Usefulness of Job Description 1. It Helps identify a job, distinguishing it from other jobs by its title. 2. It serves as a guide in employee recruitment, selection, and placement. 3. It establishes proper relationship between one job and the others within the same salary bracket. 4. It facilitates comparisons with similar jobs in other firms for purposes of wage surveys. 5. It serves as a guide in the organization and administration of a department, division, section, or unit. 6. It helps to form lines of promotion or transfer and to spot employees who need further training. . It contributes to the personal satisfaction of every individual employee with his job. Components of Job Design Job specialization Job expansion Psychological components Self-directed teams Motivation and incentive systems Ergonomics and work methods Job Specialization • Involves o Breaking jobs into small component parts o Assigning specialists to do each part • First noted by Adam Smith (1776) o Observed how workers in pin factory divided tasks into smaller components • Found in manufacturing & service industries
Job Specialization Often Reduces Cost • Greater dexterity & faster learning • Less lost time changing jobs or tools • Use more specialized tools • Pay only for needed skills Job Expansion Process of adding more variety to jobs Intended to reduce boredom associated with labor specialization Methods o Job enlargement o Job enrichment o Job rotation o Employee empowerment Psychological Components of Job Design • Individuals have values, attitudes, and emotions that affect job results o Example: Work is a social experience that affects belonging needs Effective worker behavior comes mostly from within the individual o Scientific management argued for external financial rewards • First examined in ‘Hawthorne studies’ Self-Directed Teams Group of empowered individuals working together for a common goal May be organized for short-term or long-term objectives Reasons for effectiveness o Provide employee empowerment o Provide core job characteristics o Meet psychological needs (e. g. , belonging) Motivation Worker performance depends on o Motivation o Ability o Work environment
Motivation is the set of forces that compel behavior Money may serve as a psychological & financial motivator Incentive systems o Measured daywork: Pay based on standard time o Piece rate: Pay based on pieces done Ergonomics and Work Methods Worker performance depends on o Motivation o Ability o Work environment Foundation laid by Frederick Taylor o Match employees to task o Develop work methods o Establish work standards Ergonomics Study of work Also called ‘human factors’ Involves human-machine interface Examples o Mouse o Keyboard
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