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Economic and Employment Opportunities of Tourism in Bangladesh : a Study on Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation

Economic and Employment Opportunities of Tourism in Bangladesh : A Study on Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation 1. Prelude The New Millennium and the coming decades are very much crucial for the developing countries to achieve sustainable economic growth. Tourism is considered to be a large income generator of the world economy contributing over 10 percent to Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

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For at least one third of the developing countries, the tourism receipts are the main source of export revenue and the tourism industry generates sustainable economic benefits to the developing countries.

The exceptional growth of tourism over the last 50 years is going to be one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of the 21st century. The number of international arrivals shows an evolution from a mere 25 million arrivals in 1950 to the 763 million of 2004 representing an average annual growth rate of more than 7 percent over a period of 50 years – well above the average annual economic growth rate for the same period. Tourism has clearly outperformed all the other sectors of the economy and has grown into the most significant economic activity in the world.

The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007 of World Economic Forum (WEF), which aims to explore the factors and policies driving travel and tourism competitiveness in nations worldwide, has found Bangladesh fourth from the last among 124 countries. Endless neglect to this sector by the successive governments is to blame for the sad situation. Bangladesh has been ranked 120th. Among the neighbors, India is ranked 65th, Sri Lanka 79th, Pakistan 103rd and Nepal 106th. In 2006, the sector generated 10. 3 percent of world gross domestic product (GDP), providing 234 million jobs ; or 8. percent of total world employment. Tourism has many faces, eco-tourism is one of them. Eco-tourism is comparatively a new term in tourism literature. The term “Eco-tourism” blends “ecology” and “tourism” and covers the scope of tourism that draws upon natural, manmade and cultural environments. Eco-tourism came into prominence in the eighties as a strategy for reconciling conservation with development in ecologically rich areas. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC), the National Tourism Organization of the country was established in 1973.

It is of earnest importance to evaluate the role played by the BPC over the last 35 years (1973-2007) for the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh and to find out what are the challenges faced by the BPC to develop the tourism industry in Bangladesh and finally to explore the possibilities of economic and employment opportunities of Bangladesh through tourism. No comprehensive study has so far been done in this regard. The proposed research will attempt to fill up this gap. 2. Statement of the Problem The term ‘Tourism’ or ‘Tourist’ was first used as official term in 1937 by the League of Nations. Tourism’ or ‘Tourist’ is a word related to the word ‘tour’ which is derived from the Latin word ‘tornus’ which means a tool for describing a circle or a turner’s wheel. It is from this word, that the notion of a ‘round tour’ or a ‘package tour’ has become popular. Many countries view tourism as part of their development strategy and as an economic alternative to traditional economic sectors such as agriculture and industry. Rapid development in the means of transport and communication has made the world into practically one single neighborhood. There are several benefits from tourism.

Tourism plays a sizeable role in national prosperity. The foreign exchange earnings earned by the industry increase foreign exchange reserves and positively affect the balance of payments. Tourism has become the third source of foreign exchange earner, after ready-made garments industry and gems and jewelries. In 2006, the Government of Bangladesh has earned 5000 million taka from this sector. Tourism generates employment opportunities in many sectors, particularly in remote and backward areas. It is highly labor intensive and it offers employment opportunities to skilled and unskilled workers alike.

Tourism has a tremendous employment potential, both direct (travel agents, transport operators, hotels, guides) and indirect (handicrafts, increased demands for foods, clothes, etc. ). According to the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007 of World Economic Forum (WEF), in Bangladesh tourism contributes 1. 5 percent to the GDP and it provides 1. 2 percent employment opportunity of the total employment. Tourism can also stimulate investments in new infrastructure, much of which helps to improve the living conditions of local citizens.

The development goals of the government is to create infrastructure facilities on par with international standards. Proceeds from tourism help to maintain and develop the already existing infrastructural facilities. Tourism offers enormous scope for properly maintaining monuments, palaces, natural attractions etc. In addition to the economic benefits, travel opportunities promote social and political understanding among nations and cultures. People belonging to different cultures and social backgrounds come together to break down prejudices and inhibitions that too often exist among ethnically and sociological diverse groups.

The benefits of tourism are especially important for a developing country like Bangladesh. Both from economic and social points of view, tourism can play an important role in Bangladesh’s development. The World Tourism Organization estimates that the total number of international tourists will reach about one billion in 2010. South Asian country currently captures only one percent of this market, but the number of international tourists is expected to grow by 7. 2 percent per annum between 2000-2010. With this perspective the necessary growth stimulus and arrangements are largely absent in Bangladesh.

Under the circumstances, what BPC and private sector can jointly perform in near future in boosting up this vital sector of our economy is a big question. This study is undertaken to have some answers to this question. 2. 1Definition of Key Terms For this study there are three key terms such as opportunity, tourism and the BPC. The key terms are defined below: Opportunity A time or occasion that is suitable for a certain purpose; a favorable combination of circumstances. It can also be defined as a favorable or advantageous circumstance or combination of circumstances.

Tourism has two types of opportunities such as economic and employment opportunities. Tourism Tourism is a service based industry comprising a number of tangible and intangible elements. The tangible elements include transport, foods and beverages, tours, souvenirs and accommodation, while the intangible elements involve education, culture, adventure or simply escape and relaxation. It can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. Tourism means the business of providing accommodation and services for people visiting a people.

BPC Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC), the National Tourism Organization of the country was established in 1973. It is an autonomous organization and has been placed under the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism. It has the dual responsibility of development of related tourist facilities and promotional activities to project the tourist products thus to create a favorable image of the country. 2. 2BPC and Its Structure 2. 2. 1Emergence of BPC Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC), the National Tourism Organization of the country was established in 1973.

It is an autonomous organization and has been placed under the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism. 2. 2. 2Structure of BPC The Governing Body of BPC consists of a full-time Chairman and minimum two and maximum four Directors. At present, one Chairman and three Directors are employed in the organization. 2. 2. 3Objectives of BPC The objectives of BPC are as follows: •To introduce Bangladesh globally as a top tourist destination and develop its tourism prospects and facilities. •To establish tourism infrastructure in Bangladesh. •To develop, expand and promote tourism business. To create tourism awareness among the people. •To establish institutes for instruction and training of potential tourism personnel. •To publish tourism publications. 2. 2. 4National Tourism Policy The National Tourism Policy was declared in 1992. Its main objectives are: ? To create interest in tourism among the people ?To preserve, protect, develop and maintain tourism resources ? To take steps for poverty-alleviation through creating employment ? To build a positive image of the country abroad ?To open up a recognized sector for private capital investment ?

To arrange entertainment and recreation ?To strengthen national solidarity and integrity. In line with the policy, the Government provides incentives to attract private sectors partners. The incentives include tax-holiday, loans, concession rates for taxes and duties and in specific cases, allotment of land etc. 2. 2. 5Tourist Arrivals Foreign tourist arrivals in Bangladesh has been showing an upward trend in the recent years. Statistics of the last 10 years are presented below: Table 1:Foreign Visitors Arrival by Months (1996-2005) Month1996199719981999200020012002200320042005

January15609176001448517663231602554823711221932367020213 February13011164901980014022187302072416152190412501215848 March9878174851739415323159822006217898165062426219853 April11112144531814313730149761921615372152992317316234 May12402147881316913430156471592615771179961495918535 June11178133111207612484142121660615754218672302017496 July14016128301247513688148091551714345229572699119773 August13282134841134813016133991673914315190412193815292 September1226312468998611529128741101513022179681986013166 October15582156881512717126158551305318601234982178515568 November15827169711390915388194891526517136210282720818399 December21727168521404915380200781752825169271151939217285 Total165887182420171961172779199211207199207246244509271270207662 percentage Change6. 189. 97-5. 730. 4815. 34. 010. 0217. 9810. 94-23. 45 Source:Special Branch From Table-1, we can say that the foreign visitors are increasing day by day. But total percent is changing. In 1996, total percent change was 6. 18 percent. In 1997, it was increased to 9. 97 percent.

But in 1998, it was negative for example –5. 73 percent. In 2005, it was also negative like –23. 45 percent. Figure 1:Foreign Visitors Arrival by Months (1996-2005) From Figure 1, we can say that as per foreign visitors’ arrival by months, January is the peak season of foreign tourists and September is the dull season. Figure 2 : Foreign Visitors Arrival 1996-2005 From Figure 2, we can say that 2004 is the highest year in the context of foreign visitors arrival. The year 1996 is the lowest. 2. 2. 6Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism and Other Travels Table 2:Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism & Other Travels (1996-2005) Month1996199719981999200020012002200320042005

January70. 20231. 80351. 20184. 90227. 80273. 80297. 50259. 00457. 00450. 42 February73. 40106. 50146. 00224. 90261. 60218. 10260. 60327. 00393. 70502. 73 March81. 30142. 60302. 70255. 30230. 90196. 10336. 20355. 90425. 90468. 50 April84. 20130. 50170. 60207. 20234. 00219. 00312. 50241. 10309. 40335. 56 May121. 80182. 90161. 70172. 30210. 70240. 50282. 70226. 30305. 00347. 95 June137. 10172. 20176. 80182. 70193. 10221. 70313. 00288. 00279. 70301. 23 July98. 10156. 70167. 50167. 00234. 80207. 10267. 50302. 30303. 60296. 98 August111. 40145. 20192. 50182. 80129. 30170. 50251. 50232. 00285. 90354. 61 September99. 40692. 80154. 50179. 70218. 10193. 0245. 90217. 30293. 10334. 14 October157. 40256. 10167. 30186. 10239. 40187. 00205. 00265. 10247. 90332. 67 November176. 50253. 20245. 50280. 50234. 50234. 80277. 70224. 20250. 42324. 45 December190. 40270. 90215. 50218. 50212. 80291. 80262. 5371. 80415. 94444. 65 Total1401. 202741. 42451. 82441. 926272653. 83312. 633103967. 64493. 9 Percentage Change46. 6995. 65-10. 45-0. 127. 141. 0224. 82-0. 08-19. 8713. 37 Million $33. 5962. 4552. 3749. 9550. 3747. 5657. 2156. 9866. 8270. 01 Source: Special Branch From Table 2, we can say that 2005 is the highest foreign exchange earnings year from tourism and other travels and the year 1996 is the lowest.

Table-2 shows that the foreign exchange earnings is gradually increasing day by day. Figure 2:Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism & Other Travels (1996-2005) From Figure 3, we can say that February, 2005 is the highest foreign exchange earnings month. Figure 3:Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism & Other Travels (1996-2005) From Figure 4, we can say that 2005 is the highest foreign earnings year and 1996 is the lowest. 2. 3Panorama of Tourism in Bangladesh Bangladesh is a combination of verdant forests, riverine countrysides, and long stretches of sun-bathed beaches, fearsome wildness, meandering rivers and magnificent world’s largest mangrove forest.

Bordering the Bay of Bengal stands this magical tapestry in green with all the glory of its past and the splendid colors of its natural present. These unique products possess a great potential for environment friendly tourism. The country is home to the Royal Bengal Tigers, leopards, Asiatic elephants, monkeys, langur, gibbons (the only ape in the subcontinent), otters and mongooses. Reptiles include the sea tortoise, mud turtle, river tortoise, pythons, crocodiles, gharials and a variety of snakes. There are more than 600 species of birds, including the Paradise Flycatcher and the most spectacular kingfishers and fishing eagles. 2. 3. 1 Scope of Tourism in Bangladesh Bangladesh has many attractive spots from the viewpoint of tourism.

These spots are divided into two categories based on nature and culture. Natural Areas Under this category the first one is the unique and magnificent Sundarbans Mangrove Forest, which is the world’s largest mangrove forest and the home of the world renowned Royal Bengal Tiger, the most ferocious predatory animal on earth. As being the World Natural Heritage declared by the UNESCO, this mangrove forest now belongs not only to Bangladesh, but also to the whole world, though the responsibility to protect the forest lies with Bangladesh. Among the other spots, Chittagong hill districts are mentionable where 13 tribal groups live in an area of about 2592. 1 square kilometers.

The biodiversity and natural beauties of the hilly areas along with the different customs and traditions of the localities could be an attractive subject to the tourists. Besides the Sundarbans, numerous mighty rivers, paddy fields stretched up to the horizon, picturesque tea gardens and Chittagong Hill Tracts, St. Martin’s Island, Rangamati and Kaptai Lake are also potential tourism products on their own attraction. Cultural Areas In this category the 14th century pre-Mogul period Shat Gambuz Mosque at Bagerhat has been declared as a world heritage by UNESCO in 1985. Besides, our pre-Mogul and Mogul period mosques, Hindu temples and ancient Buddhist monasteries have great appeal to the eco-tourists, who like cultural heritage.

The 8th century Paharpur Buddhist Monastery in Naogaon, another world heritage declared by UNESCO, is the single largest Buddhist monastery in the world. Whereas Borobodhur in Indonesia which is half of the size of Paharpur Monastery earns no less than us $ 500 million per annum; in the latter case the scenario is completely opposite of Bangladesh only for well publicity. Moreover, the ancient civilizations like Mohasthangar in Bogra, ancient Buddhist Monasteries and stupas/temples in Mainamoti, pre-Mogul period Kusumba Mosque in Rajshahi, Chhoto Sona Mosque of the same period in Chapai Nababganj, Lalbagh Kella in Dhaka, Govinda Shiva and Jagannath Temples in Rajshahi can also be world heritage sites.

Above all, the multi-faceted folk heritage enriched by its ancient animist, Buddhist, Hindu and Muslim roots, weaving, pottery, and terracotta sculpture are some of the earliest forms of artistic expressions to attract the sustainable tourists. 2. 3. 2 Necessary Steps Required for the Tourist Spots Although in Bangladesh we have some world-class tourism spots both natural and cultural, unfortunately all the spots are almost unknown to the foreign tourists and consequently are not attracted by them. In the following part the steps for developing nature-based and culture-based spots are mentioned respectively. 2. 3. 3 Nature-based Tourist Spots Mangrove Forest of Sundarbans deserves attention from the tourists.

Necessary steps should be taken so that the tourism organization worldwide may highlight the destinations like Sundarbans forest. For example, in the Sundarbans forest areas Mawalis are allowed to enter the forests in the months of April and May for collecting honey. The Forest Department only permits them with a paper slip. They enter the forest and destroy the honey combs and kill the bees drastically and brutally during of collecting honey. This happens because the collection is never scientific and systematic. If this could be managed scientifically and properly, the local Mawalis will be benefited economically, the forest areas will be rich in biodiversity.

Ultimately everything in the honey harvest will be environmentally sound. The natural honey production in the Sundarbans areas by the endemic species of bees is unique in the world. It is necessary to take serious measures in the field not only for economic benefits but also for conservation of unique natural beauties in the forests. All the steps in this forest should be taken in such manner so that every flora and fauna can be able to generate their respective species in an optimal trend; moreover, tourist spots should be placed in those points from which no threats can be created to the ecosystem of Sundar bans. Next to Sunder bans, Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) can be mentioned under nature-based tourist spots.

The tourist spot approach and practice is necessary in this area not only for local tribes and castes but also for conservation of their traditions so that this hilly region can be one of the most spectacular sustainable tourism areas. 2. 3. 4 Culture-based Tourist Spots In Bangladesh, there are many culture based tourist spots where the local people can be involved for increasing total number of tourists in the country. There are such possibilities we have in Bangladesh, but all of them cannot be brought into practice for description, only few can be taken. In Bangladesh almost all of the ancient Temples and Monasteries are found neglected although they may be the attractive spots for tourists.

It is found that the last 12 kilometers of the road to Paharpur Monastery from Naogaon is extremely narrow and full of potholes. The construction of a new approach road to the monastery, having less than three kilometer of length, can save tourists from traversing though that horrible 12 kilometers of potholed road. For some restoration works and beautification of the monastery site, the government needs to spend some money. That investment will pay the country high return annually in foreign currency for years. 2. 4Research Questions i)What are the possibilities of economic and employment opportunities of Bangladesh through tourism? ii)What role is BPC playing in this regard? ii)What are the past growths and challenges of tourism in Bangladesh? iv)How can the challenges be overcome? v)How can tourism be flourished as a great potential for the economic development? A modest attempt will be made in this study to get answers of the above questions. In view of the above inquiries the following objectives are set for the study. 3. Objectives of the Study The study is designed to achieve the following objectives: (i)Broad Objective: The broad objective of the study is to analyze past growth trends and challenges of tourism and to explore the economic and employment opportunities of tourism and to evaluate the role of BPC in developing tourism industry of Bangladesh. ii)Specific Objectives: The specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1)To analyze the growth trends of tourism and its importance in relation to economic development of Bangladesh (2)To study the growth trends, performance and role of BPC (3)To see the possible benefits of eco-tourism (4)To examine the tourism market of the country and to examine the policies and programmes to attract the tourists (5)To assess the employment opportunity created in the tourism sector (6) To identify the challenges of tourism and to project the future of tourism market in Bangladesh. 4. Review of Literature It is worth noting that the review of literature provides an understanding of the issues closely related to the topic. Moreover, it is a crying need to justify the research under-study and to find out the knowledge gap in the field.

The researcher has studied a number of web-sites, books, articles, reports and manuscripts on tourism sector. It has been found that literature with specific focus on this sector is not sufficient. However, a brief review of literature is given below. 4. 1 Afroze (2007) “Eco-tourism and Green Productivity in Bangladesh” written by Afroze discusses the development of tourism market in Bangladesh. Firstly, he discusses the major tourist attractions like Cox’s Bazar, Hilly Districts, Paharpur etc. Secondly, he discusses the role of BPC and other government, semi-government and non-government agencies. Then he mentions prospects of eco-tourism in Bangladesh.

He tells that Bangladesh is endowed with the largest mangrove ecosystems in the world, the Sundarbans, the longest unspoiled natural sea-beach in the world, the largest man-made lake at Kaptai, and the Hilly Districts of Rangamati, Bandarban and Khagrachari and a vast offshore marine environment. He also discusses the role of government for the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh. He also tells that proper infrastructure is a prerequisite for the development of tourism. Lack of infrastructure has been one of the prime causes of slow tourism development in Bangladesh. He suggests that brochures and other promotional material could be distributed through all foreign missions in Bangladesh, through Bangladesh Biman, the national carrier.

This article gives the researcher a true picture of tourism market in Bangladesh. It will be very helpful to the researcher but it lacks overall discussion of growth and challenges of tourism in Bangladesh. So the scope of the present study is wider than that. 4. 2 Amin (2007) The author in his article named “The Role of Tourism in Bangladesh Economy” emphasizes the role of tourism in developing countries for their economic development. He mentions some positive benefits of tourism, i. e. , tourism offers the opportunity of providing jobs for different classes of people and thereby contributing to the alleviation of poverty in developing countries.

Tourism generates jobs directly through hotels, restaurants, taxis, souvenir sales and indirectly through the supply of goods and services needed by tourism related business. In addition, tourism can induce the local government to make infrastructural improvements and also make an important contribution to a country’s balance of payments. He also mentions that tourism development may be an important instrument for economic advancement for Bangladesh if necessary initiatives are taken. But he does not mention what initiatives are taken? He does not mention anything about the role of BPC for the development of tourism in Bangladesh. The article exists some limitations and the scope of it is narrow.

So the present research is an elaborative one. 4. 3 Bashar (2007) The author in his article titled “Services of Forests: Socio-cultural Roles and Nature-based Eco-tourism” defines eco-tourism, describes the eco-tourism spots and states the benefits of eco-tourism. He tells that in Bangladesh , we have some important forest areas Chittagong (Sitakondo, Karaerhat, Chunati), Cox’s Bazar (Eidgaon, Eidgar, Fashiakhali), Sylhet ( Lawasara and Rama Kalenga), Mymensingh (Sherpur), Tangail (Modhupur), Noakhali (Nijhum Islands) and Khulna ( Sundarbans : the largest mangrove) to be considered as the eco-tourism spots. This analysis is a partial one of tourism in Bangladesh.

It is not a wide analysis. It does not cover the role of BPC, the policies and initiatives of BPC to the tourism. So, the present study is wider than that. 4. 4 Firoz (2007) “Eco-tourism in Bangladesh” by Firoz defines eco-tourism and then shows the economic objectives of tourism in Bangladesh. He states that the tourism industry in countries like Bangladesh is driven by economic objectives, seeking an increase in taxes, job opportunities and infrastructure development. Then he defines eco-tourism and shows positive and negative benefits of eco-tourism. He states that the negative environmental impact of eco-tourism development is of serious concern.

In Nepal, for example, the rapid growth of the trekking industry has increased pollution in the Himalayas as well as Kathmandu and caused dangerous crowding and destruction of trails. This article has some limitations. The scope of it is not wide. The analysis of this article is a part of the tourism industry. 4. 5 Hasan (2004) The author in his article named “Developing Eco-tourism in Bangladesh” defines eco-tourism and tells the prospects of eco-tourism market in Bangladesh. He defines eco-tourism as nature and culture-based tourism. He mentions that in Bangladesh we have some world-class tourism products, both natural and cultural. Our Sundarbans is a nature-based world heritage designated by the UNESCO. It is the largest mangrove forest in the world.

The 8th century Paharpur Buddhist Monastery in Naogaon, a world heritage, is the single largest Buddhist Monastery in the world. He suggests that to attract more and more international eco-tourists to Bangladesh, we need to get recognition, such as the world heritage, from the UNESCO, for the world-class national heritage we have in our country. This article only discusses eco-tourism and its prospects which is part of our tourism industry. It does not cover the growth and challenges of tourism. He does not analyze the role of BPC. So the present study is wider than that. 4. 6 Haque (2006) “Tourism Industry in Bangladesh” written by Haque discusses various aspects of development of tourism industry in Bangladesh.

According to the author, tourism provides not only economic prosperity but also provides people with the opportunity to enrich themselves with new experience, enjoy the rare attractive things of other countries and gather knowledge about them. The author focuses that there is a vast potentiality to develop this industry in Bangladesh. This country has long tradition to accept the people from far and near for ages with enchanting natural beauty, archaeological and historical monuments, colorful culture and friendly people. The author describes various policies and initiatives taken by the BPC for the development of tourism industry in Bangladesh. This article is very sufficient for the researcher. But he does not mention the challenges of tourism faced by the BPC. So there exists some limitations. 4. Huque (2004) The author in his article titled “Eco-tourism and Some Rich Tourist Spots in Bangladesh” states that generally man wants to know what is unknown to him and to see what he has never seen. This ardent desire and inner urge has given rise the modern concept of tourism. Then he defines eco-tourism and he mentions some tourist spots which are best potential for eco-tourism. He tells that eco-tourism has originated from conscience of environment. He mentions that Bangladesh is blessed with two of the world’s splendid and enchanting eco-tourism spots the Sundarbans and the Chittagong Hill Tract. He also tells that the benefit of tourism is immense.

The scope of the article is not wide. It only analyzes eco-tourism and its prospects. It does not cover the overall discussion of tourism. 4. 8 Haque (2005) “Tourism: Our Gold Mine for Development” discusses that Bangladesh is a country blessed with marvelous stunning spectacles and potential tourist spots and unique topographical attractions which have served promising features worthy of taping for immense economic benefits and commercial tourism. He tells that tourism has earned its unique position as a wide range of business dimensions and is regarded like a goldmine for economic development and prosperity. This article will help the researcher very sufficiently.

But it does not cover all the things related to the tourism. 4. 9 Kabir and Bhuiya (2004) The authors in their article titled “Eco-tourism Development in Bangladesh: An Overview” state that in Bangladesh, eco-tourism is in its infancy. But she belongs to a high eco-tourism potentiality. Our forests, beaches, rivers, birds ethnic races would be the main attractions of eco-tourists. The paper is a modest attempt to explain the present situation of eco-tourism development in Bangladesh from development viewpoint and with a critical assessment. The paper is prepared based on published and unpublished secondary sources. The study helps the researcher very sufficiently.

It does not cover the growth and challenges of tourism in Bangladesh. So the scope of this study is limited. 4. 10 Kayemuddin (2005) The author in his article named “Golden Future of Tourism Industry in Bangladesh” states that Bangladesh is a country of full of fun and place of enjoyment. He tells that tourism is an important industry in any country. He mentions that there are some problems in the way to develop tourism in Bangladesh. The problems that identified are as follows : very limited spots are available for tourism, shortage of infrastructure, adequate attention has been focused, lack of appropriate programmes. internal air services limited etc.

He also states that the problems may be overcome through joint efforts of the Government and the Peolpe of Bangladesh. This article will help the researcher very sufficiently. But the scope of this is not wide. 4. 11 Mansur (2007) “Why is Tourism Lagging Behind in Bangladesh? ” by Mansur identifies the bottlenecks that are holding the industry back in Bangladesh and proposes reforms that could make tourism one of the biggest foreign exchange earning sectors in the country. He states that our tourism industry is full of problems and bottlenecks most of which are man-made and possible to overcome if we have sincerity in tackling them. A few challenges remain but for the moment it will be enough to work with what we can change and achieve easily.

He states that a national tourism organization that has the following qualities : it should be completely independent consisting of experienced professionals from the industry, it must be headed by an experienced professional from the industry etc. The analysis of this article is worthy for the researcher, but the scope of it is limited. 4. 12 Mondal (2006) The author in his article titled “Tourism Enriches” narrates a brief picture of tourism in Bangladesh. He says that the present tourism sector are faced some problems and constraints and these are – Bangladesh’s image problem abroad as a tourist destination, lack of knowledge among the planners and policy-makers, discontinuity in the implementation of policies and programmes for tourism promotion with the change of governments etc.

At last he comments that if Bangladesh can solve the above problems and constraints, she will shortly become an important destination for regional and international tourists. The article does not cover all the things related to tourism. So it is a limited one. 4. 13 Rahman (2007) The author in his article named “Bangladesh: A Host of Tourist Treasures” states that the tourism industry of Bangladesh has great potentials both as a foreign exchange earner and provider of job opportunities with the resultant multiplier effect on the country’s economy as a whole. He also tells that the BPC is primarily a tourism service provider and promoter of tourism product. He also focuses that Bangladesh has huge prospects of tourism.

He mentions some tourist spots like Cox’s Bazar, Kuakata, Sundarbans which have huge potentials. This article does not cover all the things related to the tourism sector. The scope of this article is limited. 4. 14 Salam (2007) The author in his article named “Eco-tourism Protect the Reserve Mangrove Forest, the Sunder bans and Its Flora and Fauna” describes that nature-oriented tourism can be one means to help achieve sustainability in the reserve forest as well as protecting the important world heritage site. He also states that well-planned tourism could provide economic and political incentives for proper management and for conservation and could ring additional benefit to local communities and regional economies. This article covers only specific things to the tourism sector. It does not cover the role and performance of the BPC. 4. 15 Siddiqi (2003) The author in his article named “Bangladesh as a Tourist Destination” identifies ‘eco-tourism’ as a new concept to develop tourism without disturbing ecological balance. The author identifies some problems of tourism sector such as lack of professionalism, negative image of the country, shortage of properly qualified and efficient manpower etc. These are causing hindrance to the development of tourism. The problem is so acute that the BPC has so far not been able to develop definite tourism products.

The analysis and explanation of this article is not sufficient. It only discusses the problems, but does not show any solution. 4. 16 Siddiqi (2007) The author in his article named “Bangladesh is Gold Mine of Eco-tourism Attractions” states that Bangladesh has wealth of eco-tourism attractions. He also states that the goal of eco-tourism development in Bangladesh should be to capture a portion of the enormous global tourism market by attracting visitors to natural areas and using the revenues, to find local conservation and fuel economic development. This is a partial analysis of tourism. It is not elaborative. It does not cover the growth and challenges of tourism in Bangladesh. 4. 17 Siddiqi (2007) Public-Private Sector Partnership Essential to the Development of Tourism” states that tourism development has been an activity which depends on two main groups : the public and the private sectors. The government, in its leadership role, has always been known to spearhead and pioneer tourism development, by the infrastructural foundation, providing the legislative, physical, fiscal, social and environmental framework, within which the private sector can operate. He also tells that the private sector is considered to be the entity that sustains the tourism industry with its entrepreneurial skills in key sectors such as hotel establishments, travel agencies, tour operation and resorts. At last, he states that we strongly believe that if the government works as felicitator and provides all support o the private sector for their commercial ventures, the development of tourism in the country will get the real boost. The article does not cover all the things related to the tourism sector. It only deals with the co-operation of both public and private to the development of tourism in Bangladesh. 4. 18 Siddiqua (2006) The author in her article named “Eco-tourism: New Approach to Economic Development in Bangladesh” discusses various aspects of development of eco-tourism industry in Bangladesh. She only emphasizes on the economic sides of eco-tourism. The study is a review work based on secondary data and information. Information and data on eco-tourism for different countries are studied.

The analysis of her includes economic impacts of eco-tourism, scope of eco-tourism in Bangladesh, role of eco-tourism on Bangladesh economy. The scope of this article is not wide. She does not mention the role and performance of BPC to develop tourism in Bangladesh. 4. 19 Saha and K. C. (2005) The authors in their article named “An Assessment on the Problems and Prospects of Eco-tourism in Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP), Nepal” state to provide insights into the demand and the relative importance of the eco-tourism by examining the characteristics and motivations of local and international tourists participating in eco-tourism ventures at Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP), Nepal.

They also state that another prerequisite of eco-tourism is to create schemes, which allow the local communities to obtain fair share and direct benefit from eco-tourism and to bring incentives from biodiversity conservation. A tourism that combines basic needs of the local community and ensures environmental conservation issues can assure sustainable eco-tourism. Primary and secondary data are used in this study. The study indicates that eco-tourism can be the bridge between biodiversity conservation and developed in the study area. The analysis of this study is not elaborative. It is partial analysis of tourism industry. This study is confined to the specific thing. So, the present study is wider than that. 4. 20 Ullah (1996) The writer in his book titled Hridaye Parjatan expresses his view that the roblems faced by a developing country are different from those faced by a developed one of the west. He states that tourism is one of the important sectors in the world. It provides job opportunity, foreign exchange earnings. He did not mention the functions of BPC, manpower, services and financial performance. He opined that the policies of BPC are not enough to promote the development of tourism market in Bangladesh. He does not analyze the role of BPC separately. The review of literature suggests that, there exists knowledge-gap in the field of present research. No comprehensive research was conducted so far in Bangladesh in this context. 5. Justifications and Feasibility 5. 1 Justifications

The existing knowledge-gap in the above discussion makes the main justification for undertaking the present research. Bangladesh is a developing country. Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange earnings, offering opportunities for job creation and infrastructure development, even in remote areas. The UNWTO says that 2007 is critical for tourism to become a very strong tool in the fight against poverty and a primary tool for sustainable development. The present tourism sector in Bangladesh does not present a pleasant picture. International tourist arrivals in 2001 stood at 207,199. Available sources suggest that the number stood at 207,662 in the year 2005. This means an addition of only 463 foreign tourists in four years.

The meager foreign exchange earning due to low arrival of foreign tourists, particularly western tourists, represent one percent of Bangladesh’s total export economy. Direct and indirect employment in the tourism sector is slightly over 100,000 and 200,000 respectively, and this is a discouraging figure against the country’s total labor force of 75 million or so. The proposed research is supposed to examine the problems and challenges and suggest remedial measures. The research will be very much useful to the planners and policy-makers relating to the tourism sector in Bangladesh. The research will be useful to the academicians and researchers.

The findings will open new avenues of research on the tourism sector and also be used as a secondary source of data by researchers of days to come. 5. 2 Feasibility The researcher is confident of completing the proposed research successfully by exploring the feasibilities mentioned below. i)The researcher is a student of Economics and teaches Industrial Economics at undergraduate level. The Economics background and academic command over industrial policy will help the researcher to complete the study successfully. ii)Some studies of this kind were undertaken in some of the developed as well as developing countries, particularly in India, the outcomes of which are available in printed forms and in the internet. These studies will benefit the researcher substantially. ii)Necessary data are available from authentic sources, like BPC, Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) and other Government sources. Some research organizations like Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), Center for Policy Dialogue (CPD) etc. provide ample data along with analysis. iv)Supervision and close monitoring of supervisor, logistic support for IBS and intellectual help from other think-tanks will make the study possible. v)The fellowship granted by IBS to the researcher will contribute to bear some of the expenses to undertake the proposed research. Besides, the researcher is helpful to avail himself of grants and scholarship from some other sources like SSRC, UGC, etc. which will supposedly relive the researcher and help the study complete within the stipulated time. 6. Methodology 6. 1 Definition The word ‘method’ is derived from two Greek words viz. ‘meta’ and ‘hodos’ meaning a way, a way of doing something. A method is a planned, systematic and well articulated approach of investigation. It involves a process where the stages or steps of collecting data are explained and analytical techniques are also defined. Methodology is a set of methods which are used in a particular area of activity. It is the systematic study of the principles which guide scientific investigation. 6. 2 Selection of Method The proposed research will be an evaluative type of study.

Mainly documentary method will be applied in conducting the proposed study. Justification of adopting documentary method is that it is appropriately applicable in finding out what has happened in course of time and correlating the events. The analysis of the research will be primarily quantitative in nature, although to realize the objectives of the study, qualitative approach will be necessary. The research will exploit the data of the last 35 years (1973-2007) of the BPC. The researcher will undertake an opinion survey on purposively selected persons. 6. 3 Study Area The study area will be three categories of tourism such as nature, culture and water-based tourism.

The selected tourist spots for this study are Sundarbans, Pharpur Buddhist Monastery and Cox’s Bazar. 6. 4 Sources of Data The research will exploit the data of the last 35 years (1973-2007) of the BPC. Both primary and secondary but mostly secondary data will be used in the study. 6. 4. 1 Primary Sources Primary sources include interviews and discussions with the purposively selected persons, unpublished documents of BPC etc. 6. 4. 2 Secondary Sources Secondary sources include published official statistics, reports, documents, books, articles, periodicals of different domestic and international agencies, daily newspapers, theses, dissertations, statistics and publications of BPC and the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism.

Web-sites of related local and international institutions will also be used as sources of data. 6. 5 Sample Design Type of Sampling: Purposive Sampling Procedure will be followed: Respondents •Policy makers (20) •Employees of BPC (20) •Private Tour Operators (20) •Tourism Consultants (10) •Local Tourists (50) •Foreign Tourists (20) •Tourist Guides (10) •Sample Size: 150 6. 6 Instruments for Data Collection Data will be collected by using different types of tools like questionnaire, interviews, discussions etc. 6. 7 Analysis of Data Data and information provided by the sources will be analyzed with rationality. Collection and processing of data will be done with prudence and acknowledgements.

Analyses of data will be accomplished with the use of frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, time series and simple regression. Interpretations of facts will be done by the use of various tools, such as tables, charts, line graphs, bar-diagram, pie-chart, histogram and historigram. 6. 8 Interpretation Primary analysis will be reexamined with critical observation and logical arguments. 7. Scope of the Study and Limitations 7. 1 Scope of the Study The proposed research is supposed to display the economic and employment opportunities of tourism in Bangladesh. The researcher will analyze the growth trends of tourism and its importance in relation to economic development of Bangladesh. Then the researcher will study the growth trends, performance and role of BPC.

The researcher will examine the tourism market of the country and to examine the policies and programmes to attract the tourists. How the BPC is running and how it can play our economy to create employment opportunity and to earn foreign exchange and what are the challenges faced by the BPC to develop tourism industry in Bangladesh. The researcher will identify the challenges and to project the future of tourism market in Bangladesh. At the beginning, the policy and initiatives measures taken by the BPC will be evaluated. Then the way of development of tourism process will be analyzed. The core area of the study will be the explanation of the performance of BPC.

Finally, the study will offer some policy recommendations in order to help perform better by the BPC. 7. 2 Limitations of the Study i)Tourism is a virgin field in Bangladesh. No comprehensive research work was done before. No text book is available. Tourism –related articles, features are only found on daily newspapers, magazines etc. ii)Data of the early years of BPC are sometimes not available. iii)Time and resource constraints also exist. 8. Time Reference The proposed research is designed to cover the time span of 35 years from 1973 to 2007. 9. Time Frame 1st phase: July 2006 – June 2007: •Completion of one year long course work at IBS •Preparation for undertaking the research 2nd phase: July 2007 – June 2008: Presentation of M. Phil registration seminar •Preparation, pre-testing and finalization of questionnaire •Completion of data collection and processing • Presentation of conversion seminar for Ph. D. program 3rd phase: July 2008 – June 2009: •Completion of draft dissertation writing •Editing and upgrading the draft •Presentation of pre-submission seminar •Submission of the final dissertation 10. Projected Thesis Structure Chapter 1: Introduction 1. 1 Prelude 1. 2Statement of the Problem 1. 3Operational Definitions 1. 4Objectives of the Study 1. 5Review of Literature 1. 6Justification of the Study 1. 7Scope and Limitations of the Study 1. 8Methodology 1. Plan of Dissertation Chapter 2: Growth Trends of Tourism in Bangladesh 2. 1 Growth of Domestic Tourists 2. 2 Growth of International Tourists 2. 3 Growth of Foreign Exchange Earnings 2. 4 Growth of Infrastructure for Tourism 2. 5 Prospects of Tourism Investment 2. 6 Contribution of Tourism in the National Economy 2. 7 Conclusion Chapter 3: Importance of Eco-tourism in Respect of Economic Development of Bangladesh 3. 1 Importance of Eco-tourism 3. 2 Tourism and Economic Development 3. 3 Tourism and Infrastructural Development 3. 4 Economic Impact of Eco-tourism 3. 5Role of Eco-tourism on Bangladesh Economy 3. 6 Conclusion

Chapter 4: BPC’S Role as a Tourism Industry and Its Performance 4. 1 Introduction to BPC 4. 2 Objectives of BPC 4. 3 Functions and Responsibilities of BPC 4. 4 Administrative Setup of BPC 4. 5 Tourism Facilities Created Under BPC 4. 6 Performance of BPC 4. 7 Conclusion Chapter 5: A Critical Analysis of Tourism Policy, Development Strategies and Prospects of Marketing 5. 1 Tourism Policy of Bangladesh 5. 2 Critical Analysis of Tourism Policy 5. 3 Review of First Tourism Development Master Plan 5. 4 Scope of Tourism in Bangladesh and Prospects of Marketing 5. 5 Present Development Plan 5. 6 Conclusion Chapter 6: Creation of Employment in Tourism Sector 6. Employment Opportunity in Bangladesh 6. 2 Direct Employment Opportunity Created Through Tourism 6. 3 Indirect Employment Opportunity Created Through Tourism 6. 4 Prospects of Job Opportunity to Be Created Through Tourism 6. 5 Conclusion Chapter: 7 Challenges and Future of Tourism Industry in Bangladesh 7. 1 Tourism Industry in Bangladesh 7. 2 Challenges of Tourism Industry in Bangladesh 7. 3 Tourism and Economic Growth 7. 4 Tourism and Foreign Exchange Earnings 7. 5Projection of Inflow of Tourists 7. 6Role of Media 7. 7 Conclusion Chapter: 8 Summary of Findings and Conclusions 8. 1 Preamble 8. 2 Findings 8. 3 Recommendations 8. 4 Conclusions Bibliography Appendix 11. Conclusion

Present research proposal is based on preliminary review of literature and it is tentative in nature. It may undergo changes with progress of the study as well as with incorporation of better suggestions, recommendations, opinions of scholars, teachers and learned supervisor. Bibliography (Tentative) A. Manuscripts Chandra Praba, A. “Environmental Aspects of Tourism in Palani an Opinion Survey”. M. Phil. Dissertation. Madurai Kamarj University. Madurai, 2002. George, P. O. “Management of Tourism Industry in Kerala”. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis. Mahathma Gandhi University. Kottayam, 2003. Kalaiarasi, N. “An Economic Study of Tourism in Madurai City. ” M. Phil. Dissertation. Madurai Kamaraj University. Madurai, 1991. Kamalakshy, M. V. Hotel Industry in Kerala with Reference to Tourism”. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis. Cochin University of Science and Technology. Kerala, 1996. Sudheer, S. V. “Tourism in Kerala Problems and Prospects”. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis. University of Kerala. Kerala, 1992. Rajadurai, M. “An Economic Study of Growth and Pattern of Tourist Inflows in Tamil Nadu”. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis. Madurai Kamaraj University. Madurai, 2005. B. Documents Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation (BPC). Tourism Statistics of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Planning, Training and Statistics Division, BPC, 2005. C. Books Abedin, M. Zainul. A Hand Book of Research for the Fellows of M. Phil. and Ph. D. Programmes. Dhaka: Book Syndicate, 1996.

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Amin, Sakib Din. “The Role of Tourism in Bangladesh Economy”. The Bangladesh Observer. May 08, 2007. Bashar, Dr. MA. “Services of Forests: Socio-cultural Roles and Nature-based Eco-tourism”. The Daily Star. 6 April, 2007. Carte, R. W. Baxter, G. S. Hockings, M. “Resource Management in Tourism Research: New Direction”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 9(4), 2001. Haque, Dr. Mahfuzul. “Tourism Industry in Bangladesh”. The Daily Star. 27 September, 2006. Haque, K. M. Saiful. “Eco-tourism and Some Rich Tourist Spots in Bangladesh”. The Bangladesh Observer, Observer Magazine. February 13, 2004. Haque, K. M. Saiful. “Tourism: Our Gold Mine for Development”.

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