THE EFFECT OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OF A GREEN BUILDING TOWARDS ITS USER’S/OCCUPANT ‘S LEVEL OF COMFORT
Green edifices need an attack including consideration towards wellness and well-being of the residents in every facets of the build undertakings, non merely for the single flat unit but for the full edifice, based on a wider context about the environment and the community about. This affair can be a immense attack which need an incorporate thought for the designers, interior decorators, developers and authorities who is responsible in the community planning ( Plass N 2007 ) . Even though we are still in early phase, constructing a sustainable edifice presents is an set up construct with increasing rate of demand in most states where it is supported by authorities in Europe, America, China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Korea. These authorities have been promoted by their several Green Building Councils. In a rate where ages is threatened by the clime presents, there is an increasing demand for energy and resource efficient edifice, but there is besides a demand to construct a healthy and comfy places that is non affected by undue emanations of harmful substances ( Yu CWF 2010 ) , blaze ( PR 2010 ) or deficient lighting ( Lim HS 2010 ) , noise ( Han MH 2010 ) , hot and cold clime ( Daghigh R 2009 ) , where residents can really experience safe, can interact with each other freely and can construct hope for our hereafter. For commercial edifices, there are studies of grounds about the environmentally certified edifices are raising in the facets of personal control, twenty-four hours lighting, thermic comfort, air quality and noise decrease which can increase the productiveness of persons in order for them to make work or concern operation ( Lee YS 2010 ) . Meanwhile this current research is besides about the reappraisal of environmental appraisal strategies based on IEQ issues where it can give a immense impact on the satisfaction degree of residents.
( Browning W 1995 ) have made a study on the multiple pre-post observational surveies which examined the consequence on energy efficient designs on the productiveness of the workers. one of their survey is affecting an energy efficient retrofit to the Main Post Office in Reno, Nevada. A new ceiling was fitted inside the edifice for an betterment of light, temperature, and noise within the scope of mail sorting room. Productivity eventually been reported to hold the consequences in increased of 6-8 % after the retrofit installed. Similar to other single-group pre station survey of this sort, nevertheless, one ‘s demands to be more careful when saying other grounds for the ascertained addition. They besides argue about the issue of coinciding program to better productiveness in clip of the retrofit which they stated that there are none and the productiveness was ever measured. Unfortunately, the graph that they presented merely demo the elevation of the productiveness followed by retrofit. If productiveness was measured as a normal operation, it would be a sourceful information to demo the productiveness informations during the pre-retrofit period. They stated that productiveness that been acquired in Reno Office are higher comparison to other sorters in western part of United States. However, the information for this other offices are non presented. Therefore, the groundss that proves the relationship between energy efficient design and the productiveness in this survey was non strong. Furthermore, the retrofit besides mentioned about lighting, temperature and sound. So, it can be clearly said that there is non possible for imputing the study in the betterment of productiveness from the peculiar alteration, merely retrofit in general.
About the same, the 2nd illustration cited by ( Browning W 1995 ) is about the Nederlandshe Middenstandbank. It involved a batch of alteration to the new building- one of it could non be claimed as unique between green edifices, whether the S-curve land program which have gardens, courtyards, eating houses and meeting suites. Along with that it is besides non possible to impute the study that stated 15 % decrease in absenteeism of green characteristics in the new edifice where the characteristics include are twenty-four hours lighting, and natural airing through operable Windowss.
The 3rd illustration by ( Browning W 1995 ) was a Walmart Store which had installed fanlights at about the scope of one half of the shop. It was reported that the gross revenues ( per square pes ) was higher than other section which situated in day-lit half. However, the consequences can be given other grounds on why this state of affairs go on between the two groups of section.
( J 2000 ) had done a reviewed literature on the subject of green edifices and the resident ‘s productiveness. One of the survey that he cited is research from ( Browning W 1995 ) . Another one is from ( A 1999 ) where he concluded that comfort and productiveness that can be seen is higher in a edifice where residents have control over ambient status and where the edifice provide both natural and air conditioning. All of this research really have the same decision. ( Menzies D 1997 ) concluded that the productiveness was increased by 11 % ( if comparison with controlled groups ) for the workers that have been given full control over the entire and way of the air flow in their work infinite.
( Brager GS 1998 ) reported that there is a relationship between personal control in environmental conditions, particularly temperature and airing, and work public presentation. However, ( Brager GS 1998 ) besides noted about the research from ( Preller L 1990 ) which shows absenteeism that were related with Sick Building Syndrome ( SBS ) should be 34 % lower if the employees were giving full control over the temperature and airing. This state of affairs had produce a nexus between green edifice and productiveness which become the go-between for air quality and SBS beside comfort. From this, guided by the relationship between green edifice and IEQ ( for illustration comfort ) , it can be said that the existing cogent evidence is really weak and if there is a nexus, it is said that it was attributed to personal control on the ambient conditions. This sort of affair should be given an attending to look into whether or non soothe relates to satisfaction.
In a reappraisal of environmental psychological science, ( Sundstrom E 1996 ) had underline twosome of theories which guided the research on dealing between human and physical environment subjects including the workplace. In these theories are arousal, environmental burden, emphasis and version, privateness ordinance, transactional attack, and ecological psychological science and behaviour puting theories. Hypothesis for rousing is to foretell the optimal satisfaction and public presentation while under the status of moderate rousing. This had given an sentiment on how temperature, sound and lighting can act upon the satisfaction degree and public presentation through psychosocial rousing. On overload hypothesis, people is considered holding a limited capacity to treat stimulations and information and predicted that we confront them with an overload, for illustration noise overload, where we choose in advancement for incoming information and disregarding the low-priority inputs. The research in environmental emphasis and version had recognized the relationships between temperature and sound with physiological and psychological emphasis ( for illustration chronic unwellness, and psychological impairement ) and confronting adaptative behaviours to cut down the effects/ emphasis. ( Sundstrom E 1996 ) stated empirical find in general is consistent with this hypothesis.
( Vilnai-Yavetz I 2005 ) proposed that office interior decorators should denounce the three separate rule which is the instrumentality, aesthetics and symbolism. Instrumentality is about the phase where physical property of an office supported their needful activities. Aestheticss refer to the beauty of the office. The survey besides province about the research that discover ‘beautiful ‘ suites ( as opposed to ‘ugly ‘ suites ) have a important difference on consequence to the perceptual experiences and emotions non numbering for short/long term. The 3rd rule is symbolism, which refer to the relationships that created by a infinite. the author found difference statistically between these two rules, that is instrumentality and aesthetics and occupation satisfaction and public presentation.
Large part of all of the undertakings that residents in offices been through demands mental labor comparison to physical labor, where it relates with the office environment that should be more related to comfort. Furthermore, decline of interior environment will cut down the degree of capacity of the residents, where it will do the reduction of productiveness and increasing the emphasis degree. So, maintaining a better office is really important. ( Brasche S 2001 ) .
As the sum-up, beside of all these groundss are still blur, there are a few of character that can be categorized as alone, or at least more common towards green constructing that have been linked to the quality of the indoor environment. Besides that, there are groundss which can associate comfort with characteristics that grant personal control towards temperature and airing. Furthermore, there are cogent evidence on how comfort is associating to workplace satisfaction. The purpose of this survey is to prove a statement, ( 1 ) green constructing create more comfy infinite ( 2 ) better comfort will steer to a higher overall satisfaction. This statement will be trial with methods of understanding the IEQ i a green edifice and how it act upon the comfort and satisfaction perceptual experience of the residents. Green edifice in this research is a edifice that situated in the locality of a metropolis in Malaysia, where Malaysia is celebrated for typical tropical clime. The variable of the clime in Malaysia is non based on the temperature or air force per unit area but rainfall. In general, the clime in Malaysia can be describe where its coastal field temperature averaging 28°C. With this type of clime, it will be a alone chance for this type of survey to see the mode of the IEQ of green edifices in Malaysia react to their resident ‘s degree of comfort.
A, L. ( 1999 ) . UK survey links productiveness to airing systems. HPAC Magazine. 71.
Brager GS, d. D. R. ( 1998 ) . “ Thermal version in the reinforced environment: a literature reappraisal. ” Energy and Buildings 27: 83-96.
Brasche S, B. M. , Bronisch M, Bischof W ( 2001 ) . “ Eye and tegument symptoms in German office workers. ” Int J Hyg Environ Health 203: 311-316.
Browning W, R. J. ( 1995 ) . Greening the bottom line: increasing productiveness through energy efficient design. In: Second international green edifices conference and expounding. Gaithersburg, MD, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Daghigh R, A. N. , Sahari BB ( 2009 ) . “ Ventilation parametric quantities and thermic comfort of of course and automatically ventilated offices. ” Indoor Built Environ 18 ( 2 ) : 113-122.
Han MH, J. M. , Oh YK ( 2010 ) . “ Residential and acoustic environments perceived by occupants of regional metropoliss in Korea: a instance survey of Mokpo metropolis. ” Indoor Built Environ 19 ( 1 ) : 102-113.
J, H. ( 2000 ) . “ Green edifices, organisational success and occupant productiveness. ” Building Research & A ; Information 28 ( 5/6 ) : 353–367.
Lee YS, G. D. ( 2010 ) . “ Indoor environmental quality differences between office types in LEED-certified edifices in the US. ” Building Environ 45 ( 5 ) : 1104-1112.
Lim HS, K. G. ( 2010 ) . “ Predicted public presentation of shadowing devices for healthy ocular environment. ” Indoor Built Environ 19 ( 4 ) : 486-496.
Menzies D, P. J. , Nunes F, Leduc J, Chan C-H ( 1997 ) . “ Effect of new airing system on wellness and wellbeing of office workers. ” Archives of Environmental wellness 52 ( 5 ) : 360-368.
Plass N, K. I. ( 2007 ) . “ Strategic and practical deductions in determination devising and planning for sustainability. ” Indoor Built Environ 18 ( 3 ) : 204-215.
PR, B. ( 2010 ) . “ The impact of visible radiation in edifices on human wellness. ” Indoor Built Environ 19 ( 1 ) : 8-20.
Preller L, Z. T. , Brunekreef B, Bolej JSM ( 1990 ) . Sick leave due to work related wellness ailments among office workers in the Netherlands. Indoor Air ’90, Toronto.
Sundstrom E, B. P. , Busby PL, Asmus C ( 1996 ) . “ Environmental psychological science 1989–1994. ” Annual Reviews in Psychology 47: 485-512.
Vilnai-Yavetz I, R. A. , Yaacov CS ( 2005 ) . “ Instrumentality, aesthetics, and symbolism of office design. ” Environment and Behaviour 37 ( 4 ) : 533-551.
Yu CWF, K. J. ( 2010 ) . “ Building pathology, probe of ill buildings– VOC emanations. ” Indoor Built Environ 19 ( 1 ) : 30-39.