Utilizing an example of an organization that you have researched, discuss what has influenced the management style within the organization. Demonstrate your understanding of the evolution of management thinking and critically analyze how his applies to contemporary organizations.
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Recently Google has been praised for how the composure of the whole company is managed so minimally yet effectively. In this essay the evolution of management over time and how Google have tailor made their methods of management will be discussed and analyzed to discover why their management technique is so effective. Management can be tracked all the way back in the late 1880’s. Management is ‘the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational theories’ (Daft, Kendrick, Vershinina, 2008, page 843).
The first management perspective formally known as the classical perspective was where all organizations were scientifically managed making the organizations efficient operating machines. Workers were retooled to continuously work as if they were a machine and bureaucracy took to stage. The stamp down of authority had hit home hard, where employees, managers and owners were easily identifiable. Everything had adopted a more systematic approach where hierarchies were introduced and distinct definitions of authority and responsibility were introduced.
This kind of management was usually enforced in large, specific industries such as car factories were specific goods had be to produced in its own specific process. Over time it seemed that employees were feeling worked out and worthless. These employees were not seen as individuals but were seen as groups of people, there was no acknowledgement of variance. The social aspect of the employees was not taken into account; make them feel that they are invaluable. Their ideas and suggestions were not taken into account and listened to; they were used for their willingness to work.
As times moved on the term bureaucratic had adopted a negative meaning especially in today’s organizations where it is linked to vast number of rules and red tape, being a very top down approach. As time had moved on, the management style was forced into a change in order to keep up with the moving times. Though the classical perspective had a massive positive impact on many countries economies; in the late 1920’s there had been an alternative management perspective which had been adopted due to the change of attitudes. Humanistic perspective came into force and was made popular due to its attractive nature.
‘Humanistic perspective is known to emphasize the understanding of human behavior, needs, and attitudes in the work place’(Daft, Kendrick, Vershinina, 2008, page 49) This management style was more employees friendly and had become an attempt to allow employees to enjoy their work and feel that they have some form of self control in their work. The introduction of humanistic perspective in the evolution n management was vital as an experienced manager/consultant/trainee psychologist called Douglas McGregor who developed theory X and theory Y.
Theory X was bought up on the assumptions that employees dislike work and attempts to avoid it if possible due to the controlled, scientifically managed. This relates to the classical perspective of management. Theory Y, on the other hand, is the opposite; where the volume of flexibility given in the work place and individual recognition and concern was giving a positive effect which resulted in employees enjoying their work. Taking Google into consideration, it’s set out in a completely different industry; Google has adopted and learned from the different methods of management over time to create a much more contemporary style of management.
Though there is a hierarchy present and a clear visible structure; the impact it has is a different one, where employees are not threatened by this managerial structure. Due to the way Google has been set up. Firstly, it is clear that employees love their jobs; they enjoy what they do and to them that’s what matters. However, these employees are those that have built the website and make it what it currently is today; these employees are geniuses in their field of expertise. In addition these engineers are not micro managed in any way. They are left to do what they do best, create and innovate into new Google technology.
Not being micro managed gives Google the quality of innovation it has been recognized for; the engineers are left to work by themselves and each other therefore producing allowing them to get more creative and innovative. In addition to this, work spaces are in open areas so help is always at hand from piers and managers. Selected managers keep themselves open and are known to get hands on with employees. This is a very democratic style of management, for managers to known to be participative. ‘The influence extends to a unique management style, which includes letting technical people spend 20% of their time on projects of their own choosing.
Although Google is starting to trim some of the more esoteric ventures, it remains a benchmark for innovations in human relations and finance as well as technology’ (Hof, Robert D, 2008). Though there is a distinct definition of the managers and employees – this ‘title’ has been completely disregarded from the employees where they all see each other as friends. Evidently, it seems that Google has adopted a theory Y style of management
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