Last Updated 02 Mar 2020

Partition of India 1947

Category Asia, India, Pakistan
Essay type Research
Words 991 (3 pages)
Views 495
In 1600, the British East India Company was established, and in 1858, The India Act allowed for power to be transferred to the British government. The British Government never had complete control, but it certainly had power. The Partition of India happened on August 14th, 1947 and August 15th, 1947. When the British left India on August 15th, 1947 (after the formation of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan), they left the country divided.

This led to the formation of Pakistan and India, and later, in 1971, Bangladesh declared its independence from Pakistan. Motivation When the British had occupied India, they categorized the people of India by religion, and treated them as separate groups. A Hindu revival happened around the time of the Partition. They still had bitterness towards Muslims (who had been the predominant rulers of India before the British).

They tried to band the slaughter of cows, change the national language to Hindi, and change the Devanagri script to Hindi. Although the Sikhs (who originated in Punjab) were a minority in the population of India, they were conflicted with the Muslims, and were forced to leave Punjab and migrate to Hindu India. (They were not conflicted with Hindus). The All India Muslim League (AIML) started in 1906 with the goal to make Muslims equal in rights to Hindus. At the time, the Indian National Congress was made mostly of Hindus.

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In 1940, Jinnah (a leader equal to Ghandi, except that he represented Muslims, and Ghandi represented Hindus) stated at the Lahore Conference that promoted a Muslim nation separate from the rest of India. In 1943, the AIML called for Britain to Divide and Quit. Hindus also acknowledged the difference in beliefs that separated them from Muslims. Between 1940 and 1942, Congress began plans to remove the British (the National Congress was calling for Britain to Quit India). Due to the conflicting ideas on the separate sides, the country came close to a civil war many times.

Some of the events that started the partition of India are: the Revocation of Partition of Bengal (created anti-British and anti-Hindu feelings), The Lucknow Pact denial, Mantagu-Chelmsford Reforms, Ghandi’s Stayagraha, Congress called for full independence from Britain in 1929, Round table Conferences (dominion status for India, congress doesn’t attend), and Government of India Act 1935 (allows British control over foreign policy and defense, but gives India political provinces and elected local gov. ). Before…

During the 16th century, nations looking to extend their power: Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, France, and Great Britain, established trading posts in India. When Britain took over power in India there were internal struggles that allowed themselves to gain power in India. After the 12th century, the Mughal Empire came into power. They formed alliances with Rajput Empires, which were considered a threat to the Mughals even after they became allies. The Ahoms of Assam resisted the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb king of the Mughals enforced Muslim doctrines.

The Rajputs and Ahoms rebelled against his reign, and the strict beliefs he imposed on them. By the 1700s, the Sikh Empire (Ahoms of Assam) and the Hindu Marathas were a serious threat to the Mughals. By the mid 18th century, the Mughal Empire had declined, and the Marathas owned a great portion of their land. It was right around then that foreign nations started to come in and set up trade and colonies. A year after (in 1857) the British installed their power in India; there were insurrections from the people of India.

They were put under direct rule from the British crown as a result. Between 1860 and 1900, there were the worst famines India had ever experienced, and caused 14. 5 million people to die. In 1939, India went to war with Germany (WWII). However, Indian nationalists wish to overthrow the British rule in India, and joined forces with the Axis powers. Needless to say, they didn’t win the war. In 1943, there was mass food hoarding due to poor food distribution and high prices of food, which caused a famine. Effects

There were 500,000 deaths as a result of the fight for independence, and the migration of Hindus to India, Sikhs to India, and the Muslims to Pakistan. Kashmir was a part of the territory that is still disputed to this day (between the countries India and Pakistan, and at some places, China). The Kashmir conflict resulted in the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1947, 1965, and 1999. The First Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 began in October 1947 when the Maharajah of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu was pressured to decide to join either Pakistan or India.

Britain became involved and it passed Resolution 47 that instituted the line of control in December 1948. Pakistan got northern and western areas of Kashmir, and India got southern, central and northeastern areas. The Second Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 began in 1965 when Pakistan launched Operation Gibraltar; a plan which allowed for troops to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir and overthrow Indian rule there. India responded, and war ensued for 5 weeks. It was ended with the British assisted Tashkent Declaration.

The Third Indo-Pakistani War of 1999 began with Pakistan occupying the Kargil district that was lawfully Indian land. The Pakistani retreated with Indian military threat looming and foreign diplomatic pressure. Today, India controls 43% of Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan 37%, and China 20%. Many Sikhs and Hindu Punjabis settled in the Indian parts of Punjab and Delhi. Most of the Hindus ended up in Eastern and Northeastern India, and some were sent to the Andaman Islands, causing them to become more populated.

The Sindhi people’s cultures were very much disturbed. When they migrated to India, the government had to build refugee camps for the masses that were pouring in. It strained the economy, and caused disorder. They lost much of their heritage and history in the confusion that the migration had caused. Pakistan became a bit less populated. Its population had decreased by approx. 23,000 (because more people had left than Muslims had come).

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