Last Updated 27 Jul 2020

Tourism on Malacca

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Tourism on Malacca, Malaysia TABLE OF CONTENT Page 1. 0 Executive Summary 2. 0 Situation Analysis 1 2. 1 Market Summary 2 2. 2 Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threat Analysis 3 2. 3 Competition 4 2. 4 Product Offerings 5 2. 5 Distribution 6 3. Marketing Strategy 7 3. 1 Objective 8 3. 2 Target Markets and Segmentation 9 3. 3 Positioning 10 3. 4 Marketing Mix 11 4. 0 Recommendation and Implementation 12 1. 0 Executive Summary 2. 0 Situation Analysis 2. 1 Market Summary

This part is study about the SWOT analysis, competition, product offering and distribution. The SWOT analysis is divided into four parts which are strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threat. The strength of tourism in Malacca are World Heritage Tours, cultural diversity and multiculturalism, transportation, accommodation, entertainment places and weather. The weaknesses of tourism in Malacca are poor transportation system and poor road infrastructure. The opportunities are Malacca International Airport, improved road infrastructure, new market and transportation system.

The threats are environmental degradation, regional safety, Bangkok from Thailand, and Bali from Indonesia. The next is about some competitions between Malaysia and other countries. From this study we made the comparison of tourism between Malaysia and other countries such as Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia. Each of them has their own culture and own benefits to the tourists as well. After that, there is the product offering which the tourism in Malacca can offered to the tourists. It briefly explains what type of tourism services can be offered by tourism Malacca compared to others.

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The last is about the distribution. It showed the distribution channel that tourism Malacca used towards the tourists as the customer to visit Malacca. 2. 2 Strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threat analysis Strength • World Heritage Tours Malacca was listed as a World Heritage Tours on 7 July 2008. There are some historical places such as St Paul’s Hill, A Famosa and Dutch Square. These historical places had become the main of the tourist attraction. The tourists can enjoy the Malacca’s traditional Chinatown house that exhibits Peranakan Architecture at Jonker Walk. • Cultural diversity and multiculturalism

Melaka is home to an eclectic mix of cultures and historic architecture that continually entice tourists into the region. It offers visitors a rich array of events and festivals throughout the year that highlight its unique cultural identity and history. Melaka consists of variety of culinary treats. Fresh seafood is prepared with Malay and Indian spices, along with a touch of European flair that has outlived its benefactors. Peranakan dishes, a result of Chinese immigrants assimilating into the local demographic, feature Chinese noodles and a long list of sundry spices. • Transportation

Melaka Sentral is the main transportation hub of buses services and taxi services in Malacca. It is easier for tourists travel all the historical places by using pubic bus or taxi. The price of taxi services from Melaka Sentral to A Famosa is around 15 to 20 ringgit which is affordable. The tourists also can take trishaw as the tool of transportation to visit all the tourist attraction. • Accommodation There are more than hundreds of hotels, resorts and budget hostel located within the centre of the town. These leisure establishments and hospitable resting easily accommodate the tourists every year.

The tourists can find their own accommodation based on their budget. There are some hotels provide a good facilities such as swimming pools, sport facilities, bars and restaurants. So, they may carry these indoor activities if they choose to stay at hotel. • Entertainment places There is a lot of entertainment places located around the Malacca. Shopping centre is one of the places that tourists may choose to go. Mahkota Parade and Pahlawan are the two main shopping centres in the Malacca. There will be some sale seasons in the whole year.

The tourists can use the lowest price to buy the souvenirs or cloths during this period. Bars is another entertainment places that tourist choose for relaxing. From there, the tourists can able to adopt local culture and enjoy local foods. • Weather The stable weather patterns in Malacca make any time of year a good time to visit. Melaka is situated within three degrees latitude of the equator. The degree is between 25oC - 33oC. The weather patterns in Melaka aren't extreme. Weaknesses • Poor transportation system Malacca has a really poor public transportation system that the public transports systems are not standardized.

Most of the taxis in Malacca don't have a metered system and their charges are random and dependent upon the driver and passenger. A 1. 6-km monorail system was opened with much fanfare in October 2010, but it was plagued with problems and promptly taken out of service. As of December 2010, the monorail is not operational and its planned extension is in doubt. • Poor road infrastructure The streets in the older/historical part of the city are very narrow, so they quickly become clogged during peak hours. This is especially so during the weekends, when cars from other parts of Malaysia and from Singapore flood to the city.

Finding a car park lot is also extremely difficult during weekends. Most of the roads are also one-way, so plan your route properly. Opportunites • Malacca International Airport The RM190 million airports, which has a new terminal capable of handling 1. 5 million passengers a year, is targeted to be an airport hub for health tourism. There are more air plane from Airasia and and Firely are expected to fly directly into Malacca. Provided the airlines service which could boost the Malacca tourism market. Moreover, it also more job opportunities for the local citizens and improve the lifestyle. Improve road infrastructure Due to traffic jam especially during the festival season period. There are a lot of cars travels from different places. The limited parking is the main issue will happen on this period. So, a proper infrastructure of road should be implemented. A more parking lot should be make and enlarge the road size should also be implemented. The road constructed should renew or repair any road which is damage or harmful to the drivers. • New market Malacca located at the southern region of the Malay Peninsula. It is close proximity to Asian Neighbours such as Singapore and Indonesia.

It’s an opportunity for Malacca open a new market at the Strait of Malacca. It’s a strategy location for investor open a new business at there. Open a resort will attract more tourists come to Malacca and create more job opportunity. • Transportation system Malacca Monorial had opened to the public on 21 October 2010. But, the monorial is no longer operational since after a series similar problems happened. It is benefit to the passengers if the monorial is able to operate. By using monorial, the passengers are able saving their time and it’s easy for tourists visit all the tourist attraction. Threats Environmental degradation Today, the increase of shipping activities along the shipping lane and the rapid development in the coastal areas threaten the ecologically fragile environment of high bio-diversity bordering the Straits. Different types of pollutants from industries, agriculture, and land-use activities and domestic wastes are discharged into the Straits. Along the coast, sand mining, development in mangrove swamps and land reclamation have degraded the habitat for marine life. The economic and ecological losses would rapidly create enormous costs and unforeseeable downstream effects • Regional safety

The number of foreign workers keeps increase in the Malacca due to manufacturing and agricultures sectors. It has become a serious problem as all kinds of social and security problems are cropping up. It may affect the image of Malacca and create an anxious toward the foreign tourists. • Bangkok, Thailand It is the capital city of Thailand. This city is famous and appreciated by tourist for its versatility and multiple points of interests. It is one of the largest shopping centers and the largest outdoor market in Asia. Besides the shopping, Bangkok has developed into a magnet for food lovers of all origins.

With the Skytrain or underground train service provided, it brings a lot of benefit to the passengers and tourists. • Bali, Indonesia Bali is one of the thousands of islands that together constitute the Republic of Indonesia. It has become a primary destination for tourist from all over the world. Balinese cultures with its Hindu religious ceremonies and rituals are one of the chief attractions of Bali. Bedugul Botanical Gargen which showcases almost 2000 different species of plants and 320 varieties of orchids. Warungs or Roadside cafes serve up the best food to all the visitors. . 3 Competition The Definition of Tourism As the global population ages and travelling becomes cheaper and quicker than it is today and tourism will continue to be a cornerstone of the global economy. The increased emphasis on sustainability and lifestyle decisions will also heavily influence tourism and the way it is marketed in the future. (Tsiotsou & Ratten, 2010). Consumer behavior is a dynamic and eclectic field of tourism marketing (Mattila, 2004). Global consumption of tourism means that there are many different aspects of the environment people are influenced by.

Consumption patterns are changing globally as more people become classified as middle-class in developing countries such as China and India and can afford more time to travel. More people worldwide can afford to stay in hotels but the geographic origin of these consumers is changing. The changing nature of the global hotel industry means that future research should discuss in more depth how consumers’ decision marketing processes are changing (Louviers et al. , 2003). As consumers are aging this will create changing demands in what services and facilities are offered to tourists.

More research is required on the mature consumer and how tourist resorts will be affected by these changes. For example, Moschis et al. (2003) highlighted that more research is required on how mature consumers respond to monetary incentives. Kim and Geistfeld (2003) also found that the demand for full service restaurants will increase because of the aging population and stressed the importance of further research focusing on this demographic segment of the population. Another research avenue for consumer behavior studies in tourism marketing is to further analyze the cross-cultural differences of the global travel market.

Mueller et al. (2003) found that Irish and American consumers have a different perception of service encounters. (Tsiotsou & Ratten, 2010). According to Mohamed (n. d. ), culture in tourism is an important issue. The relationship between tourism and culture can take many forms and the outcome can be viewed as negative and positive when meeting of hosts and visitors occurs and possibly leads to the transformation of the hosts’ culture. The destruction of local culture as a result of tourism is well documented.

Like its Asean neighbors, Malaysia too regards tourism as a very important sector that brings the much-needed foreign exchange, new jobs and businesses. Heritage tourism, classified as a subclass of cultural tourism by the World Tourism Organization, has been identified and spelt out in the new Tourism Policy by the Tourism Ministry as one of the new niche products to be developed extensively for the next ten years. Paralleled with the growing interest in heritage tourism and the global influx of the alternative tourists, tourist arrivals in the Malaysian heritage cities, especially Penang and Malacca, have improved over the years.

Despite this, the real potential of culture and heritage as tourism resources is not fully realized. They are not well attended and only started to be appreciated. Malaysia is experiencing a tremendous pace of tourism development. Tourism sector has been recognized by Malaysian government as a major source of revenue and catalyst to the Malaysian economic renaissance. Tourist arrivals to Malaysia for the last ten years have shown a significant rise. In the year 2004, this country attracted 15. 7 million foreign tourists generating around RM29. 7 billion into the company.

Major tourist market for Malaysia has been the neighboring ASEAN nations especially Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and Brunei. Other main traditional foreign markets include China, Japan, Taiwan and India. Coupled with the growth in tourism is a booming interest in the ‘new tourism’. Cultural tourism has emerged as a potential form of alternative tourism among both international tourists as well as Malaysian domestic travelers. Cultural tourism in Malaysia attracted great publicities with the increase in the number of incoming tourists annually.

Malaysia has marvelous cultural tourism resources that are readily available to be explored such as the existence of multi-cultural, historical buildings, colorful lifestyles and friendly atmosphere. In Malaysia, heritage and culture has also been identified as new niche products to be developed extensively in tourism development. Cultural vibrancy is clearly manifested in the ongoing and successful “Malaysia: Truly Asia” promotional drive by the country’s promotion arm, Tourism Malaysia. In this promotion, Malaysia boasts to host a wide variety of Asian ethnic groups that making it into a little Asia.

Malaysia also has distinctive multicultural architectural heritage with strong Islamic, Chinese and Western influences; all of which have been portrayed in the heritage buildings. The management of culture and heritage in Malaysia was put under the Ministry of Tourism and Culture, established on the 20th of May 1987, combining Department of Culture from the Ministry of Culture, Youths and Sports with the Malaysian Tourism Development Corporation from the Ministry of Trade and Industries. On 22nd October 1992, the ministry was renamed into Ministry of Culture, Arts and Tourism.

This ministry was later divided in Mac 2004, into two ministries, namely the Tourism Ministry and Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage. This separation is seen as recognition of tourism as a potential number one sector of the country and a move to appreciate the value of heritage of the country. Agencies under this ministry are the National Archives, the National Art and Gallery, the Department of Museum and Antiquities, Malaysian Handicrafts (Kraftangan Malaysia), the National Film Development Corporation (Finas), the National Art Academy, the National Library and the Istana Budaya (the Culture Palace).

Despite the move to strengthen the ministries, the separation of the cultural elements from the Tourism Ministry can give impacts on the direction of ‘cultural and heritage tourism’, leaving this niche area as a no-man’s land! Tourism in Singapore The management of tourism in Singapore has undergone various changes over the decades. The adoption of different policies and strategies aimed at promoting and championing tourism in Singapore has been subject to socio-economic changes on the local and global fronts.

A deeper understanding of the issues pertaining to tourism development in Singapore necessitates a review of the “background” of these challenges as they relate to particular social, economic and political conditions of Singapore. Tourism management in Singapore has sought to be adaptable to the changes in the wider socio-economic environment. Tourism policies and strategies have thus largely corresponded to global forces influencing trends in tourism and economic development, as well as responded to local factors such as changing social conditions in the city-state. Yeo et al, n. d. ). As stated in Wikipedia, tourism in Singapore is a major industry and contributor to the Singaporean economy, attracting 11,638,663 tourists in 2010, over twice Singapore's total population. Its cultural attraction can be attributed to its cultural diversity that reflects its colonial history and Chinese, Malay, Indian and Arab ethnicities. It is also environmentally friendly, and maintains natural and heritage conservation programs. Along with this, it also has one of the world's lowest crime rates.

As English is the dominant one of its four official languages, it is generally easier for tourists to understand when speaking to the local population of the country, for example, when shopping. Transport in Singapore exhaustively covers most, if not all public venues in Singapore, which increases convenience for tourists. This includes the well-known Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system. The Orchard Road district, which is dominated by multi-story shopping centres and hotels, can be considered the center of tourism in Singapore.

Other popular tourist attractions include the Singapore Zoo and Night Safari, which allows people to explore Asian, African and American habitats at night without any visible barriers between guests and the wild animals. The Singapore Zoo has embraced the 'open zoo' concept whereby animals are kept in enclosures, separated from visitors by hidden dry or wet moats, instead of caging the animals. Jurong Bird Park is another zoological garden centred around birds, which is dedicated towards exposing the public to as uch species and varieties of birds from around the world as possible, including a flock of one thousand flamingos. Besides, the tourist island of Sentosa, which attracts more than 5 million visitors a year, is located in the south of Singapore, consists of about 20-30 landmarks, such as Fort Siloso, which was built as a fortress to defend against the Japanese during World War II. Guns from the World War II era can be seen at Fort Siloso, from a mini-sized to a 16 pound (7 kg) gun.

Moreover, the island has built the Tiger Sky Tower, which allows visitors to view the whole of Sentosa, as well as the Sentosa Luge, a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleighs supine and feet-first. Steering is done by shifting the weight or pulling straps attached to the sled's runners. Singapore has two integrated resorts which house casinos, namely Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Sentosa. Tourism in Thailand Thailand is neighbourhood of Malaysia; in another saying it’s Malaysia’s competitors too.

Thailand country is most famous for its architecture of the oldest temple such as Bang Pa-in, Ayutthaya, Wat Phra Sisanphet, Ayutthaya and etc. Whereas the most popular place which are attraction for tourist are Kanchanaburi which is a good place for nature lovers, Pattaya beach which is just two hours drives from Bangkok, Doi Tung Royal Villa, Sukhoithai, Ko Nang Yuan,Surat Thani,Phuket and etc. The Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) board has used “Amazing Thailand” as their theme, while the new tagline is “Always Amazes You” which is to reinforce the many aspects of “Thainess”.

They were gave more strength on many traditional aspects. The TAT’s marketing campaigns for 2011 will be highly visible worldwide through traditional promotional channels including TV commercials and vignettes, print advertisement. Moreover there also be an increased use of celebrity ads, which invite popular actors or sports person to major events in Thailand, and encourage them to shoot their film in Thailand so that the world knows the beauty of the country. Besides that, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration has come up with this campaign so call “Bangkok is Waiting for you” by CNBC Asia Pacific.

This is for welcomed the tourist to explore the tradition, unique cultures, exquisite architecture, foods and ways of living of its inhabitants. Tourism in Indonesia Last but not least, Indonesia is one of the competitors of Malaysia which is located at the South of Malaysia. Indonesia is bigger area compare to Malaysia. It has most beautiful place which tourist attraction such as Bali, Jakarta, Borobudur, Mount Bromo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Lombok, Yogakartas and etc.

The official Indonesia government authority that is responsible for tourism sector in Indonesia is the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia. In effort to boost the acceleration of the international and domestic tourist movement, department already create 2 promotional tourism theme entitled “Indonesia Ultimate in Diversity” International level and “Ayo, Tamasya Jelajahi Nusantara” for domestic that both will show the unique status of Indonesia(Ardiwidjaja. R). They have launch certain campaigns by yearly, such as 1991,2008,2009 and recently 2010.

Year 2010 have lots of support compare to the previous years by travel and tourism industry in Indonesia, including the Ministry of Culture & Tourism, the Provincial Government of West Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara Culture & Tourism Office, Lombok Sumbawa Promo, Garuda Indonesia as Official Airlines, other supporting airlines, Indonesia National Air Carriers Association (INACA), Board of Airline Representatives Indonesia (BARINDO), Association of Indonesian Tours & Travel Agencies (ASITA), Indonesia Hotels and Restaurant Association (PHRI), Indonesian Conference and Convention Association (INCCA), Pacto Convex as the event organizer, supported by national and international media. Lombok and Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara have set a target of wooing one million tourists to visit the islands by 2012. 2. 4 Product Offerings 2. 5 Distribution Distribution The distribution of travel and tourism products or services is a most important activity along the tourism chain majorly in Melaka tourism aspect.

There are two main considerations which need to be distinguished: first, the degree to which organisations become involved in organising and structuring the overseas distribution channel such as the Melaka’s government anticipation, and second, organisations' reactions and responses to marketing and distribution strategies of intermediaries in overseas markets. As a result of organisations' activeness or passiveness with regard to these two considerations, four trade-oriented strategies are possible: by-passing, co-operation, conflict, or adaptation. A by-passing strategy means travel and tourism organisations or airlines would relinquish any collaboration with the distribution channel. Melaka’s government should considering opening a proper international airport in order to compete with the other states such as Penang, Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bharu, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu.

The appropriateness of this strategy for public and private travel and tourism organisations seems very limited, considering the current importance of intermediaries in most overseas marketplaces. Adventure tourism is at the cutting edge of world tourism, and its newness merits a comprehensive examination, unhindered by the confines of traditional delineations. Despite a number of attempts to define the concept of ‘adventure tourism’, consensus remains to be lacking within the academic community; indeed, as the boundaries of knowledge are receding, the number of proposed definitions and conceptualisations appear to be increasing. • be of a heightened nature - a stimulating context will induce a range of emotions(of which excitement will be key), and separate it from everyday life; such as creating the new idea from the istorical and existing buildings and spots which they could improvise on making it interesting • entail intellectual, physical or emotional risks and challenges - these will be absorbing the interest and love towards the beauty of Melaka’s nature • be intrinsically rewarding, providing opportunities for enjoyment, learning and self-development [pic] Distribution in tourism is mainly regarding these three factors which decide the upstream of the tourism industry. A consumer who comes to Melaka is a major factor for the tourism industry as it drives in Malaysian and non-Malaysians into the province of Melaka. Melaka is mainly known as ‘Bandaraya Bersejarah’ which has been known for many years. They could use this as a competitive advantage to pull the attentions of tourist. Segmenting the tourist is a vital procedure as they can be identified and classified which type of tourist.

This can be group based on their point of interest, culture and beliefs. Trade including travel agents, wholesalers who do tourism as their main business , can be good intermediaries for the government and tourist. Melaka Tourism industry invites the involvement of travel agents to support the tourism industries as they can reach to the tourism and penetrate easily into the market. This is main reason why for the past 5 years, travel agents in Melaka had subsequently raise up due to the encouragements gave by the Melaka state government itself. Sub line industry and sector associations or professionals including RTOs, VICs, media, industry suppliers and airlines industry.

Small to medium-sized enterprises [SMEs] located throughout the globe that offers both direct travel-related services (accommodation, dining, transport, recreation and entertainment) and ancillary services (insurance, software, content, finance, weather, news, maps). Distribution plays a vital role in the development of the tourism in Melaka. There are more places and hot spots that are yet to be explored in the state, as the sub-urban areas are rich with natural beauty of their historical traits such as in Alor Gajah, Jasin, Machap and many more. If the distribution role is played wisely, the advantages could be fully capitalized and tourism industry will be a huge leap for Melaka. 3. 0 Marketing Strategy 3. Objective 3. 2 Target Market and Segmentation 3. 3 Positioning Positioning is the act of differentiating a brand in customer’s mind in relation to the competitor in term of attributes and benefits that this brand does offer. It also can said as a process of developing strategy for “filling a slot” in the mind of customer. Positioning can be categorized by benefits, price, quality, competitor, usage and experiences. In tourism Malacca, it included two categories which are benefits and experiences. Benefits For the benefits, Malacca can give a feeling that is back to the past of Portuguese occupied Malacca at a long time ago for tourists themselves.

They can feel the historical culture in Malacca and they are able to understand more history from Malacca. The second thing of benefits is the local foods on Malacca. We know that Malacca is the one of the state on Malaysia country. It provides the local foods like nasi lemak, curry ayam, rojak and other that the tourists can’t eat and enjoy this kind of foods on their country. It is advantages for Malacca to attract more tourists to come to the place together. Besides that, Malacca also provided three wheel bicycle for people who may tired after the long journey of visit. The three wheel bicycle can let the tourist to enjoy the comfortably when sitting on it and see around the view of the tourism place.

Experience For experience sector, Malacca comes out a slogan which is “Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia”. This slogan give the meaning that Malacca is a tourism place combined all historical culture together and the different race staying together in a one place with peaceful and harmony. Besides that, Baba Nyonya is also an experience sector for tourism Malacca. Baba Nyonya is famous among the Malacca Area and we can know more about the culture of BABA Nyonya at The Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum. Jonker Walk Street also provided an experience for tourists because a lot of traditional foods and drink of Malaysia are selling along the street.

The tourists can enjoy the foods along the street and it can give the tourists unforgotten memory at that place. Zoo Malacca can be one of the experiences too for tourists. Zoo Malacca gives people a different view of zoo in Malaysia and let people know what animals are available in Malaysia. Besides that, crocodile farm also can be the experience because there are few crocodile farm to show in Malaysia. It can make the tourists to know different type of crocodile species and know their lifestyle as well. 3. 4 Marketing Mix The marketing mix is probably the most famous marketing term nowadays (Marketing Mix, 2000). Marketing mix also can be defined as Four P’s which include product, price, place and promotion.

When marketing their products or services, firms need to create a successful combine of the right product, sold at the right price, in the right place and using the promotional strategy. This Four P's are the tools that the marketer can control, subject to the internal and external restrict of the marketing environment (The 4 P's of Marketing, 2002). The goal is to make decisions that center the Four P's on the customers in the target market in order to generate a positive response and establish perceived value (The 4 P's of Marketing, 2002). Place (Distribution) Place is about getting the products or services to the customer. Place can also be defined as the location of all the points of sale which give prospective customers with access to tourist product (Tourism Destination Market, 2003).

However, the place where the tourist buys the tourism product can be varied. Travel agents, tour operators and tour wholesalers are a few examples of the place or distribution in tourism. A travel agency is a business that helps customers to plan their holidays and help to make various types of travel arrangements such as flight tickets and accommodation reservations. Tour operators are businesses that combine two or more travel services and sell them through travel agencies or direct sell them to final customers as a package tour (Tour operator, 2001). On the other hand, tour wholesaler is a company that sells tour packages and tour product to travel agents.

Tour wholesalers normally receive a 20% discount from accommodations and transportation companies then pass on a 10 to 15% discount to the retail agent (Tour wholesaler, 2009). In the meantime, customers will choose the agency which may give them the highest satisfaction. Nowadays, the Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction and activities. The Internet is the newest and it is most powerful tool available to tourism marketers. Marketers can take this advantage by creating tourism Melaka official website in order to update the current information for visitors. Tourism destination web sites may consist of pictures, videos, sounds, animations, graphics, text and interactive maps .

If the visitors have accessed to according Web site and read though all of the information, they will have a good understanding of the history, culture and viewpoints of Melaka and it will win the minds of potential tourist. Promotion Promotion is the business of communicating with customers. Besides, through the promotion it can provide information that will aid customer in making a decision to purchase a product or service. Promotion also includes of advertising, sales promotion, travel shows and public relations. Tourism in Melaka can be further developed by promoting many aspects that state has. Melaka is a place not only popular for its historic importance, with a rich cultural history Malacca is a shopping heaven. Shopping in Melaka can be an xciting experience if visitors know what to shop for and from where. Many types of media can be used to promote tourism in Melaka. For example, marketer can use the traditional print media, both newspapers and magazines. There are travel writers to describe about the viewpoints of Melaka, to inform and entertain the readers. Besides, the social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have become a tool for promoting tourism. Nowadays, most of the people are spending their time on Facebook, but maybe just 20 minutes on the other Website. So, by creating a Facebook fan page or updates current information on Twitter about Melaka tourism, it is essential way to attract international tourist to visit Melaka.

In addition, government should set a law that businessman cannot charge exorbitant rate to tourist. Tourists must charge in same price as local for products or services that they buy. Moreover, the quality of products or services must be at the top priority for business. By having this way, it can build the reputation of Melaka and it can also fascinate tourist to make Melaka as their favourite spot to visit or holiday destination. On the other hand, Government has put great effort into enhancing and developing the basic infrastructure and facilities such as transportation and telecommunications in order to meet the requirements or expectation of the tourists.

Moreover, marketers can organize some promotional programmes and exhibitions in Melaka in order to attract tourists who are from different country. Marketers can introduce tour package to international tourist which the tours with quality and lower price. As the part of its promotional effort, Malaysia’s national airline such as MAS and Air-Asia may together with local hotels and offered a special packages which consisting of accommodation, flight and tour arrangement as well. These promotional packages can be advertised on TV, newspapers, magazines, brochures, Internet and so on. No doubt that, the number of tourist in Melaka will be increased if marketer able to manage the promotion strategy well. Product

Product is referring to the product or services offered to customers, its characteristics, how the product branded. In order to attract international tourists to visit Malacca as a travel destination, intangible product are service based (wikipedia, n. d). Besides, to retain competitiveness in the market, product differentiate is required and it is one of the strategy to differentiate a product from competitors in the same industry. In order to attract international tourist, the services including the procedure of trip, accommodation, transport and others need to be plan well. Since Malacca is known as heritage city in Malaysia, therefore it can be a starting point provide tourist to getting know the Malacca history place.

For example, A’ Farmosa, the landmark of Malacca ;Dutch square which also called as Red Square as the area is surrounded by red painting buildings; Jonker Street is a lively street famous for it’s culture and heritage; Stadhuys which is History and Enthnography Museum; Chris Church and many others historical areas. Rather than the historical places, having Malacca duck tour around Malacca city, river cruise which takes passenger from the jetty and night cruise is more interesting as can see light in the riverbank’s buildings, water fountain show and bridges; lastly is Taming Sari Revolving Tower which offers breathtaking 360-degree views of the historic city and coastline.

Away from the city, experience the nature such a way help tourist release stress and pressure such as Butterfly farm, Zoo Malacca, Crocodiles farm and many others. This kind of places which help tourist to enjoy the natural resources. Food is another thing to attract tourist to come to Malacca. One of the most famous foods at Malacca is chicken rice ball which can taste for the original chicken rice ball. Others food like Satay Celup, Baba Nyonya Food, cendol and many others. There are many shopping centres in Malacca which allow tourist visit for spend other leisure times. Besides that, based on the customer’s preferences, provide the standard otel experience in their budget which good and imaginative staff for serving them. Therefore, create something specifically memorable for the trip for them. Providing them the hotel at location which allows them easily to visit all the places they wish to go. Security of the tourist is important. Therefore, transportation is needed during the travel period. Along with the trip, the tourist always is guidance by the tour guide depend on the race of the tourist. Therefore, they can enjoy the trip without language barrier. Pricing Different people have their different budget for the trip. In theory, price is determined by the discovery of what customers perceive is the value of the item on sale.

We had offer different kind of strategy due to different kind of consumer which including seasonal pricing, last minute pricing, package deals. Seasonal pricing is a mix of price throughout a year to cover low and high season. This kind of strategy is to cater for different levels of demand due to the time of a year. Like for example, the school holiday period and local event of Malacca. While last minute pricing also is a way used to attract the consumers for booking for the travel. It is a common method and basically discounting the prices according to forward bookings and promoted on last minute booking websites. Discounting always is unavoidable in a competitive market and in order used to attract business.

It can be deal by adding several conditions like minimum to stay, number of travelers in the booking. Continuously, package deals are another way to attract international tourist. Different packages need to be meeting with different need of niche market. We can develop packages with complimentary tourism partners in Malacca to stimulate demand such as cooperate with the local business. In other word, we work with multiple attractions to create bigger package and lead to deeper discount. For example, work with trolley car tour, museums and other attractions in order to offer package discount. We also can offer the saving packages with bundle lodging, activities, accommodation and food for the families, honeymooners and groups travel. 4. Recommendation and Implementation References 1. Tsiotsou R. & Ratten V. (2010). Future Research Direction in Tourism Marketing, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 28, 1-3. 2. Mattila, A. S. (2004), Consumer Behavior Research in Hospitality and Tourism Journals, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 23, 449-57. 3. Louviers, P. , Driver, J. and Powell-Perry, J. (2003), Managing Customer Behavior dynamics in the Global Hotel Industry, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9 (2), 164-74. 4. Moschis, G. , Curasi, C. and Bellenger, D. (2003), Restaurant Selection Preferences of Mature Consumers, Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 44 (4), 51-60. 5. Kim, E. nd Geistfeld, L. (2003), Consumers’ Restaurant Choice Behavior and The Impact of Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors, Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 6 (1), 3-24. 6. Mueller, R. , Palmer, A. , Mack, R. and McMullan, R. (2003), Service in The Restaurant Industry: an American and Irish Comparison of Service Failures and Recovery Strategies, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22 (4), 395-418. 7. Mohamed (n. d. ). Retrieved December 19, 2011, Cultural Tourism Promotion and policy in Malaysia. 8. Yeo, B. S. A. , Tan, E. S. , Wang, J. & Wong, T. (n. d. ). Tourism in Singapore: An Overview of Policies and Issues. 9. Wikipedia.

Retrieved December 19, 2011, Tourism in Singapore from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Tourism_in_Singapore. 10. Tourism in Indonesia, Retrieved December 18, 2011 from Wikipedia: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Tourism_in_Indonesia 11. Indonesia Tourism. (2011). Welcome to most beautiful places in Indonesia. Retrieved June 29,2011 from BlogSpot Website: http://baliyogya. blogspot. com/ 12. Ardiwidjaja. R. Strategic Sustainable Tourism Development in Indonesia. Retrieved December 13, 2011 from Website: http://www. budpar. go. id/filedata/4032_1283-STRATEGICSUSTAINABLETOURISMDEVELOPMENT. pdf 13. Amazing Thailand, Always Amazes you (2011). Retrieved December

Tourism on Malacca essay

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