Municipal solid waste ( MSW ) is a major environmental job in Turkey, as in many developing states. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are hard to turn to, but attempts towards more efficient aggregation and transit and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although rigorous ordinances on the direction of solid waste are in topographic point, crude disposal methods such as unfastened dumping and discharge into surface H2O have been used in assorted parts of Turkey. This article presents a brief history of the legislative tendencies in Turkey for MSW direction and the MSW duty and direction construction together with the present state of affairs of coevals, composing, recycling, and intervention. The consequences of several researches show that about 25 million ton of MSW are generated yearly in Turkey. About 77 % of the population receives MSW services. In malice of attempts to alter unfastened dumping countries into healthful landfills and to construct modern recycling and composting installations, Turkey still has over two 1000 unfastened mopess.
Reappraisal of the Turkish legislative model in MSW direction
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In 1983, the Ministry of Environment in Turkey published Environmental Law 2872 as the first phase in order to better the environmental state of affairs in the state. However, there was no consensus on the best option for MSW direction in the jurisprudence. In 1991, the Solid Waste Control Regulation came into force in order to pull off solid waste. The ordinance played a cardinal function in solid waste aggregation, storage, conveyance, and disposal. The ordinance has been continuously updated. In add-on, Turkey developed ordinances for medical waste in 1993 and for risky waste in 1995. The Medical Waste Control Regulation established a basic action line for medical waste direction based on the aggregation, storage, conveyance, and disposal or reuse of the waste by its proprietor. Some types of waste, such as radioactive wastes, were excluded from that jurisprudence. The Hazardous Waste Control Regulation set the standards for the aggregation, conveyance, and concluding disposal of risky waste, including options for land filling or incineration, every bit good as the design standard and the operational regulations for healthful landfills and incinerators. The ordinance besides focuses on the minimisation of risky waste and encouragement of recycling. By legal definition, municipal solid waste includes all the waste originating from human activities that are usually solid and that are discarded as useless or unwanted. Municipal solid waste by and large consists of waste generated from residential to commercial countries, industries, Parkss, and streets [ 1 ] .
In metropoliss in Turkey, community enterprises in solid waste direction are presently being supported by the municipal governments, who guide their activities harmonizing to the statute law and policies dictated by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry ( MEF ) . The model of duty and direction of MSW in Turkey is shown in Figure 1. MSW comes from commercial services, industries, health care installations, and citizens in Turkey. Some private endeavors are responsible for the aggregation and conveyance of solid waste and for the sorting of individually collected packaging waste. After screening, the packaging waste is directed towards the recycling industry [ 2 ] .
Fig. 1. Model of duty and direction of MSW in Turkey.
MSW coevals and composing
Until 1994, there were merely estimations of MSW coevals in Turkey because of the predomination of unfastened dumping and the trouble of entering MSW coevals. The absence of dependable informations and statistics for waste coevals and composing makes a regional and national rating of MSW direction hard. The Turkish State Statistical Institute has compiled statistics about MSW direction since 1994 [ 3 ] . In the 1960s, 3-4 million ton of municipal solid waste per twelvemonth was generated in Turkey. However, harmonizing to the Turkish State Statistical Institute 's 2004 database, about 25 million ton of MSW was generated yearly ( Figure 2 ) .
Fig. 2. Sum of MSW collected in Turkey.
Increasing population degrees, rapid economic growing, and the rise in community life criterions will speed up the hereafter solid waste coevals rate in Turkey. The sum of MSW per capita in the summer and winter seasons from 1994 to 2004 is given in Figure 3. The coevals rate per capita varies well from the summer season to the winter season. As seen in Fig. 3, in the 1990s Turkey generated a higher sum of MSW in the summer than in the winter. MSW coevals rates in summer and in winter are 1.30 and 1.29 kg/cap/day in 2004, severally. This is a consequence of the decreasing use of fossil fuel for day-to-day warming.
Fig. 3. Sum of MSW per capita ( kg/cap/day )
Technologies in usage for managing and intervention of MSW
Collection and transit of MSW
There are 3225 municipalities in Turkey, and 16 of them are metropolitan municipalities. A sum of 3028 municipalities have solid waste direction services. The population having solid waste services from 1994 to 2004 is shown in Fig. 4. As can be seen, the per centum of the population having solid waste services increased from 71 % in 1994 to 77 % in 2004 ( Fig. 4 ) .
Fig. 4. Percentage of entire population having solid waste services of Turkey.
However, the per centum of municipalities roll uping and transporting solid waste in the municipalities is 95 % . In most of the colony units of Turkey, the aggregation and transit constituents of MSW direction are by and large good organized. The municipalities spend all of their attempts and budgets for these services. There are two types of aggregation systems in the municipal countries of Turkey [ 4 ] .
Collection Systems of MSW
1. Curb Side Pickup
This system is operated in the cardinal parts of the metropoliss and big towns. In this aggregation system, a solid waste aggregation vehicle Michigans at each edifice to pick up the garbage, either in plastic bags or in kitchen bins. Where this system is operated, the waste is collected daily or twice a twenty-four hours. Some occupants use specially produced plastic bags, but most use packaging plastic bags of assorted thickness and sizes. The kitchen bins used by the occupants of most parts are non standard, either in size or in fabricating stuff.
2. Community Bin System
This system is normally practiced in little colonies and the ill developed peripheral parts of urban countries. Depending on the population of an country, community bins with assorted non-standard sizes and theoretical accounts are placed on the streets, and waste from these bins is collected by assorted types of vehicles, runing from tractors to compactors. The bins are by and large emptied or replaced in some municipalities two or three times a hebdomad. Due to the addition of population and rapid urbanisation, the roads in the peripheral parts in some urban Centres are really hapless, so the aggregation vehicles can non make the community bins in these countries during rainy periods and therefore the community bins can non be emptied on a regular basis. The MSW from these countries by and large contains high concentrations of putrescent affair, which makes them peculiarly prone to do aesthetic and environmental perturbations to neighboring populations, particularly when the community bins or poulet bins are non emptied within 48 H of adding the garbage to the bins.
Medical waste from healthcare constitutions to other risky wastes are by and large put into the community bins alternatively of being collected individually by specially designed trucks and workers. However, some municipalities individually apply aggregation and transit systems, particularly municipalities with high populations. A little sum of medical waste is disposed by firing in Turkey. The infective solid waste, together with MSW, is by and large discharged to dumping countries of municipalities. Municipalities use their ain vehicles for solid waste aggregation and transit.
Both the aggregation and transit services are performed by the same vehicles. By and large, transportation theoretical accounts are non used in Turkey. The aggregation and transit vehicles are by and large trucks with capacities of 3.5-7 ton. Tractors are besides used in many countries in big metropoliss.
Disposal of MSW
In many metropoliss in Turkey, lacks in the proviso of waste services are the consequence of unequal fiscal resources, direction, and proficient accomplishments of municipalities and authorities governments to cover with the rapid growing in demand for services. Methods of disposal of solid waste, harmonizing to the Turkish State Statistical Institute 's 2004 database, are shown diagrammatically in Figure 5.
Fig. 5. MSW disposal methods in Turkey
There are 16 healthful landfills, five composting workss ( three of which are being actively operated ) , and three incineration workss in Turkey. In 2004 25,013,521 ton of MSW were collected, whereas 7,002,000, 351,000, and 8000 ton were disposed of in healthful landfills, composted, and incinerated, severally. A sum of 17,661,254 ton of waste was disposed of without any control. There are typically a big figure of scavengers at garbage bins in Turkey. The stuffs collected are subjected to some degree of intermediate processing, such as separating, rinsing and drying. The rescued stuffs re so sold to decline traders, who further separate the stuffs and sell them to allow processing/ recasting Millss and mills. It is estimated that about 10-15 % of MSW is recycled by scavengers.
Agreements in Management Strategies and Duties
The conventional waste aggregation and disposal system in Turkey consists of refuse trucks and unfastened dumping. However, the tendency for disposal of MSW is towards implementing waste recreation and making an integrated MSW direction system. An incorporate system requires many direction options, such as beginning decrease, kerb side recycling, material recovery, waste-to-energy, healthful land filling, and composting. Physical and chemical informations can be analyzed to find the physical makeup and the chemical content of the MSW watercourse consecutive, supplying of import information for MSW direction systems. Although the physical composing analysis may straight back up the appraisal of material recovery, kerb side recycling, and composting, the energy content may greatly back up the probe of the thermic intervention potency. Bettering the criterion of direction and operation of some bing installations at much lower cost may offer considerable betterment in environmental public presentation. Additionally, puting out a plan of planned closing and redress of the most contaminated garbage dumps will represent an early measure in the development of the national waste scheme
[ 5 ] . Co-disposal of MSW with risky medical and industrial wastes creates a great concern for public wellness. From this point of position, the execution of solid waste direction schemes will cut down the hazard of environmental pollution. In Turkey, a negligible sum of MSW is presently being recycled. Ill organized aggregation systems for recoverable wastes, deficiency of support, and low inclination of occupants to segregate waste are factors impacting the efficiency of recovery. If there are no recycling plans in metropoliss, it is of import for waste directors to find the per centum of recyclables in the waste watercourse, every bit good as what per centum of these recyclables is marketable. If metropoliss have had recycling plans, the sum of reclaimable stuff could supply valuable information by placing the gaining control rates in recycling Centres. Municipalities are responsible for guaranting that the waste generated y their occupants and constitutions is collected and decently managed. A major job is the current hapless status of the economic system in Turkey. The sum of financess available from municipal budgets for MSW betterments should be increased.
Costss and Financing of MSW Collection and Recovery Operations
Cost informations on solid waste direction in Turkey is normally extremely controversial and complicated due to the nature of the topic. The cost informations is farther complicated by the particulars of the Municipal Region and the cost accounting methodological analysis employed. In order to give an thought of how dearly-won the MSW intervention is, an illustration from a recent survey is given below [ 6 ] . In this case, two separate Municipal cost analyses have been conducted. The first one covered Municipal aggregation and conveyance costs whereas the other one is basically an economic public presentation analysis of two small-medium scale stuff recovery installations. The first set of information was collected from 24 selected Municipalities from the Aegean Coast of Turkey. The set of informations includes merely the aggregation and conveyance costs of municipal solid waste ( Table 1 ) .
Table 1. Cost informations for municipal solid waste aggregation and disposal
Table 2. Cost appraisal for a medium sized metropolis broad recycling programme for Turkey
Premises: Population: 1.0 million, MSW: 1000 tons/day, % reclaimable waste: 20 % sum recycable waste: 200 tons/day, engagement rate: 45 % , material recovery: 90 tons/day.
In order to do comparative appraisal and derive some commercial penetration towards the separate aggregation programmes, cost informations has been gathered from separate aggregation programmes in Turkey. The information on cost of aggregation and sorting has been summarized in Table 2 for a medium-to-large metropolis. An mean population is estimated to be 1.0 million. Based on the elaborate waste analysis, a cost/revenue analysis for a metropolis broad recycling programme is made. The analysis given in Table 2 indicates that grosss are sufficient to cover the general operational costs of material recovery installations if operated at full capacities. Depending on the beginning composing or depending on the aggregation method employed, a comparatively acceptable commercial net income can be retained. In Table 2, costs points are categorized with different types of aggregation methodological analysis. Collections through bring-centres outputs comparatively high investing costs and low operational costs, whereas door-to-door aggregation of reclaimable stuffs by plastic bags has the lowest investing cost. However the go oning ingestion of plastic bags outputs comparatively higher operational costs.
Decision and Suggestions
Based on the consequences of TURKSTAT [ 7 ] , it can be concluded that MSW direction is a major job confronting municipalities. The one-year waste coevals additions in proportion to the rise in the population and urbanisation, and issues related to disposal have become ambitious as more land is needed or the ultimate disposal of solid waste. Open mopess can be damaging to the urban environment. In malice of attempts to alter unfastened mopess into healthful landfills and to construct modern recycling and composting installations, Turkey still has over 2000 unfastened mopess. The Solid Waste Control Regulation is applied decently in the phases of aggregation and transit, but the chief job is the readying of healthful landfills and rehabilitation of unfastened mopess because of deficient funding. Currently, electricity production from waste incineration is instead low in Turkey. This is because several of incineration workss lack the capacity to bring forth electricity. Determining methods of concluding waste disposal requires an apprehension of the makeup of the MSW watercourse. A MSW decision- support system based on incorporate solid waste direction should be developed for metropoliss in Turkey.
The sum of solid waste collected in Turkey in 2004 was 25,013,521 ton ; 27.99 % , 1.4 % , and 03 % of MSW is disposed of in healthful landfills, composted, and incinerated, severally. This indicates that 70.57 % of the entire sum of MSW was disposed of without any control. In Turkey, MSW is largely composed of domestic residues, and its composing varies by season. Solid waste generated by and large consists of a high organic fraction because of high ingestion of veggies and fruits. In rural countries, the ash content is higher due to the usage of ranges for heating intents in the winter. In Turkey, as in many developing states, there is a deficiency of organisation and planning in MSW direction due to deficient information about ordinances and due to fiscal limitations. In the short term, the best policy might be to go forth disposal methods without any controls, and utilize the resources available to upgrade them with environmental protection systems. In the long term, the building of new healthful landfill countries, composting, and incineration installations could be planned. Public engagement and consciousness are besides of import issues in accomplishing the ends of the suggested direction system, but it is hard and takes a long clip to do people cognizant of the importance and of the rules of the proposed direction system and to consequence their engagement.
The reappraisal of municipal and family solid waste statistics in Turkey indicates that mean family waste coevals per capita is 0.6 kg/day and mean municipal solid waste is 0.95 kg/day. The composing of municipal solid waste varies by the beginning of waste ; nevertheless in all instances organic components histories for more than 50 % of municipal solid waste. Detailed cost analyses indicate that stuff recovery installations are normally self sufficient if operated at their established capacities, whereas initial investing to put up large-scale aggregation and recovery strategies still remains to be the major barrier that the municipalities have to get the better of.
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