Last Updated 04 Jul 2021

Diversity And Employee Job Satisfaction In Local Government Education Essay

Category Diversity, Employee
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The theory of representative bureaucratism suggests that organisations perform better if their work forces reflect the features of their constitutional populations ( Andrews, Boyne, Meier, O'Toole, and Walker, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to the U.S. Bureau of the Census Community Survey 2006-2008

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, U.S. population is going more diverse in Race and Ethnicity, Education, Origins and linguistic communication, etc. It indicates that the constituents of organisational work forces should hold been progressively heterogenous as the development of diverse tendency in entire population. In world, the demographic alterations in the American work force affected by civil rights statute law and affirmatory action plans have so led to unprecedentedly high diverseness or heterogeneousness within organisations ( Choi, 2008 ) .

The increasing work force diverseness poses some of the most ambitious inquiries for the direction of public service ( Riccucci, 2002 ) . For illustration, diverse constituents of population and work force bring employees into contact with people who may hold really different racial, instruction, linguistic communication, preparation, accomplishments, functional background, civilizations, and even values. As organisations progressively operate in a transnational and multicultural context, understanding how diverseness in the composing of organisational groups affects results such as satisfaction, creativeness, and turnover will be of increasing importance ( Milliken and Martins, 1996 ) .

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Although inconsistent on the extent to which increased occupation satisfaction leads to improved public presentation ( Brayfield and Crockett, 1955 ; Petty, McGee, and Cavender, 1984 ; Iaffaldano and Muchinsky, 1985 ) , Petty, McGee, and Cavender ( 1984 ) revealed a strong relationship between occupation satisfaction and public presentation. Furthermore, old surveies besides demonstrated that satisfied employees are more likely to hold lower absenteeism and turnover than those unsated one ( Locke, 1976 ; and Carsten and Spector, 1987 ) . Therefore, to analyze employees ' occupation satisfaction is of great important significances.

However, the researches on occupation satisfaction either focal point on its impacts on job/organization public presentation, absenteeism and turnover, etc. ( Brayfield and Crockett, 1955 ; Petty, McGee, and Cavender, 1984 ; Iaffaldano and Muchinsky, 1985 ; Locke, 1976 ; and Carsten and Spector, 1987 ) , or other determiners of occupation satisfaction, such as authorization, participative direction, quality of work life, the function of directors, single features, work environment, etc. ( Bruce and Blackburn, 1992 ; Rainey, 1997 ; Kim, 2002 ) . A comparatively little literature appears to hold examined the possible effects of diverseness on employees ' occupation satisfaction.

Furthermore, among a few surveies seeking to the impacts of diverseness on occupation satisfaction, most concentrate on employees on federal degree ( Choi, 2008 ) , instead than in province or local authorities. Furthermore, old researches step employee occupation satisfaction as a whole, but did n't analyze the impacts of diverseness on employees on different aspects of occupation satisfaction, such as the different impacts on friendliness and aid received in work and on work itself. Besides, the dimensions most surveies used for demographic diverseness include race/ethnicity, instruction, age and sex, and disablement ( Wise, 2000 ; Andrews et Al, 2005 ; Pitts, 2005 ; Choi, 2008 ; Pitts, 2009 ) , but few of them use beginnings and linguistic communication as a step of demographic diverseness. However, with the development of globalisation, more and more first coevals immigrants, whose first linguistic communication is non English and is non born in the US. , are going U.S. citizens and attend public sector. A Harmonizing to U.S. Census Bureau Data

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released on February 22nd, 2005, the state 's nonnative population numbered 34.2 million in 2004, accounting for 12 per centum of the entire U.S. population. This figure is 2.3 per centum higher than it was in 2003. Therefore, a survey on the effects of demographic diverseness of beginnings and linguistic communication on occupation satisfaction is really of import. In add-on, most surveies used inactive informations at one clip point. It could n't reflect the development tendency of demographic features of public employees.

This paper aims at researching the development tendency of public employee diverseness and the impacts of demographic diverseness of local authorities on affectional results, occupation satisfaction ( Figure 1 ) , through a ten-year period. How different dimensions of demographic diverseness, such as race/ethnicity, instruction, gender, beginnings, linguistic communication, and instruction, affect employees ' occupation satisfaction? What 's the disagreement of the impacts of demographic diverseness on different facets of occupation satisfaction? First, I review the old literature on diverseness concentrating on five of import demographic dimensions of diversity-race/ethnicity, beginnings, first linguistic communication, gender, instruction, and occupation satisfaction. In the following subdivision, I explore the theoretical model and present hypotheses of diverseness and its impact on different aspects of occupation satisfaction. In the last subdivision, I discuss research design/methodology.


The term diverseness frequently provokes intense emotional reactions from people who, possibly, have come to tie in the word with thoughts such as `` affirmatory action '' and `` hiring quotas '' ; yet it is a word that merely means `` assortment '' or a `` point or regard in which things differ '' ( Milliken and Martins, 1996 ) . Actually, demographic diverseness refers to `` the grade to which a unit ( e.g. , a work group or organisation ) is heterogenous with regard to demographic properties, '' such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, organisational term of office, and societal position ( Choi, 2008 ) . This survey limits its treatment to four demographic dimensions-race/ethnicity, beginnings, linguistic communication, and gender.

Some bookmans have developed several attacks to categorise assorted dimensions of diverseness ( e.g. , Cummings, Zhou, and Oldham 1993 ; Jackson 1992 ; Jackson, May, and Whitney 1995 ; Maznevski 1994 ; Milliken and Martins 1996 ; Tsui, Egan, and O'Reilly 1992 ) . One common differentiation is between diverseness on discernible or readily noticeable properties such as race or ethnicity, age, or gender, and diverseness with regard to less seeable or underlying properties such as instruction, proficient abilities, functional background, term of office in the organisation, or socioeconomic background, personality features, or values ( Cummings et al. , 1993 ; Jackson et al. , 1995 ; Tsui et al. , 1992 ) . Harmonizing the above classification, race/ethnicity, beginnings, gender, and first linguistic communication should be included into discernible properties ; instruction should be considered as implicit in properties.

Job Satisfaction

Employees ' satisfaction with their occupations is an of import standard for rating organisational effectivity ( Choi, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Hoppock ( 1935: 47 ) , occupation satisfaction is any combination of physiological, psychological, and environmental fortunes that causes a individual truthfully to state, `` I am satisfied with my occupation '' . Most common definitions are those that assume being of demands ( in changing signifiers ) and by and large view occupation satisfaction as ensuing from the tantrum between these single demands and the occupation and its environment ( Hopkins, 1983 ) . However, Lock ( 1969 ) rejected the construct of demands and defined occupation satisfaction as the enjoyable emotional province ensuing from satisfaction or satisfaction about one 's occupation. The interaction of one 's values and one 's perceptual experiences of the occupation and its environment are two chief causes of occupation satisfaction. In this survey, I chiefly rely on a modified need-satisfaction theoretical account, which combines single demands and work environment.

There are two basic ways of mensurating occupation satisfaction, facet-free and facet-specific steps. It is easy to administrate and understand ( Kalleberg, 1974 ) , and it correlates extremely with more complex measurings of occupation satisfaction to utilize facet-free attack ( Robinson, Athanasious, and Head, 1969 ) . In the procedure of reacting to facet-free inquiries, employees tend to supply their ain agencies of summarize a assortment of different facets of their occupation into a individual reply ( Johns, 1980 ) . However, this attack has been badly criticized for a figure of grounds ( Hopkins, 1983 ) . Most significantly, occupation satisfaction is one-dimensional and multidimensional instead than a individual dimension ( Kalleberg, 1974 ) . One general inquiry could n't mensurate all facets of a occupation.

However, facet-specific occupation satisfaction steps ask the respondent to measure his/her satisfaction with a series of occupation aspects. And faceted measuring is advantageous in that it coincides with the multidimensional character of occupation satisfaction, provides comparison across the respondents, and permits a grade of control and way by the research worker ( Hopkins, 1983 ) . In old researches, there are 23 aspects studied ( Hopkins, 1983 ) . In this survey, 21 aspects will be used except salary aspect and I categorize the 21 aspects into three facets: friendliness and aid received in work ; development and accomplishment ; and work itself. Friendliness and aid received in work, and development and achievement aspect of occupation satisfaction will be used to prove the research inquiry.

Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses

Previous literature has demonstrated that different dimensions of diverseness may take to different effects ( Jackson, Joshi, and Erhardt, 2003 ; Jehn, Northcraft, and Neale, 1999 ; Milliken and Martins, 1996 ) . Less seeable or implicit in properties may supply a wide scope of thoughts, accomplishments, and penetrations, and finally consequences in organisational public presentation betterment by increasing organisation 's creativeness and problem-solving capablenesss ( Cox, 1993 ) . To increase organisation 's creativeness and problem-solving capablenesss, and contribute to organisation public presentation betterment is a important foundation and step to single development and accomplishment. Therefore, underlying properties is assumed to be positively related to development and achievement aspect of employees ' occupation satisfaction.

H1: Education diverse is positively related to development and achievement aspect of employee occupation satisfaction.

However, discernible properties, such as demographic backgrounds, may take to high degrees of emotional struggles between persons in organisations. Heterogeneous groups may besides see a deficiency of communicating or miscommunication, disenabling struggle, and the load of the high costs of coordination and declaration of struggles ( Jehn, Northcraft, and Neale, 1999 ) .

Harmonizing to Byrne 's ( 1971 ) similarity-attraction theory, people prefer interacting with similar others and happen interactions with them easier, positively reenforcing, and more desirable compared with interactions with others who are different. Persons in diverse groups tend to experience less safe and to swear each other less. Lower trust is more likely to take to higher struggles within groups ( Choi, 2008 ) . Furthermore, for employees, who were non born as U.S. citizens and whose first linguistic communication is non English, may hold communicating obstructions with his/her co-worker. This communicating job may impact their development and publicity within the organisation we well, which finally leads to reduced occupation satisfaction. Therefore, discernible properties are supposed to be negatively related to friendliness and assistance received aspect of occupation satisfaction:

  • H2: Race/Ethnicity diverse is negatively related to friendliness and assistance received aspect of employee occupation satisfaction.
  • H3: Origin diverse is negatively related to friendliness and assistance received aspect of employee occupation satisfaction.
  • H4: Gender diverse is negatively related to friendliness and assistance received aspect of employee occupation satisfaction.
  • H5: Language diverse is negatively related to friendliness and assistance received aspect of employee occupation satisfaction.


Dependent Variable: public employees ' occupation satisfaction is measured by two dimensions, friendliness and aid received from work and development and accomplishment. It is measured on single degree based on responses to relevant study and interview inquiries.

Friendliness and aid received could be measured by the undermentioned inquiries:

  • Opportunity to do friends
  • Friendliness and helpfulness of colleagues
  • Enough aid and equipment to acquire the occupation don
  • Development and accomplishment could be measured by the undermentioned inquiries:
  • Opportunity for publicities
  • Opportunity to develop particular abilities

Independent Variable:

discernible and implicit in properties of diverseness of public employees in local authorities in NJ. In recent old ages, three sorts of diverseness steps have been used most often: the coefficient of fluctuation, the Blau 's index of heterogeneousness, and the entropy index of diverseness ( Choi, 2008 ) . In this survey, the degrees of each bureau 's demographic diversity-race/ethnicity, beginnings, gender, first linguistic communication, and education-are calculated through the Blau 's index of heterogeneousness or Entropy index of diverseness, which are appropriate for categorical variables, instead than the coefficient of fluctuation, which is proper for uninterrupted variables. The concluding choice between the Blau 's index of heterogeneousness and Entropy index of diverseness depends on the information collected and informations analysis consequences.

Race/Ethnicity is classified into five groups: White ; Black or African American ; Asian ; Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander ; and Others, based on the U.S. Bureau of Census 's classification.

Beginning is classified into two groups: born naturalized as a U.S. citizen and foreign born non U.S. citizen, based on the U.S. Bureau of Census 's classification.

Gender of public employee in local authoritiess includes both male and female.

First Language is categorized into five groups: English ; Spanish or Spanish Creole ; Other Indo-germanic Languages ; Asian and Pacific Island Languages ; and Other Languages, based on the U.S. Bureau of Census 's classification.

Education is measured by two indexs. The first index is to mensurate the diverseness in instruction degree. The diverseness in instruction degree is categorized into six groups: less than high school alumnus ; high school alumnus ; some college or associate 's grade ; unmarried man 's grade ; maestro 's grade ; Ph.D. grade. The 2nd index is to mensurate the diverseness in major. It is categorized into nine groups: societal scientific discipline and humanistic disciplines ; public personal businesss ; library and information ; concern ; instruction ; jurisprudence ; technology ; medical scientific discipline ; and others.

Control Variable: there are some other variables are supposed to hold important impacts on public employees ' occupation satisfaction, harmonizing to old research. Those factors include employee place term of office, age, organisation population, city/township population, etc.


A assorted research method will be used to analyze the research inquiry and hypotheses. I plan to roll up ten-year period ( 2000-2009 ) information in employee race, gender, instruction, beginnings, first linguistic communication, and occupation satisfaction from each local authorities in New Jersey, utilizing unnoticeable resources, study, and single interview. The ground for roll uping informations in ten-year period is foremost to track the tendency of the employee demographic constituents in local authorities in NJ during the past 10 old ages, and to mensurate whether diverseness is a apparent character of local public employee in NJ. Second, I want to prove the alteration of demographic factors ' impacts on occupation satisfaction, instead than a inactive consequence at one clip point, because it is supposed that the demographic characters of local public employees are changed to be more diverse.

Unobtrusive resources: Archive and Official Documentation to roll up public employees ' demographic constituents, including race, instruction, gender, beginnings, and first linguistic communication, in each city/township authorities in NJ during the past 10 old ages. Based on this information, descriptive statistics could be used to depict the development tendency of employee demographic factors.

Survey and Sample: I will carry on a mail study to roll up occupation satisfaction informations. 10 % employees from each city/township authorities will be indiscriminately selected and the questionnaire will be sent to them. In order to guarantee a good respondent rate, I will carry on a three-round study. The follow-up study may be conducted by phone or electronic mail.

Semi-Structured Individual Interview: in-depth informations is needed to unearth some deep information. The chief content of single interview is to look into employees ' occupation satisfaction and how diverse on the job environment affect their occupation satisfaction. What are the most of import factors that impact their occupation satisfaction? What are the employees ' perceptual experiences or suggestion sing to diversity direction?

Datas Analysis

Above all, content analysis will be used to analyze written paperss. Contented analysis is `` any technique for doing illations by consistently and objectively placing particular features of messages '' ( Holsti, 1968 ) . First, is to make up one's mind the degrees and units of paperss analysis. Sampling may happen at any or all of the undermentioned degrees: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, subdivisions, chapters, and books. Second, is to unite content analytic elements, and coding. Coding frames are used to form the informations and place findings after unfastened cryptography has been completed. The whole procedure is to split gathered archive and certification informations and make full them into five independent variables.

For some quantitative informations, occupation satisfaction study informations are Likert Scale informations, 5 graduated tables. Recode each factor to do certain every inquiry and information is in the same way from 1 ( strongly dissatisfaction ) to 5 ( strongly satisfaction ) . Mean score higher than 3 is considered satisfaction, and lower than 2 is considered dissatisfaction.

Furthermore, descriptive statistics is used to cipher mean, media, standard divergence, standard mistake of collected informations, including certification, study, and interview informations. For The documentation/archive information is a pooled information in 10 old ages. To compare informations in different twelvemonth, we can reason whether the constituent of employee in local authorities is more and more diverse. What 's the development tendency, to rush up or decelerate down?

If it is necessary, Cronbach 's Alpha can be used to prove measuring dependability before making index variables. Multiple arrested development could be used to prove the significance degree and coefficient of correlativity between demographic diverseness and employees ' occupation satisfaction. Meanwhile, Variance rising prices factor ( VIF ) can be used to prove whether there is multicollinearity job and Breusch-Pagan trial is used to analyze whether the theoretical account has heteroskedasticity job or non.

Some package plans may be utile to analyse informations, for illustration SPSS, Office Excel, and Stata. The analysing package should including the undermentioned maps: word processors, text retrievers, textbase directors, code-and-retrieve plans, code-based theory builders, and conceptual network-builders.

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