Education Essays – Egypt Education System
Egypt Education System
The extension of the free compulsory instruction jurisprudence in 1981 was one of the grounds to unite the Preparatory Stage, both Primary and Preparatory stages ( Ages 6 through 14 ) together under the label Basic Education, as instruction beyond this phase depends on the pupil ‘s ability. Egypt operates two corresponding instruction systems: the secular system and the spiritual, or Al-Azhar system.
The secular system consists of basic instruction which covers the first 8 eight old ages of schooling.
The 2nd degree divides pupils between three-year general academic secondary schools and three or five-year vocational schools, as there are three different types of secondary instruction which are general, proficient, and vocational Technical instruction. These types of instruction are provided in three-year and five-year plans, and include schools in three different Fieldss: industrial, commercial and agricultural. The 3rd degree is universities.
The Al-Azhar system, which maintains separate installations for male and female from primary to university degree, enrolls 4 per centum of the country’s entire pupils, and is responsible for conveying the mission of Islam and uncovering its part to humanity’s public assistance and advancement. In this system, primary school extends over the first 6 old ages, and preparative school for the following three old ages. Students who successfully complete 4 old ages of secondary school can inscribe at Al-Azhar University.2 Al-Azhar University, which is considered to be the bastion of Islamic cognition in Egypt, was founded in AD 970.
There are two sorts of authorities schools in Egypt which are Arabic Schools and Experimental Language Schools. Arabic Schools provide the governmental national course of study in the Arabic Language ; nevertheless, experimental Language Schools teach most of the authorities course of study in English, and add Gallic as a 2nd foreign linguistic communication.
Furthermore, there are three sorts of private schools. As Government schools, private schools besides has different types such as ordinary schools, linguistic communication schools, and spiritual schools. First, Ordinary schools have the same manner of instruction of the authorities schools with more concentration on the pupils want and services provided to them. Second, linguistic communication schools have the same educational stuffs as the authorities with the exclusion that all those stuffs are taught in different linguistic communications ; this is beside the high fees those schools requires.
The 3rd type of private instruction is spiritual that are established or controlled by Muslim Brotherhood. Their educational course of study is wholly unlike the authorities and Azhar schools. Private schools on Egypt are considered the best instruction because of high and assorted installations offered by those schools. This educational system is supervises by the ministry of instruction
However, the Azhar instruction system is supervised by the Supreme Council of the Al-Azhar Institution and considered to be independent from the Ministry of Education, but is finally under supervising by the Egyptian Prime Minister. The Azhar schools are named “ Institutes ” and besides portion the same phases as the normal educational system which both include primary, preparatory, and secondary instruction.
The Azhar schools in all stages teach non-religious topics, to a certain grade ; nevertheless, the bulk of the course of study consists of spiritual topics. All the pupils are Muslims, and males and females are separated in all stages. The Azhar schools are spread all over the state, but overly in rural countries. The alumnuss of the Azhar secondary schools are eligible to go on their surveies merely at the Al-Azhar University. In the early 2000s, the Azhar schools accounted for less than 4 % of the entire registration.
There are both private and public universities of higher instruction in Egypt. The difference between them is that Public higher instruction is free in Egypt, and Egyptian pupils merely pay enrollment fees, but Private instruction is much more expensive and is considered to b for the elite, as alumnuss of such schools by and large do really good on their concluding secondary school scrutinies, which ensures them entree to what are considered as elect modules.
Presently 98 per centum of alumnuss from secondary schools enter higher instruction. The higher instruction sector in Egypt is comprised of universities and establishments of proficient and professional preparation. The system is made up of 12 public universities, 51public non-university establishments, and 4 private ( for net income ) universities.
In May 2000, there were 18 pending applications to open extra private for net income higher instruction establishments. Of the 51 non-university establishments, 47 are biennial in-between proficient institutes ( MTI ) , and 4 are four or five-year higher proficient institutes ( World Bank, 2000:1 ) .
The major public universities are Cairo University ( 100,000 pupils ) , Alexandria University, Ain Shams University, and the 1,000-year-old Al-Azhar University. While the American University in Cairo, the German University in Cairo and the Universite Francaise d’Egypte is of the taking private universities in Egypt.
Entry into the secular university system is based on the consequences of the Secondary Educational stage. Harmonizing to the article “Egypt, ” “only pupils go toing general academic secondary schools were eligible to matriculate ; nevertheless since 1970 universities have been inscribing some pupils from vocational schools. The Placement Bureau of the Ministry of Higher Education controls admittance, and there is alegion clausesimposed by the Supreme Council of Universities ( SCU ) on admittance at institutional and province levels” .
Al-Azhar University system, unlike other systems, requires certain certifications like a Secondary School Certificate from the Al-Azhar instruction system and a Certificate of Koran Recitation from a Koran Recitation Institute or keep an Al-Azhar sheepskin.
Non-university instruction is offered by industrial, commercial, and proficient institutes which provide 2-year classs taking to diplomas in accounting, secretarial work, insurance, computing machine or wellness scientific disciplines and electronics. Technical instruction schools provide 5-year classs taking to progress proficient instruction sheepskin in commercial, industrial, and agricultural Fieldss.
Although the American University in Cairo ( AUC ) has existed since 1919 as a private university, Egypt merely legalized Egyptian private universities in 1992 when the People’s Assembly passed a Law # 101 leting the constitution of private universities. The most indispensable consideration is that the Minister for Education must O.K. the assignment of private university, as presidents, and non-Egyptians can non busy taking places in private universities without the ministry’s blessing.
The 2nd critical facet is that the Supreme Council of Universities indirectly supervises private universities and is responsible for monitoring criterions to guarantee that graduation certifications from province and private universities represent an equal instruction degree compared with the governmental certifications. “In May 2002, the private universities’ commission was replaced with theprivateuniversities’ council.The council has the same powers as the Supreme Council of Universities, which regulates public universities.”
Many Peoples assume that private higher instruction establishments in Egypt are s establishments that “sell”grades to those who can afford the university expanses. Critics of private higher instruction in Egypt besides argue that private higher instruction is at odds with the rules of the1952 Revolution, which called for equal entree to educational chances for all citizens.
Egypt is considered the state that has the largest higher instruction systems in the 3rd universe as it contains about 1.670 million pupils. Egypt relies in its instruction on biennial proficient institutes to go on supplying entree to all secondary school alumnuss while protecting the already overfed universities. Technical institutes enroll 40 per centum of all secondary school alumnuss.
This deficiency of fiscal, human, and material resources consequences in hapless quality instruction in most universities and is considered by many people as non academic establishment. The figure of higher instruction pupils per 100,000 dwellers is 1,900 in Egypt compared to 1,132 in Morocco ; 1,236 in Algeria ; and 1,253 in Tunisia. Surveies on the societal category and educational backgrounds of province university pupils have revealed inequalities of entree to what are considered as high status/elite modules.
To better the educational system in Egypt administration and control of higher instruction should be obtained by the Ministry of Higher Education, the Supreme Council of Universities ( SCU ) , and the Central Administration of Al-Azhar Institutes.
The Ministry of Higher Education has a legal authorization over higher instruction by oversing and commanding the instruction, planning, policy devising, and quality control on primary and preparative schools and developing for basic instruction for instructors.
The Supreme Council of Universities formulates is the 1 responsible for policy devising and decision making or commanding the figure of pupils to be admitted to each module in each university.
Furthermore, supervising and disposal of the Al-Azhar higher instruction system is the duty of theCardinal Administration of Al-Azhar Institutes, which is a section of the Supreme Council of Al-Azhar that is responsible for the development of the general policy and planning to enable the spread of Islamic civilization and Arabic linguistic communication.
In official discourse, instruction in Egypt is “free” from basic to higher instruction. While officially the province is responsible for funding higher instruction in Egypt, the state’s portion of higher instruction finance for universities was reduced to 85 per centum in 1994-1995, go forthing the universities to bring forth the staying 15 per centum through assorted gross variegation schemes.
Sanyal ( 1998:16 ) , and the World Bank ( 2000:40-41 ) place the undermentioned gross variegation schemes adopted by Egyptian universities:
( a ) Charging nominal tuition fees for alternate academic plans that are perceived to be of high quality and presenting other relevant fees. For illustration, province universities have introduced foreign linguistic communication plans for which they charge tuition. Some public universities charge ?E1,000 as tuition for a degree plan in Commerce which uses English as a medium of direction. The figure of appliers in some degree plans in public universities exceeds available infinites, a phenomenon which gives room for universities to bear down tuition. While the tuition charged in this instance is still merely about 33 per centum of the existent cost of the plan, this agreement sets a case in point towards cost recovery in public establishments ( World Bank, 2002:40 ) .
Besides, in recent old ages, a new system of admittance to the modules of Law, Commerce, and Humanistic disciplines allows a less qualified pupil to obtain a topographic point on paying an admittance fee of ?E 360 ( Sanyal, op cit ) . The impact of this pattern on the quality has been negative as manifested by a high figure of reiterating pupils in universities.
Egyptian pupils pay between ?E30-?E150 per twelvemonth as a nominal tuition fee in authorities funded universities. In add-on, they besides pay necessary equipment, books, transit, and abode fees. The pattern of bear downing nominal tuition fees in Egyptian public universities goes as far back as 1924 when the Egyptian University ( now Cairo University ) started bear downing ?E30 per twelvemonth for all modules with the exclusion of the pharmacological medicine section that charged ?E20 per twelvemonth. This university besides imposed a non-refundable scrutiny fee of ?E1.16 Tuition fee in private universities range from
E15,000-25,000. The American University in Cairo-the oldest private university in Egypt, charges a tuition fee of US $ 2,813 for 6 credits and US $ 469 for each extra recognition.
( B ) Income coevals by specialised university centres from:
( 1 ) Cooperation with industry ;
( 2 ) Patent rights ;
( 3 ) Provision of go oning instruction to industrial employees ;
( 4 ) Entree to research lab and scientific equipment ;
( 5 ) Manufacturing intermediate industrial merchandises ;
In add-on, In 1998, theInternational Finance Corporation ( IFC) conducted an extended feasibleness survey onthe market for pupil loans in post-secondary instruction in Egypt.This survey recommendedagainstestablishing a pupil loan plan due to the undermentioned grounds: ( a ) limited market size ; ( B ) underdeveloped debt/credit market ; ( degree Celsius ) cultural attitude uncomfortable with personal debt and loans ; and ( vitamin D ) deficiency of a consumer recognition bureau
( World Bank, 2000 op cit: 41 ) .
As a consequence of the above recommendations, the Egyptian Government by 2000 was be aftering to set upa ?E100 million-loan planfor destitute university pupils. Under this proposed loan strategy, pupils who canprovethat they are in demand of fiscal aid for education-related disbursals will be eligible to have up to?E1000 pertwelvemonthin authorities loans. The loans are to be involvement free and refund will be spread out over a period of 40 old ages after graduation.
Problems and challenges in Egyptian higher instruction system are analyzed in the World Bank’sHigher Education Enhancement Project,which is a portion of a comprehensive reform scheme for higher instruction in Egypt. The higher instruction reform docket was influenced by the National Conference on Higher Education, held in February 2000, and aims to turn to Egypt’s demand to upgrade educational quality in the university sector.
Egyptian higher instruction sector faces a figure of challenges including: ( I ) antiquated system-wide administration and direction ; ( two ) low quality and relevancy at the university degree ; ( three ) low quality and relevancy at the in-between proficient degree ; and ( four ) limited financial sustainability of publically financed registrations ( World Bank, 2000:1 ) .
The job of financially weak registrations is related to the dramatic addition in registrations in university instruction.For illustration, registrations increased by 42 per centum between 1997/98 and 1998/99 taking to an 8 per centum diminution in per -student disbursement that exacerbated disparities in resource allotment between modules ( World Bank,
2002:41 ) .
While the overall outgo on instruction as a proportion of GDP has grown from 3.9 per centum in 1991 to 5.9 per centum in 1998 with higher instruction having a 28 per centum portion of entire outgo in 1998, the dramatic growing of the higher instruction pupil population in Egypt creats a serious job in funding higher instruction. Given the high population growing in higher instruction, to merely keep the portion of 18-22 age group at its present 20 per centum degree ( this is an official policy ) would necessitate on norm an extra 60,000 new registrations in higher instruction for the following 10 old ages ( World
Bank, 2000:2 ) . The authorities has no fiscal ability to make this.