The South Africa Overview Economics Essay

Category: Africa, South Africa, Trade
Last Updated: 08 Apr 2021
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The authorities of South Africa is a Republic and the overall population is 50 million. The service sector is the major sector in South Africa with 65 part in the state 's GDP. The major import beginnings associated with South Africa are China, Germany, USA and Japan and the major export market are China, USA, Japan and Germany.

Main beginnings of foreign exchange of South Africa

Platinum ( 14 % ) , gold ( 8 % ) , coal ( 5.5 % ) , autos ( 3.5 % )

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Main disbursals of foreign exchange

Petrochemicals ( 12 % ) , auto constituents ( 10 % ) , crude oil ( 4 % )

Energy state of affairs

South Africa has a big coal and mineral ( Pt, manganese, chrome, gold, U ) militias. Despite a well-developed man-made fuel production, 90 % of oil has to be imported.

South Africa and the World

South Africa is ranked 31st harmonizing to GDP and 129th harmonizing to Human Development Index and the major sectors are Agriculture, Technology, Textiles and Chemicals harmonizing to diary by Thomas White- Global Investing Co.

Political state of affairs: Reasonably stable

Head of state/government: President Jacob Zuma ( since May 2009 )

South Africa runs by a democratically elected parliament and the major resistance portion there is Democratic Alliance. National Assembly and National Council of Provinces are the two chief parliaments with National Assembly being the more powerful and responsible.

South Africa was ranked 34 harmonizing to World Bank in 2010 and 2nd on the African continent. Restrictions to make concern in South Africa are really limited and the market is besides really crystalline. South Africa 's concern substructure is good established with good rail, route and airdrome substructure, advanced IT systems and good communicating web.

The state is unfastened to foreign direct investing with both corporate concern and private persons.

Property ownership and taxation

The statute law which mentioned that foreign companies may non be able to borrow more than tierce of the purchase monetary value of any belongings if the company 's major stockholders are registered outside of South Africa, is no longer applicable. The new statute law effected from 1st January 2011.

There are no limitations on ownership of commercial belongingss. However, the statute law for private persons purchasing belongings in South Africa remains the same and non-residents can merely measure up for a place loan of up to 50 % of the value of the belongings

World Trade Organization ( WTO ) : South Africa is a member of the World Trade Organization.

Southern African Customs Union ( SACU ) : South Africa has been a member of the Southern African Customs Union and the members of SACU include Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho. The understanding footings of SACU province that members use the South African duty as the common external duty and goods are traded free of responsibilities and quotas between member provinces

Southern African Development Community ( SADC ) : -South Africa has besides been a member of the Southern African Development Community and the members include Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe. SADC has committed itself to the creative activity of a free trade country ( FTA ) by subscribing a protocol on trade at SADC Summit in 1996.

Bilateral trade agreements

South Africa has bilateral trade understandings with the undermentioned states or groups of states:

Nyasaland: A bilateral understanding between South Africa and Malawi, provided the discriminatory rates of responsibility, discounts and ordinances on certain goods traded between the two states. Due to the understanding signed between them, goods that belonged to Malawian beginning can easy come in South Africa duty-free. The goods of South Africa that enters Malawi, receive the most-favored-nation rate of responsibility.

Rhodesia: A bilateral understanding between South Africa and Zimbabwe provided for discriminatory rates of responsibility, discounts and quotas on certain goods traded between them and some new footings were added to it in the twelvemonth 1996. The footings included decreased duties and quota degrees on fabric imports into South Africa. The farther possibility of the understanding is that, the extension would be to other sectors such as agricultural.

Mocambique: The bilateral understanding between the two of them have been chiefly for modulating mine labour, railroad and port affairs, and trade. The understanding has non been a really utile one and hence a really few figure of Mozambian goods receive duty penchant from South Africa.

Citations: South Africa provides for protection for points that are listed on the endangered species list. It 's a party to Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora ( CITES ) .

European Union: -The European Union and South Africa signed a Free Trade Agreement ( FTA ) in 1999. The understanding will be phased in over a 10 to twelve twelvemonth period and will basically liberalise 86 % of South Africa 's imports from the EU and approximately 95 % of EU imports from South Africa. The overall understanding meets WTO demands of 90 % coverage.

The papers required in importing are a commercial bill, measure of cargo, insurance paperss and packing list.

The import responsibility rates range from zero to 30 % with a few exclusions, vesture industry, fabrics industry and motor industry merchandises.

The ratings of imported goods for VAT is based on the f.o.b value plus 14 % of the value already considered with extra imposts responsibility.

The merchandises which are prohibited for import in South Africa are drugs and narcotics, adult or obnoxious stuffs, works, seeds, bulbs, natural cotton, uncooked meat/poultry, beeswax, honey, bees and their larvae or eggs, used beehive contraptions, , ammo, dry ice, furniture, unwrought gold, untrimmed diamonds, pelts.

India and South Africa

Due to the bilateral dealings between theARepublic of India and the Republic of South Africa strong strategic, cultural and economic ties have been there since the terminal of apartheid in South Africa in 1994.

India and South Africa besides portion an extended energy partnership. In 2010, India imported 1.4 million metric tons of South African coal in February, doing it the largest buyer of coal from the state.


There is a major resident Indian community in South Africa. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi had commenced his political-legal calling in South Africa in the 1890s and 1900s, experimenting with civil noncompliance, to better the quality of life of the Indians life at that place. During theA 2003 Cricket World Cup a statue of him was unveiled inA Pietermaritzburg by Sourav Ganguly, the captain of theA Indian national cricket squad.

In 1994 both states established diplomatic dealingss after the terminal of apartheid.

Indian authorities awarded South African leader Nelson Mandela the Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize. Both states have besides promoted featuring ties, with the Indian national cricket team and the South Africa national cricket team often interchanging visits and take parting in cricket tourneies hosted by either state.

In 2005-06 the Bilateral trade grew exponentially from USDA 3 million in 1992-93 to USD 4 billion, and the two authoritiess have targeted increasing bilateral trade to USD 12 billion by 2010.A Gold bullion constitute tierce of India 's imports from South Africa, while India gloss and processes diamonds from South African mines. South Africa has promoted subscribing aA free trade agreement with India and theASouthern Africa Customs Union ( SACU ) , which includes Botswana, A Lesotho, A Namibia andASwaziland along with South Africa.

Bharti Airtel was scheduled to acquire MTNA to do one of the universe 's largest telecommunications companies, and besides touted as measure in South-South cooperation. The South African authorities of Jacob Zuma, nevertheless rejected trade on the evidences that MTN would non be as South African any longer amid concerns of dual-listing on the Indian and South African stock exchanges.

Military cooperation, trading weaponries and joint exercisings and plans to develop forces have been developed by India and South Africa.

India and South Africa signed an understanding withA Brazil, known as the Brasilia Declaration On June 6, 2003. The declaration called for extended three-party cooperation on strategic, cultural and commercial affairs.A A The three states have besides expanded military cooperation and conducted joint naval exercisings in 2008.

India and South Africa Exploring Trade Agreement

The trade between two states continues to see strong growing as on Aug. 31 - India and South Africa are looking into subscribing a comprehensive bilateral trade understanding.

India 's Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma said `` We are traveling to analyze a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement between India and South Africa, as the state is a strategic spouse, '' while at the `` India Show '' in Johannesburg.

Bilateral trade between the two has been increasing steadily over the last few old ages, with trade figures lifting from US $ 7.5 billion in the 2008-2009 financial twelvemonth to US $ 7.9 billion over 2009-2010. Both states agreed to seek and hit the US $ 10 billion milepost by 2011-2012 While South African President Jacob Zuma was in New Delhi this past June, but that may hold underestimated the trade potency between the two states as bilateral trade has already reached US $ 2.7 billion through the first one-fourth.

Sharma said `` It ( the US $ 10 billion trade mark ) is good below possible. I think it is accomplishable by 2011. Then we can look at higher rates '' . `` The chances are illimitable. South African corporations are coming to India with optimism. ''

Sharma besides said that he hopes to wrap up a limited free trade understanding between India and the Southern African Customs Union ( SACU ) every bit shortly as possible. The SACU is made up of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. The 5th unit of ammunition of negotiations over duty decreases and other barriers to merchandise Union representatives will go to New Delhi following month.

India-SACU ( Southern African Customs Union ) Framework Agreement

South Africa is the largest, most diverse and most sophisticated state in Africa with a Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) three times that of Nigeria or Egypt. South Africa 's economic substructure dominates Africa though it covers less than 4 % of the continent and accommodates less than 6 % of its population. South Africa provides more than half of the electricity end product of Africa, moves more tunnage through its ports, has more air conveyance installations than all the other states of Southern, Central and East Africa together. The figure of motor vehicles at about 5 million in that state is more than half of those in the remainder of Africa. South Africa has besides the advantage of a developed and systematic banking system.

With a common usage duty policy, South Africa along with Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana and Namibia has formed the Southern African Customs Union ( SACU ) . Since most of the imported goods enter the sub-region through South African ports, a system of usage gross sharing is in topographic point. South Africa and India are members of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation. South Africa is a member of the World Trade Organisation and has besides finalised a free trade and development understanding with European that provides for gradual liberalization of the two manner trade between South Africa and European Union.

The degree of bilateral trade between India and South Africa is rather low at nowadays. South Africa is non a major export finish for India ; neither is the latter calculation in the list of chief merchandising spouses of South Africa. Less than one per cent of India 's exports go to South Africa. However, in the last few old ages bilateral trade has recorded a double-digit growing rate between the states.

Following this meeting, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade ( IIFT ) was assigned to carry on a desktop survey for determining the feasibleness of come ining into a Discriminatory Trade Agreement ( PTA ) /Free Trade Agreement ( FTA ) between India and South Africa. The survey concluded that more than 50 % of India 's exports are subjected to a duty of less than 10 % in South Africa and merely 33 % are confronting a duty rate of more than 20 % . On the other manus, 55 % of imports from South Africa face high duties of more than 20 % in India. Merely 34 % of imports from South Africa are subjected to moo duty of 10 % and below. The leaden mean duties in India and South Africa are 22.89 % and 16.35 % severally.

The survey concluded that even though the duty rates are more in India, the gross loss that would ensue from bilateral riddance of duty is greater in South Africa. The gross loss in South Africa is projected to be 1.4 times the gross loss in India. The survey besides suggested that as South Africa has a reasonably big import market, an Agreement with South Africa Prima facie is of importance because of its geographical location and rank of sub-regional trade understandings.

Subsequently on, South Africa sought verification whether they can include other spouses of SACU for negociating a Comprehensive Trade Agreement. This suggestion was examined by Ministry of External Affairs in audience and the authorization was given to negociate with SACU as a group and non South Africa separately.

FDI Scenario in South Africa

Harmonizing to the 2012 World Investment Report by the UN Conference on Trade and Development ( UNCTAD ) , South Africa led the sub-region as foreign direct investing ( FDI ) inflows into sub-Saharan Africa jumped by 25 % in 2011.

The study, released in Geneva, Switzerland on Thursday, shows that FDI inflows to sub-Saharan Africa soared from US $ 29.5-billion in 2010 to $ 36.9-billion in 2011, a degree comparable to the extremum of $ 37.3-billion achieved in 2008, prior to the oncoming of the planetary fiscal crisis.

FDI to South Africa rebounded from $ 1.23-billion in 2010 to $ 5.81-billion, doing South Africa the second-biggest FDI finish on the continent in 2011 after Nigeria, which procured $ 8.92-billion in FDI.

Oil, gas manufacturers still dominant

Ghana ( $ 3.22-billion ) , Congo ( $ 2.93-billion ) , and Algeria ( $ 2.57-billion ) completed the top five African FDI finishs by Unctad 's calculation, underlining the laterality of oil- or gas-producing states - South Africa being the exclusive exclusion.

Another important African oil manufacturer, Angola, besides received important investing influxs, harmonizing to Unctad, `` but divestment and repatriated net incomes by multinational corporations rendered net influxs negative '' .

The one-year study found, Continuing addition in trade good monetary values and a comparatively positive economic mentality for sub-Saharan Africa were among the factors lending to the turnaround.

For Africa as a whole, entire FDI influxs declined. However, this was due to a bead in FDI to North Africa, with influxs to traditional strong performing artists Egypt and Libya coming to a arrest as consequence of drawn-out political and societal instability in those states.

Improved investor perceptual experiences

Unctad said, Overall the continent 's FDI chances for 2012 were promising, `` as strong economic growing, current economic reforms and high trade good monetary values have improved investor perceptual experiences of the continent. ''

South Africa 's FDI inflows for 2011 accounted for 13.6 % of Africa 's entire as per Unctad 's figures, while amounting to 31.8 % of the state 's gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) in 2011 - up from 9.9 % in 1995.

Jorge Maia, research caput at South Africa 's Industrial Development Corporation, who presented Unctad 's study locally, said the state 's investing policy government was `` rather broad compared to other states ''

`` South Africa is non merely rich in natural resources, it besides has really good substructure comparative to its equals and really good proficient accomplishments, '' Business Day reported Maia as stating.

Leon Myburgh, sub-Saharan Africa strategian at Citigroup, told Business Day that Africa was executing good in most developed markets and some emerging markets besides.

`` Give its comparatively low rate of development, there are high chances for investing across the continent, either for new concern or substructure, '' Myburgh told Business Day. `` These are being exploited and will go on to be exploited in approaching old ages.

Economic Engines

Agribusiness is good organized though a really minor subscriber to the overall GDP. Large piece of lands of land, together with a long 1875 stat mi coastline, foster the production of a broad scope of Marine and agricultural merchandises. Africa has a double agricultural economic system catering to both commercial and subsistence based production. Maize, wheat, sugar cane, oats, and helianthus are the state 's major agricultural merchandises. South Africa 's agricultural sector boasts some clear competitory advantages. First, the state 's turning season is reverse than that of Europe, offering complementary market chances. It besides has good developed cold concatenation installations and ports. A resource rich state, South Africa boasts an copiousness of mineral resources. In fact, the wealth of the state has been built on these resources. It holds about 90 % of the Pt metals on Earth, 80 % of the manganese, 73 % of the chrome, 45 % of the V and 41 % of the gold. The excavation industry is the biggest employer, with around 460,000 employees and another 400,000 employed by the providers of goods and services to the industry.

Gold production, which one time formed the anchor of the economic system, has lost its lustre in recent old ages. In 2007, China displaced South Africa as the universe 's largest gold manufacturer. 95 % of South Africa 's gold mines are belowground operations, making deepness of over 3.8 kilometers. With worsening class, increased deepness of excavation and excavation costs, and a slide in gilded monetary value in the 1990s, production fell. As one of the universe 's largest manufacturers of gold, South Africa is more susceptible to slouch in monetary value because its deep degree mines are the highest cost manufacturers in the universe. However, the sector should see a resurgence in the current twelvemonth, on the dorsum of lifting gold monetary values. However, South Africa 's excavation sector continues to be the top FDI receiver for the state.

South Africa 's vehicle production is going a flourishing industry every bit good. It is the 2nd largest country in the fabrication sector and the fastest growth. Almost every planetary car major, has its operations based in South Africa.

Other major industries in South Africa are chemicals fabricating, metals processing and pharmaceuticals. South Africa hosts a figure of superior quality infirmaries and well-trained medical staff which has helped enticement investings into the pharmaceutical sector. The fertiliser industry besides looks assuring due to the state 's large-scale diversified agricultural sector. Expansion in the Information and Communications Technology and electronics industry has besides been phenomenal, with the mean growing of the state exceling the universe norm. Yet, all is non cheery in Eden. The fabric industry has taken a hit due to increasing competition from Chinese goods. The South Africans have responded with new advanced fabric merchandises contending back. The production of improved parachute cloth, technically knitted cloth used in bomb disposal, fire deceleration kits and specialised medical fabrics are doing their grade in niche markets.

The services sector is the major subscriber to the GDP. It comprises of fiscal services, touristry, retail gross revenues and telecommunications. South Africa possesses a robust and mature fiscal services sector, which is comparable to the best in the universe. The state 's banking sector has a good representation of foreign Bankss and offers modern services like a countrywide web of ATMs and Internet banking services. Mzansi, South Africa 's advanced new low-priced banking strategy provides banking services to more than 3.3-million low-income earners - a huge and turning market antecedently untapped by the fiscal sector.

Johannesburg Stock Exchange

The Johannesburg Stock Exchange is the lone stock exchange in the state and the 16th largest in the universe with 400 listed companies. Keeping the differentiation as the fourth-largest emerging market finish for investings, the exchange mopped up $ 9.4 billion in 2005, up from $ 1.5 billion a decennary before.

South Africa 's vesture sector has been in a province of convulsion and diminution for the last five old ages. The continued growing in imports ( peculiarly from lower-cost manufacturers such as China ) and the strengthening of the South African rand ( R ) against the United States dollar are the two factors blamed for the diminution in local production.

However, if makers were honorable with themselves, they would see that the jobs run deeper than external issues. The industry is enduring from old ages of disregard in the countries of engineering and accomplishments.

This has made the sector mostly uncompetitive.

Whilst the Government is turn toing these issues through a Customised Sector Programme ( CSP ) and more late through the Textile and Clothing Industry Development Programme ( TCIDP ) , harmonizing to critics this steps are viewed as being excessively small excessively late and the sector is non expected to do any dramatic recovery in the short term.

The inability of the local industry to fulfill demand for vesture from retail merchants offers an chance for developing state exporters to provide a broad scope of merchandises to the South African market. In 2009, vesture imports, excepting imports from Member States of the Southern African Customs Union ( SACU ) , amounted to US $ 966.6 million. If the figures from SACU are added to this, entire vesture imports in 2009 amounted to US $ 1.1 billion. Harmonizing to Comtrade informations, this would do South Africa the universe 's 25th largest importer of vesture.

Over the period 2005 to 2009, vesture imports rose well by every bit much as 42 % . Whilst this addition reflects the diminution in the domestic fabrication sector, it besides indicates the perkiness of the market for consumer goods in South Africa. This perkiness is partially due to the go oning growing of a strong in-between category with entree to larger disposable incomes.

The vesture points most in demand

In 2009, Women 's and miss 's jackets, frocks, skirts, pants, trunks non knitted ( HS 6204 ) , work forces 's and male childs ' jackets, pants, trunks non knitted ( HS 6203 ) , knitted jerseies ( HS 6109 ) , knitted New Jerseies and cardigans ( HS 6110 ) , and woven work forces 's or male childs ' shirts ( HS 6205 ) accounted for 50 % of vesture imports. These are the class with the highest demand.

The merchandise class that showed the highest growing ( albeit sometimes off a low base ) from 2005 to 2009 are work forces 's and male child 's greatcoats, parkas, air current deceivers and similar articles, knitted ) ; adult females 's and miss ' greatcoats, parkas, air current deceivers and similar articles ; knitted work forces 's and male childs ' vests and other waistcoats, underpants, Jockey shorts, pajama, and similar articles ; adult females 's hose ( which rose by every bit much as 165 % ) ; and ties, bow ties and cravats. These offer possible niche markets for competitory manufacturers.

China and the remainder of Asia are the largest providers of imports by far

At present, over 70 % of vesture imports in South Africa come from Asia, with China entirely lending 59 % of entire vesture imports in 2009. This reflects the nature of the South African market for dressing which is chiefly geared towards the price reduction terminal ; for this market buying determinations are based on monetary value.

Botswana performed highly good in South Africa over the five old ages to 2009, spread outing its supplies by a monolithic 261 % to their current degree. The state now provides 14 % of South Africa 's vesture imports. India remains in 3rd place despite a diminution of 2 % in imports over the five-year period. Mauritius is the 4th largest provider and imports from this state have performed highly good, registering a 476 % addition over the period.

However, there have been positive signals to exporters in Africa by cardinal alterations in the form of sourcing.

In 2005, China accounted for 70 % of all vesture imports ; Asia itself accounted for over 80 % of entire imports. Local retail merchants and importers were forced to diversity their provider base due to infliction of quotas on selected vesture imports from China for a period of two old ages from January 2007.

South Africa has a market for large-size vesture that companies in Asia by and large do non hold the capacity to provide. A vesture company with the ability to serve this market section could happen good chances.

It besides has a market for companies that are able to work with little minimal orders. Companies of Asia frequently work with minimal order sizes that are far larger than the volumes little and average sized operators in South Africa are able to put.

The market for `` green '' cloths is turning strongly. Good chances are at that place for companies bring forthing garments from organic cotton or bamboo fiber in South Africa.

In add-on, there are the markets for particular goods which the South African vesture industry does non hold the capacity to bring forth. These include points like cushioned jackets, insouciant woven tops and undersides with embellishment-generally anything that requires sophisticated lavation and coating. All these merchandises are imported. The market for babe wear and kids 's wear, for which there is limited local fabrication capacity, is besides mature for the picking.

Targeting retail merchants straight is the best attack to the market

Approaching the market of South African can sometimes be hard. Retailers, importers and agents tend to purchase from tested and sure beginnings, doing entry into the market a challenge for new providers. A direct attack to retail merchants is frequently the most effectual manner of capturing their attending. It would be wise for companies with strong design abilities to aim retail merchants in their selling runs as a manner of doing their companies known.

South Africa offers a platform for making retail merchants through International Apparel, Textile, Footwear and Machinery Fair, held yearly in Cape Town. All the big purchasers and agents gather the carnival. A figure of states choose to put up state marquees at this just. Such marquees work good as they non merely market specific companies but the capableness of the single state as a whole.

The retail sector of South African follows the European market really closely and purchasers will look foremost and first at the fashionability of the merchandise lines proposed by new providers before inquiring inquiries on volumes, bringing and monetary value. Hence Samples or snap presented to retail merchants ever need to be in the latest manners.

South Africa has stringent labeling demands. All imported vesture must transport labels with the undermentioned information: state of beginning, attention instructions, fiber content. Press has late criticized companies that do non use labeling demands strictly. As a consequence, the governments are now clamping down on vesture bearing labels that fail to run into demands.

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The South Africa Overview Economics Essay. (2018, Jul 27). Retrieved from

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