The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover Rate
The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover Rate Introduction Adelphoi Village is a private, non- profit company that provide community based services to children and adolescents in the Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia area.Adelphoi Village provides programs and services that strive to guide each youth on a path that will provide meaning, purpose and value in his/her life.Founded in 1971, Adelphoi Village has expanded to serve over 800 youth in 60 different counties.
Adelphoi Village conduct several different services which includes, group homes, foster/adoptive services, charter school, multisystemic therapy, education services, diagnostic, in-home services, specialized independent living, secure care, mental health programs and other services that overlap to form a complete continuum of care for children, youth, and families.
One of the departments under Adelphoi Village’s umbrella is its Multisystemic Therapy (MST) program.
The MST program provides intensive in- home family therapy to youth who are involved with Department of Juvenile Justice or Child Protective Services. The MST therapist strive to empower the parents with the skills and resources needed to become independent in addressing the difficulties that arise in raising adolescents, and to assist the youth in developing life-long coping skills. In the MST program families receive in home therapy 2 to 3 times a week for two hours each session. The therapist carries a caseload of 4 to 6 families and is on call for the families 24/7.
I have been working for Adelphoi Village’s MST York program as a MST therapist since July 2012. The Adelphoi Village MST York team consists of one supervisor and four therapists. The MST York team covers the entire York County, PA area. In order for the company to be at the maximum number for productivity the MST program needs to be fully staffed. Adelphoi Villages MST York program therapist does not only perform the demanding duties of MST, but also performs several other demanding duties making the job very intensive and unbearable.
Due to the intensiveness of the job this program has had and continues to have a very high turnover rate which could be due to the employees being over worked and underpaid. Employees are dissatisfied with their job which causes them to leave and search for other employment. Before I started with this company the MST York team was down one therapist for about a year. Before then the team was down two therapists for about two and a half years. Currently we are looking to hire two new therapists to start working with the team.
There have been 10 interviews set up; however, only 3 people have decided to interview with the company. Others have stated that they changed their mind about working for the company because the job is too demanding and lacks the pay that they are looking to obtain. Problem Statement Adelphoi Village’s MST program experiences a high turnover rate each year. For the MST York team it is very hard to keep the team at full capacity due to the dissatisfaction of their employees. Employees’ needs are not being met and they are being overworked with lack of appreciation, low pay, and low incentives.
This paper will examine the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. This paper will identify the causes of employee turnover and how it relates to job satisfaction. This paper will also identify examples on how the company could increase job satisfaction for their employees, thus decreasing employee turnover. Literature Review Wang, Wang, and Yang (2012) conducted a research study comparing public and private employees’ job satisfaction and turnover in Taiwan.
The population consisted of 500 employees in the public sector and 500 employees in the private sector. Questionnaires were used to collect data from employees of various private enterprises and public organizations. The results showed that the job satisfaction and turnover intentions of public employees are different from those of private employees (Wang, Wang, and Yang 2012). Researchers found that public employees in Taiwan have lower extrinsic job satisfaction and lower turnover intentions compared to their counterparts in the private sector.
Wang, Wang, and Yang (2012) reported that job satisfaction is found to be negatively associated with turnover intentions. When employees are dissatisfied, they think more of quitting their jobs. Dissatisfaction may stimulate from lack of pay, lack of job security, lack of incentives, and lack of appreciation. If those who are dissatisfied continue to stay on in their jobs, their low work motivation will decrease the overall performance of the organization (Wang, Wang, and Yang 2012).
Lanham, Rye, Rimsky, and Weill (2012) conducted a study on how gratitude relates to burnout and job satisfaction in mental health professionals. Sixty-five mental health professionals including; counselors, case managers, clinical administrators/supervisors, employment/housing specialists, social workers, and psychologists completed questionnaires assessing demographics, job context variables, hope, gratitude, burnout, and job satisfaction. Lanham, Rye, Rimsky and Weill (2012) stated that mental health professionals are at high risk of burnout and turnover.
Burnout which results from persistent work stress, involves emotional exhaustion (mental strain attributed to job Stressors), depersonalization (mentally distancing oneself and adopting a more impersonal view of other people), and decreased sense of personal accomplishment. Burnout can adversely affect both personal health and organizational functioning (Lanham, Rye, Rimsky and Weill 2012). Another positive psychology construct that may affect burnout is gratitude, which involves being aware of and appreciating good things that happen and taking the time to express thanks (Lanham, Rye, Rimsky and Weill 2012).
There are several reasons why gratitude might relate to less burnout and higher job satisfaction among mental health professionals. Gratitude motivates pro-social behavior and corporate social responsibility. Lanham, Rye, Rimsky and Weill (2012) stated that since so many factors contribute to burnout and workplace satisfaction, agency administrators need to examine the extent to which agency policies contribute to employee burnout and job dissatisfaction. Huning and Thomson (2011) conducted a study on an empirical examination of the impact of performance attributions and job satisfaction on turnover intentions.
Participants consisted of 363 graduate and undergraduate students. Participants completed a survey related to attributes, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Results show that job satisfaction mediates between causality attributions, stability attributions, and turnover intentions. Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state the results from the appraisal of one’s job (Locke 1976). Job satisfaction describes an affective reaction to one’s job as well as attitudes toward the job.
This in turn suggests that job satisfaction is formed from affect, cognition, and ultimately will result in satisfaction contingent job-related behaviors (Huning and Thomson 2011). Huning and Thomas (2011) found that job satisfaction is the central variable in among the central theoretical and empirical contributions in employee turnover. Lambert, Hogan and Barton (2001) conducted a study on the impact of job satisfaction on turnover intent: a test of a structural measurement model using a national sample of workers.
Based upon the literature, a structural measurement model incorporating four core antecedents of turnover (i. e. , demographic characteristics, work environment, job satisfaction, and turnover intent) was developed and tested using a national sample of American workers. The results indicate that the work environment is more important in shaping worker job satisfaction than are demographic characteristics, and that job satisfaction is a highly salient antecedent of turnover intent. Finally, job satisfaction is a key mediating variable between the work environment and turnover intent (Lambert, Hogan and Barton 2001).
Camp (1993) conducted a study on Assessing the Effects of Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction on Turnover: An Event History Approach. Camp examined two types of subjective measurement of the work environment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment, which are often thought to be related to turnover. Camp (1993) found that organizational comm itment, as measured by both commitment to the overall organization and the more specific institution, is inversely related to turnover among correctional workers at the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
Analysis Job satisfaction and turnover have a strong correlational relationship. Turnover is the ratio of employees leaving jobs with a company as a percentage of total employees in the organization. Job satisfaction is commonly linked to turnover ratios. Employees who are generally satisfied at work tend to stay, while dissatisfied employees often look for other work. Many factors affect the level of satisfaction among employees. Pay is noted as a key factor to job satisfaction (Kokemuller 2010).
Other factors that affect job satisfaction include; job security, appreciation, work conditions, co- workers and supervisor support, and gratitude. It is noted that as job satisfaction increases, absenteeism tends to go down, and as job satisfaction decreases, absenteeism often goes up (Schermerhorn 5). Taking care of job satisfaction today can be considered an investment in tomorrow’s performance potential (Schermerhorn 12). Solutions There are many ways that employees as well as the administrative staff can increase job satisfaction to avoid turnover.
One of the most tangible things that employees can do to increase job satisfaction is to get organized. Managing your workload efficiently can help increase job satisfaction. When you become organized it can create a since of relief in your everyday work load. Another way employees can increase personal job satisfaction is to develop an optimistic point of view and change negative self talk patterns. This will assist employees with viewing things in a more positive light. Employees can also reward and recognize self for doing a wonderful job.
Many jobs fail to recognize employees for doing a great job; employees can treat themselves to a movie or to a spa, to recognize the fact that they are making a wonderful impact on their company. Administrative staff can also begin to incorporate rewards and recognition into daily practices. When employees feel recognized and appreciated by the administrative staff if creates a since of belonging and willingness for employees to do their best in carrying out their jobs. Companies could also offer employees flexible work schedules and better pay.
Easing an employer’s work schedule can reduce job loss and keep training costs down. Offering employees better pay could also reduce job loss. Companies could also begin to encourage open communication between management and staff. For example, management could install a comment box in the lobby of the office for employees to drop in written feedback so that an understanding of why employees feel dissatisfied could be communicated between management and staff. Reflection In completing this paper I have learned how job dissatisfaction relates to turnover rate and burnout in employees.
I have learned and understood the factors that lead to job dissatisfaction and how to create personal job satisfaction. I recently decided to leave Adelphoi Village and obtain employment with another company. Although I am doing similar work, I have decided to work with a different company that offered my better pay and more stability. I understand that in my line of work as a therapist that there is a high job burnout and turnover rate in this field. I have to use what I have learned in completing this paper and in class to create personal job satisfaction.
Positive self talk, self recognition, and self reward are some of the ways I can continue to create personal job satisfaction which in turn will lower my burnout and turnover rate. Reference: Camp, S. (1993) Assessing the Effects of Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction on Turnover: An Event History Approach. The Prison Journal, 74(3), 279-305. Huning, T. , Thomson, N. (2011) An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Performance Attributions and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intentions.
Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 15(1) Kokemuller, N. (2010) Job Satisfaction and Turnover. Retrieved on October 14, 2012 from http://www. ehow. com/info_7746396_job-satisfaction-turnover. html Lambert, E. , Hogan, N. , Barton, S. (2001) The Impact of Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intent: A Test of a Structural Measurement Model Using a National Sample of Workers. The Social Science Journal. Lanham, M. , Rye, M. , Rimsky, L. , Weill, S. (2012) How Gratitude Relates to Burnout and Job Satisfaction in Mental Health Professionals.
Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 34(4), 341-354 Locke, 1976 cited in Brief, A. P. , ;amp; Weiss, H. M. (2001). Organizational behavior: affect in the workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 279-307, p. 282 Schermerhorn, John R.. Organizational Behavior, 12th Edition. John Wiley ;amp; Sons, 11/2011. ;lt;vbk:9781118426319#outline(1. 5. 3. 2);gt;. Wang, Y. , Wang, K. , Yang, C. (2012). Comparing Public and Private Employees’ Job Satisfaction and Turnover. Journal of Public Personnel Management, 41(3), 557-573.