashion clothes.
Fashion can be defined like “the process of social diffusion by which a new style is adopted by some groups of consumers.’ (Solomon et al., 2006) The one of the most famous fashion designer Coco Channel said that ‘fashion is not something that exists in dresses only. Fashion is in the sky, in the street, fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening’. Fashion is one of the most striking. It reflects the aesthetic, economic, political, cultural and social life changes. (Behling, 1985; Bush and London, 1960; Lauer and Lauer, 1981; Robenstine and Kelley, 1981; Wilson, 1985) Fashion is about something else and something greater. Fashion is about to escape from whom we really escape and who aspire to be. Fashion is temporary, at least in today’s fashion was happen at the yesterday. (Michael, 2006) Fashion trends work with the principles of product life cycle (PLC) management, from introduction products to the marketing to decline is very limited time. (Bruce and Barnes, 2005) This is very suited to the fast fashion, because it only does the newest fashion. The retailers put pressure to manufacture to decline the length of fashion product PLC and complement more frequent. Because of fast fashion needs more range of product to keep up-date, it is not amazing to see that the PLC of fashion product has reduced from months to weeks or even days. (Sull and Turconi, 2008; Barnes et al., 2007) Furthermore, Fashion also refers of the fact that consumer demand derived by weekly and daily television programs shopping more frequently, so consumers want to see the new look and the latest works of each purchase. (Barnes, 2008) So it can conclude that fast fashion is driving by fashion show, celebrity appearance and novelty, especially identified in the media, which projects creation and promote high-level of consumer demand. (Barnes and Greenwood, 2010)
On the other hand, as consumer pursues fashion all the time, and the money is limited, this is a creative chance for fast fashion. The all aspects of consumer require as a factor of fast fashion, that including theory of broadened, build on the in season buying and reduced lead time idea of ‘new’, this is also a key feature of fast fashion, in other words, newness means constantly update, updating of ranges and delivery of goods to the store. (Barnes and Greenwood) From this aspect, the consumer factor also very important in fast fashion.
1.4 The consumer and self-concept
Solomon,et al (2010) define self-concept is that ‘refers to the beliefs to the beliefs a person holds about their attributes, and how they evaluate these qualities.’ Self-concept can help us to define who we are and guide us to buy goods and services. (Hoyer and Macinnis, 2009) Self-concept aims and focus on saying the personality of people, who we are, and of course influence our way to act (Macinnis, 2008 p50) As Stone has figure out that ‘a person’s appearance announces his identity, shows his values, expresses his mood, or proposes his attitude.’ Mintel (2007) media and magazines have huge influence for consumer behavior. From the high street consumer are really careful about finding some ideas on magazines because it is where there are the last trends such as glossy magazines with a strong way of influence.
Schiffman et al (2010) define consumer behavior ‘as the behavior that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs’. Consumer has become more ‘fashion’, ‘smart’ and intends to fashion and appearance for longer, so the size of the fashion product is increasingly in market. (Bruce and Daly, 2006; Mintel, 2009) As consumers are becoming more believed by self for fashion, ask adding new products growing of fashion product and in the UK fashion consumer want to change their style now. (Bruce abd Daly, 2006; Barnes, 2008) Fashion consumer’s expectation and thrive to changing, that the new products must be frequently used. Consumer purchasing a new supplier to engage in this rapid turnover of different products, in other words, the suppliers also need understand for change and have ability to provide such a relationship. (Bruce and Daly, 2006) Fast fashion is flexibility of design is referring to the ability or creating new design to close to start wear in-season, in which capture ever-changing and uncertain consumer trends. (Cachon and Swinney, 2008) In fast fashion field, the activities regarding the purchase are key. It is also influenced with the product decision -making and the changes.
According to Mintel (2007), the development of fast fashion retailers can be attributed to an excellent high purchase for impulse. The reason comes from an increasing purchase from low-cost countries in consumer attitude and removal of sigma attached to buying from value retailers.
Motivation is identified as “the driving force within individuals that impels them to action’ (Schiffman et al, 2010) The ingredients of motivation are different. It can be responsive for three signals- natural, forward or reverse. (Rabey, 2001) Consumer behavior has two types in motivation thinking. One is called rational motives, another is called emotional motives. Rational motives mean that consumer are very carefully when they are buying. Emotional motives will pay attention to feelings such as pride, fear etc to choose one product to buy. (Michael et al, 2009) This is led to the increasing buying number of ‘season’ and transportation time providers must take in to consider.
There are three main reasons when consumers are buying fast fashion clothing, that have impulsed buying or emotional buying. The first one is the timing which is a priority. Fast fashion has the aim of getting clothing in to store with the time as time as possible. This is led to the increasing buying number of ‘season’ and transportation time providers must take in to consider. In Fashion industry, companies increasingly use time as a factor to enhance their competitiveness. More and more high street retailer’s procurement only few weeks from introducing new fashion product and add stock. This reduces chance of thinking for customer. Second deals with cost factors. Cost is one of the important buying decisions in consumer and company will take advantage of lower priced product from oversea, like China, Far East etc. (Lowson, 2001; Mattila et al., 2002) Third one is fashion buying cycle. In the tradition buying cycle, company spends long term forecasts from historical sales, this often happens one year before a season, that leads from orders placed to launched product. It spends for company six month. Also, company has a risk if during this time product out-of –date, all this working will cancelled. (Birtwistle, 2003)
Chapter 2. Research aim and objectives
21. Chapter summary
The aim of this research is to provider deeply understanding of the increase reason of fast fashion sales. This is focusing in which factor influence consumer purchasing motivation and reason for buying fast fashion clothing.
This aim will achieve by following three objectives:
1. To identify the profile of vintage consumer
2. To explore what fast fashion clothing means to the consumer
3. To critically analysis what makes consumer purchasing fast fashion clothing.
Chapter 3. Methodology
3.1 Chapter summary
This chapter is talking about methodology. The researcher will consider and evaluate different techniques of research used to obtain data relevant to the study in order to achieve the goals set.
For this research, secondary research will be used. The reason for this is that some based data have been precociously collected by a third party.
Some resource of secondary research:
Internet website such as Google Scholar, Science Direct etc
The first source is journal and articles. These will be some relevant information, such as some objective examples of fast fashion and some methodology. Case studies also helpful, it is true that the advantages of finding multiple case studies is that it help to generate answers to the questions why a well as what and how. (Saunders, 2009)
In addition, this research will use key words. This will help research define subject matter and make appropriate keywords. (Saunders, 2009)
Fashion buying cycle
Ontology a large extent determines the strategic planning of this study. Ontology is ‘concerned with nature of reality.’ (Saunders, 2009) This is emphasis on the active involved in the key construction projects. (Bryman, 2004) Following the ontological status of constructivism, this study asserts that social phenomena and their meaning are continuously being created and received by social roles. It can only be researchers’ own account, as there are building particular version of social reality, rather than one that can be defined as definition. (Bryman, 2004)
3.4 Research design
When research establishes question for research and hypotheses. It must be getting a plane a design for research which is get answers to the research question, test and hypotheses. Research design includes three categories of research approaches, there are: exploratory, descriptive, and causal. (Wrenn et al, 2006) So, in this research it will search before journal or article as them assumptions. Next, it will collect and analyzing both types of data via quantitative and qualitative. Naslund nad Mentzer et al (1995) states that more research choose quantitative than qualitative. However, Naslund argues that if research want to develop deeply and more logistics research, it must be combine both methodologies.
Quantitative can be defined that ‘quantitative models are based on a set of variables that vary over a specific domain, while quantitative and causal relationships have been defined between these variables’. (Bertrand and Fransoo, 2002) Quantitative modeling is original research in operations; this model is label as operational research in Europe also in USA. Quantitative modeling is towards to solve real-life problems rather than developing scientific. Quantitative studies usually have a logical and liner structure,
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August 2010; revised September 2010
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