The aim of this papers is to measure the environmental impact and execute a hazard appraisal of a MSW incineration works edifice undertaking for a metropolis with 100,000 population near the Loch of Skene, Aberdeenshire.
Assuming that mean MSW arising in UK is 509 kilogram per person per twelvemonth, a 50,000 metric tons per annum incineration installation is required, with a 60 m tallness stack, and a edifice country of approx. 3,500 M2 and a entire land return of 4 hour angle. The lower calorific value of MSW should be at least 7MJ/kg, mass firing engineering will be applied with a movable grating, the one-year sum of waste for incineration should be no less than 50,000 metric tons.
Loch of Skene is an unreal lake located 15 kilometer West of Aberdeen in Scotland. It is designated as a Particular Protection Area for wildlife preservation intents. The proposed MSW incineration works will be surrounded by several small towns and the Westhill metropolis 2.5 kilometer off. The proposed incineration works may hold an inauspicious consequence on the air quality within a big country, contaminate dirt, harvests and exercise a noxious to wellness impact on a great figure of people. It can besides upset or even destruct really sensitive ecosystems of the Loch of Skene.
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Based on the above mentioned statements, it is recommended that the proposed incineration works should be moved to the bing landfill, ( Crows Nest Landfill Site, Banchory, an one-year capacity of 74,000 metric tons ) , where the evidences already exist far from communities and would non upset them because it would hold the same impact as the landfill operation before ; it would besides cut down the cost. It is besides recommended that the incineration procedure should be applied in waste-to-energy engineerings. The pollutant control engineering should be applied to command sums of emanations based on the Pollution Prevention and Control ( Scotland ) Regulations 2000.
Number of words used - 3316. Excluding Submission sheet, Table of Contents, List of Figures, List of Tables and References.
Table OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUTION 5
1.1 Loch of Skene location 5
1.2 Loch of Skene Environment 5
1.3 Incineration Plant Location 7
1.4 MSW arising and incineration in Scotland 7
2 INCINERATION LEGISLATION 9
2.1 Environmental Licensing 9
2.2 Techniques & A ; Technology applied 9
2.3 Public engagement 9
2.4 Waste Incineration Regulations 9
3 INCINERATION PLANT 10
3.1 Incineration engineerings 10
3.2 Energy recovery from waste 11
3.3 Pollution lessening engineerings 11
3.4 Main residuary stuffs managing 11
3.5 Incineration works cost 12
3.6 Incineration workss with energy recovery in Scotland 12
4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 13
4.1 Air and Land 13
4.2 Water 13
5 SWOT/PEST Analysis 14
6 RISK ASSESSMENT 15
7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATIONS 17
7.1 Decision 17
7.2 Recommendations 17
8 Mentions 19
List OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 - Loch of Skene location 5
Figure 2.1 - Loch of Skene 6
Figure 3.1- Waste Management Facilities. Incinerators ( Scotland ) 10
Figure 4.1 - Hazard appraisal matrix 15
Figure 5.1 - Waste Management Facilities: Landfill ( Scotland ) 18
List OF TABLES
Table 1.1 - MSW originating in Scotland 7
Table 2.1 - Waste inputs to incinerators & A ; co-incinerators 8
Table 3.1 - Waste incinerated in Scotland 8
Table 4.1 - Energy efficiency for incineration 11
Table 5.1 -Outputs from incineration processes 12
Table 6.1 -SWOT/PEST analysis 14
Loch of Skene location
The Loch of Skene is located about 15 km West of Aberdeen in Scotland. It is a shoal ( 2 m deep ) , and little ( an country of 1.2 km2 ) lowland loch.
Figure 1.1 - Loch of Skene location
Administratively, the Loch of Skene is located in the Garioch commission country in Aberdeenshire. The country is largely agricultural and strongly affected by Aberdeen economic system. Several small towns ( Dunecht, Echt, Lyne of Skene, Kirkton of Skene ) and Westhill town ( 10392 dad ) ( 1 ) are located near the Loch. Now, the loch is used for sailing by the Aberdeen and Stonehaven Yacht Club, from April boulder clay June.
Loch of Skene Environment
The loch of Skene has inland H2O organic structures with standing H2O and waterlogged lakeshores. The loch is surrounded with deciduous and cone-bearing forest. During fall and winter the loch supports an internationally of import roost of Iceland Graylag Goose and Icelandic Whooper Swan. This site qualifies under Article 4.1 of the Directive ( 79/409/EEC ) as back uping populations of the undermentioned European of import migratory species ( Whooper Swan and Graylag Goose ) listed in Annex 1 of the Directive ( 2 ) .
A recent JNCC ( 3 ) study states that:
'Whooper Swan - 203 persons stand foring up to 3.7 % of the wintering population in GB and Graylag Goose, 10840 persons stand foring up to 10.8 % of the wintering Iceland/UK/Ireland population. '
The Loch of Skene is indicated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest ( SSSI ) , Special Protected Area ( SPA ) and Ramsar Site.
Figure 2.1 - Loch of Skene
The loch is alimentary rich, which consequences from sewerage installations and agricultural beginnings. The natural ecology has been disturbed by inputs of foods, chiefly from the four Burnss that drain their catchments. Water quality in the Loch of Skene is Class 2, which means it has been significantly altered by human activities ( 16 ) .
Incineration Plant Location
The Company has proposed installing of an incineration works for the metropolis with a population of 100,000 near the Loch of Skene. In Scotland, in 2008/09, Municipal Solid Waste ( MSW ) coevals was 3,288.069 metric tons ( 4 ) . Local governments collected 29.1 MM metric tons of MSW in England and 1.8 MM metric tons in Wales during 2006/07. This included 25.9 MM metric tons of waste from families ( 1.6 MM metric tons in Wales ) - that is approx. half of metric ton or 509 kilograms per individual every twelvemonth, so 100,000 population will bring forth in mean 50,900 ton/year of MSW. And this requires a 50,000 metric tons per annum incineration installation with a 60 m stack tallness, a edifice country of approx. 3,500 M2 and a entire land return of 4 hour angle ( 5 ) .
MSW arising and incineration in Scotland
Municipal solid waste originating in Scotland in 2008/09 was 3.29 MMton. This is the lowest value in a period of 2004-2009. In 2003, the Scots Executive set a mark that any growing in municipal waste should discontinue by 2010 ( 4 ) . Data in the tabular array below show the general tendency of MSW originating and bespeak a decrease of MSW achieved in 2004/5 and 2008/9 by 3.5 % .
Table 1.1 - MSW originating in Scotland
Incineration and co-incineration workss received about 336,000 metric tons of waste in 2008, Table 2.1. Municipal waste makes up 26.2 % of the entire waste. It should be noted that 14,000 metric tons of refuse-derived fuels were sent to England for incineration in 2008. In 2008, there were two municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery in Scotland ( Dundee and Shetland Islands ) .
Table 2.1 - Waste inputs to incinerators & A ; co-incinerators
A SEPA ( 4 ) study provinces that, 'In 2008, 119,000 metric tons ( 35 % ) were recovered and 217,000 metric tons ( 65 % ) were disposed. This was an addition of 82,000 metric tons over 2007. Between 2004 and 2008, there was an addition of 82,000 metric tons ( 220 % ) in the sum of waste recovered. ' ( p.28 )
Table 3.1 - Waste incinerated in Scotland
Incineration installations are a topic of environmental licensing demands as Part A installings under the Pollution Prevention and Control ( Scotland ) Regulations 2000.
The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive ( IPPC ) requires portion A installings to run in such a manner that all preventive steps are taken against pollution, in peculiar through the application of the best available techniques, and to guarantee that no important pollution is caused ( 8 )
In conformity with the SEPA policy, an applicant must confer with with SEPA at a every early phase on the nature of the environmental licence required.
Techniques & A ; Technology applied
The chief footing for finding the appropriate criterions that should be applied in a PPC license is known as the best available techniques ( BAT )
The PPC ( 11 ) ordinances define this as, 'the most effectual and advanced phase in the development of activities and their methods of operation, which indicates practical suitableness of peculiar techniques for supplying in chief the footing for emanation bound values designed to forestall and, where that is non operable, by and large to cut down emanations and the impact on the environment as a whole. ' ( p.2 )
Harmonizing to the Public Participation Directive ( 10 ) , a waste thermic intervention works application shall be capable to heighten public engagement. This involves public audience on the application when it is received by SEPA and farther public audience when SEPA has come to any determination on a bill of exchange PPC license.
Waste Incineration Regulations
The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive ( 96/61/EC ) was established to forestall or understate emanations into the air, H2O, and dirt, every bit good as waste ( 8 ) .
The Waste Incineration ( Scotland ) Regulations ( SSI2003/170 ) introduce rigorous regulative controls, whereby all emanations are invariably monitored, and minimal proficient demands for waste incinerator have been established ( 9 ) .
The Public Participation Directive ( 2003/35/EC ) requires that the application and determination papers for a waste intervention installing license must be made available to the populace for their remark ( 10 ) .
At present, approximately 96 % of MSW generated in Scotland are disposed of in landfills, and staying MSW is incinerated with energy recovery. Harmonizing to the Landfill Directive ( 12 ) , it a pre-treatment operation is required prior to a disposal of waste. The recreation of these stuffs is one of the most important challenges confronting the direction of MSW in Scotland.
Figure 3.1- Waste Management Facilities. Incinerators ( Scotland )
Presently there are three chief engineerings available for MSW incineration.
Traveling Grate ( The Roller Grate, the stepped Inclined Grate, Inclined Counter-Rotating Grate )
Fixed Grates - these are a series of stairss with waste being moved by a series of random-access memories
Bubbling Fluidised Bed - the air flow is sufficient to call up the bed and supply good contact with the waste
Go arounding Fluidised Bed - the air flow for this type of unit is higher and therefore atoms are carried out of the burning chamber by the fluke gas.
Rotary Kiln - incineration in a rotary kiln is usually a two phase procedure dwelling of a kiln and separate secondary burning chamber.
Energy recovery from waste
Incineration procedures are designed to retrieve energy from waste processed by bring forthing electricity and/or heat to be used on site and exported offsite. Useful energy that can be generated from an incineration works utilizing a boiler to bring forth steam is presented in the tabular array below ( 13 ) .
Up to 80-90 % thermic efficiency
Local territory warming for edifices ( residential, commercial ) and or for industrial procedures
Can be supplied to the national grid for sale and distribution
Heat and power
Dependant on specific demand for heat and power
Combination of the above
Table 4.1 - Energy efficiency for incineration
Pollution lessening engineerings
A common attack to command emanations is as follows:
Ammonia injection into hot flue gases to command NOx emanations
Lime or Na hydrogen carbonate injection to command SO2 and HCL
Carbon injection to capture heavy metals
A filter system to take fly ash and other solids ( calcium hydroxide or hydrogen carbonate and C )
Electrostatic precipitators and scrubbers
The control of CO, VOCs and dioxins in footings of their concentration is chiefly though right burning conditions being maintained. Typically the weight of Air Pollution Control Residues ( APCR ) produced will be around 2-6 % of the weight of the waste come ining the incinerator ( 13 ) .
Main residuary stuffs managing
The tabular array below shows the cardinal end products from incineration procedures ( 13 ) .
Measure by weight of original waste
Incinerator underside ash ( IBA )
Potential usage as aggregative replacing or non biodegradable, not risky waste for disposal
Requires separation from MSW or IBA
Sold for re-smelting
APC residues ( including fly ash, agents and waste H2O )
Hazardous waste for disposal
Emissions to atmosphere
Cleaned burning merchandises
Table 5.1 -Outputs from incineration procedures
Incineration works cost
Capital costs of an incinerator are extremely dependent on the quality of waste to be processed, engineering employed and its location. The costs will consist those associated with the purchase of the incinerator works, and besides costs for land procurance and readying prior to edifice and besides indirect costs, such as planning, allowing, contractual support and proficient and fiscal services over the development rhythm.
Examples of incineration works capital costs are provided below:
50,000 tpa ?25m
136,000 tpa ?35m
265,000 tpa ?51m
Incineration workss with energy recovery in Scotland
Presently the UK has 19 incinerators in operation processing MSW. In 2005-2006, they processed approx 2.8 MM tones of MSW per annum produced in England. As illustrations of incinerators with energy recovery in Scotland there are Dundee ( 14 ) and Shetland ( 15 ) Waste to Energy Plants.
DERL Waste to Energy Plant, Dundee ( 120,000tpa ) .
Value: ?35 MM
Construction period: 140 hebdomads
Year completed: 1999
The works consumes 2.2 MW for in-house burden and exports 8.2 MW to the grid. 10.5 MW are produced by a individual steam turbine generator.
Shetland Waste to Energy Plant, Shetland Islands ( 26,000tpa )
Project period: 1994-200
Client: Shetland Island Council
Investing: Turnkey contract approx 100 MM DKK
Heating consequence: 7 MW
The works consists of a fire tubing boiler with a supply temperature of 1150C. Further, 100 % chilling capacity is installed
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Air and Land
MSW incinerators are normally fed with a assorted waste flow and combustion of such waste leads to risky substances ab initio present within the waste being mobilised into releases from the incineration works. Whatever control engineering is applied, all types of incineration consequence in releases of toxic substances as ashes and in gases to air. These substances comprise heavy metals, assorted organic compounds, such as dioxins, furans, H fluoride, and C dioxide. Therefore, for the continuance of incineration, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins ( dioxins ) and dibenzofurans ( furans ) , hexachlorobenzene ( HCB ) , and polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCB ) may be by chance generated and released. Pollutants that are emitted into the ambiance from incinerator stack, every bit good as ephemeral emanations, may be deposited on the dirt near to the incinerator and pollute the local environment.
Since the country environing the Loch of Skene is largely agricultural, it may impact the productiveness and quality of agricultural merchandises ( dirt and harvests taint ) . These pollutants including dioxins and PCBs may besides be transported to great distances by air currents. Live stock may besides take in pollutants, mostly through feeding of contaminated flora.
The Loch of Skene is indicated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest ( SSSI ) , Special Protected Area ( SPA ) and Ramsar Site with an of import roost of Iceland Graylag Goose and Icelandic Whooper Swan. An incineration works during the building and operating stages may destruct these comparatively little and sensitive ecosystems.
All types of incinerators produce dioxin. Dioxin causes wellness jobs including malignant neoplastic disease, altered sexual development, generative jobs, and suppression of the immune system, diabetes and hormonal effects.
Water pollution may originate during the building and operation stages of the proposed incinerator. The major subscriber of H2O pollution for the continuance of development comes from deposits transported to streams ensuing from dirt eroding and disposal of sewerage from the building cantonment and site office. After completion and commissioning of the works, sewerage from the works countries and waste H2O watercourse from chilling H2O blow down, rinsing and seepage storage cavity may be the major beginnings of H2O pollution. Since there are godforsaken H2O intervention workss build in Dunecht and Lyne of Skene and these discharge foods to the Kinnernie and Kirktonbridge Burnss, which later drain into the loch, the Loch of Skene is considered to be at high hazard of neglecting to accomplish good ecological position. Water quality in the Loch of Skene is Class 2, which means it has been significantly altered by human activities ( 16 ) .
UK authorities support on development new incineration installations
Local councils may object
Develop local assets
Long-run contract to bringing of waste to incineration works
High investing cost
Monetary values of energy from waste incinerators have to fixed by gov.
Inability to pay the full intervention fee
Introduce new occupations to country
Impact on local agreeableness
Build visitant Centre to enable local groups to see works and larn dallier about incineration procedure
Expostulation and protest from concerned citizens
Significantly cut down the sum of waste to be landfilled
Measure and quality of waste
Use waste-to-energy engineering
Poor working waste direction system
High degree of emanations criterions
Air emanations, noise, dust, smell
Introduce environmental systems and control to assist bolster image
Poor works direction
Table 6.1 -SWOT/PEST analysis
The rule of hazard appraisal is to measure the possible hazard to human wellness, safety and the environment finding the chance of jobs to happen, and researching alternate solutions. This involves seting extenuations in topographic point by finding countries, where initial hazard diminution should be considered.
Figure 4.1 - Hazard appraisal matrix
1 = Very High Hazard ; Additional Considerations Required
2 = High Risk ; Additional Considerations Required
3 = Moderate Risk ; Additional Considerations Recommended.
4 = Possible Risk ; Additional Considerations at Discretion of the Team
5 = Negligible Risk ; Additional Considerations Not Required
S = Severity, L = Likelihood, RR = Risk Ranking.
Noise and dust
building activities and truck traffic
Impact on local roads and the agreeableness of local occupants
On-site operation activities, care and fix of equipment, control and timing of noise emanations, informing local community
Land renewal and building activities
Waste conveyance and disposal in preies for reuse or in landfills
Health and safety
Accidents to workers and members of the local community
Lack of safety ordinances and uncontrolled entree to the building site
Provide protective shutting, follow safety ordinances, prevent unauthorized entree to the building site by fencing and dark security guard
Land renewal and building activities
devastation of the natural ecosystem at the installation site
Paving of storage and operation countries, drainage and effluent direction
From waste trucks during waste transit and handling
Impact on local roads and the agreeableness of local occupants
Pull offing of offloading processs during bringings, good housework
Truck traffic and operation of the incinerator
Impact on local roads and the agreeableness of local occupants
On-site operation activities, care and fix of equipment, control of timing of noise emanations,
Min 500 m off from residential countries
Waste bringings and storage
Impact on human wellness
Covered waste trucks, response hall with an automatically closed door, little negative force per unit area to forestall odour get awaying
Spillage of ash
Leached by surface H2O into the environing drainage system
Loss of risky waste to open H2O
Regular site cleansing, control of all processs
Dust, calcium hydroxide and ash, release to the air from the installing
Impact on human wellness
Delivery and storage direction of fuels, natural stuffs, byproducts and waste
Health and safety jeopardies
Emission of dioxins and other toxic pollutants from the stack
Impact on human wellness, perchance carcinogenic and to be a tumour booster
Using activated C, dry calcium hydroxide and fabric filters to command dioxin emanations
Continuous monitoring and describing emanations of NOx, CO, SO2, PM10, HCL, TOC from the stack,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATIONS
The proposed undertaking of an Incineration works installing near the Loch of Skene could ensue in inauspicious environmental impacts on really sensitive loch ecosystems. The local community is besides at hazard of possible impacts of pollutants released from the stack of the waste incinerator. There is a high hazard with allowing issues because the Loch of Skene is a Site of Special Scientific Interest ( SSSI ) , Special Protected Area ( SPA ) and Ramsar Site.
The site of incinerator should be moved to the bing landfill ( for illustration, the Crows Nest Landfill Site, Banchory, an one-year capacity of 74,000 metric tons ) , where the location is already far from the communities and will non upset them because its operation is the same as that of the landfill operation ; it would besides cut down the cost.
It is suggested that the apply incineration procedure should be designed to retrieve energy from the waste processed by bring forthing electricity and/or heat to be used on site and exported off site.
It is suggested impersonal nomenclature, the `` MSW Processing Plant '' should be applied alternatively of the `` MSW Incineration Plant '' .
The Design and Architecture of the Plant should non resemble a typical incineration works.
The sum of incinerated waste should non transcend the landfill capacity.
Hazardous waste should be separated before waste is burned in the incinerator.
The pollutant control engineering should be applied to command the sum of emanations and their contents based on the Pollution Prevention and Control ( Scotland ) Regulations 2000.
Figure 5.1 - Waste Management Facilities: Landfill ( Scotland )
- Crows Nest Landfill location, Banchory
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