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How has unemployment in Bangladesh resulted from an insufficient effective demand for goods and services in an economy

Essay Topic: ,
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Introduction

Unemployment is a great concern in Bangladesh. Every year hundreds of thousands student are coming out from college and university. Though it is one of the major responsibilities of the Government to provide job to those young generation but the Government is failed to meet the job demand among the large population.

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Only a tiny fraction of total jobless is managed by different government offices and private organization but a majority remain unemployed.

The economic recession causes loss of jobs due to a loss of demand for goods. People basically cut back to basics and eliminate the spending in ways that they can’t afford. They are cautious about over committing so as not to lose what they have. The recession promotes a tendency to save for many and not one of spending excessively. The economic model of the past was to produce all that you can and keep consuming as much as you can and it will all stay afloat (until it doesn’t- like now). So the great majority doesn’t spend and then sales drop and industry reduces its production proportionately. No Sales therefore No production, therefore no need for to give jobs. People are afraid and cautious so they don’t spend unnecessarily. It’s a negative growth cycle and a hard to break once it sets in.

One of major causes of unemployment is greedy and selfishness among some of our politicians, Lack of true democracy due to informal ethnic diversities, Bangladesh is bestowed with potential skilled leaders but social discrimination undermine the process of exercising this leadership. Further unhealthy leadership competition create gaps to unemployment where one leave the job employed in and failure to win put the same person to the hole of unemployment category. However lack of education contributes to unemployment status, also the issues of Gender inequality is another block that hinder one to access jobs based on cultural attitudes. Least but not last lack of Transparency among job adverts from N.G.O as well as Public services commission. People just don’t want to work they expect everything to come to them. Youths are unemployed which has given birth to many crimes which has lead to many innocent youthful loosing their lives, if we can stand up and fight corruption there will be no more cases of unemployment.

Background of the Research

This research is a partial requirement to our academic process. There are lots of issues surrounding us but we have chosen this topic as it is much significant to economic development of our country. The economy of any country largely depends on its proper utilization of human resource but in many of the cases this vital resource is not being used properly. The whole research will go through a Questionnaire session (survey) and then analyzing and interpreting those data based on some specific methods mentioned in the methodology part. The most possible relevant areas and issues will be considered while doing the research. The ultimate purpose of this research is to find some remedies in reducing the unemployment rate of our country.

Statement of the Problem

The whole research paper will be conducted based on some basic assumptions and concepts that will help us to complete the survey. Depending on the sample population we have made a series of Questions that will be discussed with the interviewee. The assumptions and study areas are as follows:

Unemployment results from insufficient effective demand for goods and services in an economy.
Regulations like minimum wage laws imposed on the labor market lead to unemployment.
Structural problems and inefficiencies in the labor market cause unemployment
Lack of education contributes to unemployment status, also the issues of Gender inequality is another block that hinder one to access jobs based on cultural attitudes.
Unemployment is under-reported because the government doesn’t include those who have dropped out of the workforce because they are so discouraged.
Unhealthy leadership competition create gaps to unemployment where one leave the job employed in and failure to win put the same person to the hole of unemployment category.
Least but not last lack of Transparency among job adverts from N.G.O as well as Public services commission.

Purpose of the Research

Broad objectives:

Broad objective of this research is to find out the major causes of unemployment and prospective solutions.

Specific objectives:

The specific objectives to help in explaining the broad objectives are as follows:

Highlighting the present situation of unemployment in Bangladesh.
Identifying the major causes of unemployment.
To analyze the effects of unemployment to our society and economy.
To compare the unemployment rate of Bangladesh with other Asian countries.
To suggest remedial measures for reducing unemployment rate in Bangladesh.

Significance of the Study:

This research paper will help the readers providing knowledge and experience about the following issues:

Present Scenario of Unemployment in Bangladesh and the rate of unemployment comparing to the other Asian countries and the World as a whole
Most studies have two potential audiences: practitioners and professional peers. Statements relating the research to both groups are in order. This paper will help in further detail and large research of the prescribed topic.
This paper will also be very much helpful in finding out the lacking behind the unemployment problem (Educational structure, Economic conditions, and the impact of our political actions).
It will also cover the impact of Unemployment to our society and Economy.
The Design-Methods and Procedures

Type of Research:

This is an exploratory type of research. This research will help us to identify the causes, impacts and affects of unemployment on the society and economy of the country as a hole.

Sources of Data:

In order to attain the objective of the study in this research repot all-necessary information will be collected and prepared using primary and secondary sources of data. We will have to apply survey method by using questionnaire to gather primary data on unemployment.

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Sample Selection:

The research proposal will cover the following procedures-

Our survey will be conducted based on Non-probability sampling techniques.
We have used Convenience sampling for the purpose of this research to select our required sample respondents.
Interviewers will have randomly moved toward respondents available at different locations of Dhaka city.

Determine Sample Size:

Using statistical tools to determine sample size would have demanded the need for calculations on various other factors, but for the time constrains & convenience sampling technique none of that will required. So, the total sample size is 100.

Summary of overall Sample Design:

The overview of the sample design that we have considered for our specific research on the selected topic, “Unemployment Situation in Bangladesh and its Impact to our society”, is summarized below-

Population:

Identifying survey population is one of the critical parts of the research. If population is not defined properly then we may not get actual result from the research. Population is quite different for different research problems. The people who share common characteristics are called population.
Fresh Graduate
Masters completed
Doing Jobs But not satisfied with their present position
Managing own small Business

Sample:

We will take interview of 100 selected respondents.

Sampling Procedure:

Non-probability sampling techniques. We have especially focused on Convenience sampling.

Selection of Research Model:

Research Design

This collection of primary data is to be conducted through survey method with written questionnaire. The survey will be performed based on personal interview and select people sample for one-to-one face-to-face conversation. Survey questions will be sought to gather both qualitative and quantitative data about the sample. The nature of questions will be used in the questionnaire is mainly simple-dichotomy questions with few determinant-choice questions, frequency-determination questions, attitude rating scale and open-ended questions.

Objective of using the questionnaire

The whole research is based mostly on primary information, based on which the questionnaire has been designed to collect relevant information. The survey method has been selected as the research tool for following reasons.

Accuracy of Report: Survey is the best way to research. Questionnaire is one kind of tool of survey research.
Time efficiency: We have time constraints, and getting questionnaires filled up by the respondents is also time-consuming, so making short format questionnaire.
Convenience: Questionnaire design is a simpler and easier way to collect responses and conduct the survey. So we think it is convenient for us to use this tool.
Cost efficiency: We found that this method is relatively cheaper as we only need to print a copy and then make copies of it and then distribute them to the respondents.
Less possibility of getting wrong information: Here if the respondent does not understand any meaning of the questionnaire, then we can easily make them understand. So there is less possibility of making mistake.

Measurement Scales:

When we have prepared a questions, at first we have tried to avoid leading and loading questions, double barreled question and ambiguity. We have made our questions relevant that is supportive for us to solve our research problem. To measure the attitude or response of the respondents on questions of research topic, we have used several measurement scales in our questionnaire, like-

Simple Attitude scale.
Category scale.
Monadic Rating scale etc

Developing the Data Analysis:

The collected data will be analyzed in the following steps-

Editing:

Editing is the process of checking the data for necessary corrections. We may find different types of errors in responses-some of the questions may not be filled up properly, some of them may be left incomplete. We want to avoid missing values as much as possible. We will also try to corrected some of our mistakes in the end which can be made while analyze.

Coding:

Each question will be coded to a computer readable form. We have to transform the qualitative data into quantitative. Then the data will be entered from the questionnaires. This is time consuming and need much skill. (Code: Yes/ Agree- 1, No/ Disagree- 2)

Data entry:

After entering all the responses from each question, the data entering part is needed o be done. Then we will proceed forward for the final job, which is analysis.

Data Analysis:

By using MS Excel, we will put the formula, and then the software automatically gives us the result. A number of tables, charts can be used by this process. Then we will proceed for the data conversion and interpretation part.

Data conversion:

All the analyzed result sheets will be converted into managerially understandable form. We will convertthem to word documents, make tables, graphs and write the analysis with words.

Limitations and Delimitations

This research is not out of limitations. But as we are students it is a great opportunity for us to know the research methods and procedures in making a proposal. Some constraints are appended bellow:

Time Constraint: As the time constraint and not enough time in hand our research will cover to the Dhaka city and our sample size is not so large as we are only dealing with 100 people. But we think that this will represents the whole structure of the country.
Personal Interest of People: All People may not be equally interested in sharing their opinions and beliefs but we will try our level best in making the research paper successful.
Comparison Status:A research paper is the best paper only when it includes all the relevant issues and compare with other studies and research. As we not skilled and lack of knowledge we will try to compare the unemployment rate with other countries of the world specially with the Asian countries.
Lack of Experience:Though we have prepared many reports before, we had no experience of making a research proposal. So inexperience is one of the main constraints of the study.
Research Areas: Due to our time constraints and lack of experience we will cover only a short region of Dhaka city.
Money Investment: To make a satisfactory research paper sufficient investment is required in a wide range of area for sufficient data but as we are students and without any sponsors, we like to conduct a survey on 100 people randomly based on some specified questions(Mentioned in the Annexure)

Probable Cost

As it is a part of our regular MBA program and the smaller size of the research the cost would not be much. The followings are the major areas where expenses is needed_

I.Expenses During the Survey-printing cost of Questions paper, Transportation cost while moving one questionnaire to another.

II. The expenses in purchasing necessary documents or journals and

III.The cost of printing the final copy of the Research Paper.

Timeline

The submission date will be fixed by our honorable course teacher and we will try to complete the research within that specific time.

Bibliography

Bangladesh should undertake unemployment surveys on a regular basis with the objective of measuring current levels of employment and unemployment and the corresponding changes. The aim of these surveys should be to provide more detailed information on the structure of the labor market. Such surveys are of longer-term interest, owing to their value in providing essential information for planning and policy formulation at the national level. Owing to the official status and national scope, unemployment surveys are subject to fairly stringent requirements of timing, data accuracy and internal consistency, especially consistency of the time series generated by regular surveys. Keeping these concerns in mind, regular surveys should be conducted to monitor the performance of the economy; to obtain indicators of changes in current rates of employment, unemployment and underemployment; and to measure trends, as well as cyclic and seasonal variations in the rates. From this stand point the findings of unemployment can be used as the benchmark indicators.

References

American Psychological Association (APA). (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (Fourth edition). Washington, DC: Author.

Armstrong, R. L. (1974). Hypotheses: WhyWhenHowPhi Delta Kappan, 54, 213-214.

Guba, E. G. (1961, April). Elements of a proposal. Paper presented at the UCEA meeting, Chapel Hill, NC.

Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (1990). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Krathwohl, D. R. (1988). How to prepare a research proposal: Guidelines for funding and dissertations in the social and behavioral sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Text book- Business Research Methodology,

Internet-

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