Nowadays it is widely accepted that the most important resource of any company are its employees; therefore competent manager need to have the clear understanding what motivates their subordinates to achieve effective performance as from efficiency of their work the success of the organization depends. Consequently, the task of manager consists in as much as possible effectively to use personnel opportunities. In independence on the manager decision the effect from it can be received only in case if this decision would successfully be embodied in the employees’ affairs.And it can occur only in case if workers are interested in results of the work. For this reason, it is necessary to motivate the person, to induce to action.
“Motivation is a combination of needs that influence behavior and action” (Kressler, 2003). In case if an employee is to successfully complete a task in any organization, he or she requires motivation, performance capacity and development potential in order to activate skills, experiences, talents and creative energies, and reach company goals.The main purpose of this assignment is the consideration and analysis of motivation theories (content & process theories), on which based the modern management within organization, for effective human resource management. Thus it is necessary to examine these theories in terms of its strength and weaknesses and also practical relevance in understanding what and how to motivate employee for organization. In order to gain the basic knowledge about the theories of motivation the Maslow’s theory of need will be considered and analyzed in terms of its strength and weaknesses and also practical relevance in organization.In his well-known theory Abraham Maslow proposed that individuals have a basic set of needs and that this needs are arranged as hierarchy of needs. (Maslow, Abraham H., 1987) Maslow (1987) also claimed that individual behavior depends on which need among the hierarchy of needs is dominate at present moment. At the same time, each individual has requirements of all five needs, whereas the force of each requirement, during any concrete time, depends on personal priorities of the individual.Thus, depending on these priorities the hierarchy of needs is built. Indeed, manager who informed about the level of needs of his subordinates will able to predict which type of needs will be dominated in their behavior; hence the most effective motivator can be chosen. Generally, the theory proposes the five stages of needs according to Maslow (1987). In order to have the clear understanding of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs the basic stages of the theory will be considered briefly below.At the bottom of the hierarchy is psychological need which based on physical drives including basic and primary needs of the individual.
Regarding the organization it is needs for a salary, holiday, provision of pensions, the breaks, favorable operating conditions, illumination, heating and ventilation. After satisfying basic physiological needs the safety became individual’s main concern. This need reflect desire to maintain awards and position already received and also to protect themselves from danger, harm, threats, traumas, losses or deprivations.Within the organizations this need have the form of employees struggle for safety work, introduction of the seniority system and the organization of trade unions, safe working conditions, side benefits, the insurance and the severance pay (Kreitner, 2007). Since the biological and safety needs are reached the attention of individual focus on his need for friendship, love and his accessory. The individual as “social being” feel desire to be attractive for others and want to satisfy their social needs in the organization.It occurs by way of entering in formal and informal work groups and by collaboration with other individuals (Kreitner, 2007).
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Maslow (1987) claimed that once people begin to satisfy their affiliation needs, they want to be respected by others. Such need as esteem logically can be divided onto two types. The first is a need for self-esteem or satisfaction by itself. The self-esteem is closely connected with feeling of purpose achievement, competence, knowledge, a maturity and dependences. The second type is need for respect by others. This need is connected with reputation, social recognition, the status into work group.In any organization of an award which can satisfy need for respect include honorary titles, other forms of the recognition, additional obligations and promotion (Maslow, Abraham H., 1987). Maslow arranges the need of self-actualization as the highest in the hierarchy of need. When the needs of four bottom levels are satisfied the individual focuses his attention on satisfaction the need of self-actualization. By trying to reach it the individual attempt to realize the whole potential to increase his abilities and to be "the best". Such need for self-expression is highest of all human needs according to Maslow (1987).In short, the fact that the human needs possible to arrange in a hierarchical order has a great importance. Firstly, the needs of the bottom levels should be satisfied first of all, only after that it is possible to address to needs of higher levels.
Besides, it is necessary to consider that the needs of the lowest levels form the foundation on which the needs of the highest levels built. Only in case if the needs of the lowest level remain satisfied the manager has a chance to become successful by motivating subordinates through satisfaction of higher level needs.The idea of sufficiency is also important as the individual will never has feeling of full satisfaction of their needs. The majority of people need more safety, friends, respect and self-confidence irrespective of how many they have already achieved. Thus, the individual moves upwards on the hierarchy not in a case when his needs are completely satisfied and when they are satisfied enough. As Frank J. at al. (2010) claimed that Maslow theory is more a theory of human development than one of work motivation. Indeed, the main role of this theory plays the intuition which is the best explanation of its popularity.However, from the point of view of concrete management actions Maslow's approach has a number of deficiencies. First of all, the majority of us can simultaneously be at several levels of the hierarchy. Also it is the extremely difficult to define level of the needs by satisfying which it will be possible to motivate individual at certain moment. Partially the problem occurs due to it is very difficult to distinguish small, minor alterations in needs which occur daily, from more considerable changes in human needs. (Sapru, 2006).
Complexity is also arises at measurement of the individual needs. The majority of employee has difficulties by the definition of their own needs and at arrangement of priorities. The manager, who should create the motivational environment for his subordinates, faces the most complicated problem. The majority of the modern process theories of motivation consider motivation as a process of choice management (Vroom, 1995). Such definition of motivation was given first by Victor Vroom. Vroom (1995) is also asserted that the individual constantly are in a motivation condition.Thus, according to Vroom (1995) to be the successful manager it is necessary to show to subordinates that the direction of their efforts to achievement of the purposes within the organization will lead to the prompt achievement of their personal purposes.
According to the expectancy theory of motivation the subordinates would work the most productively if they are assured that their expectancy in next three areas will be justified:
1) the chance of getting the job done
2) the instrumental relationship between performance and rewards,
3) the value of rewards.
These key elements of the expectancy theory will be considered and analyzed below. Firstly, the effort – performance expectancy: When the individual ask himself, “In what extent I can expect that my efforts will lead to quantitative and qualitative results which are necessary for my manager”, the answer is expressed by the term “expectancy in the relation “the effort- performance” It means that as stronger expectancy that the efforts will lead to desirable result as more probability that this individual will accomplished task well.Secondly, the performance-reward instrumentality. In case if employee will estimate clearness of that he able to perform the given work successfully, he asks himself: “If I properly perform this work, so which award I can expect and whether it is the award which I want to receive? ” Uncertainty arises in that case when the worker is compelled to rely on others. As stronger the confidence of individual that the manager will pay the compensation promised as the probability of that the worker begins to perform more productive higher. Thirdly, the valence of rewards.
Even if employee confident in that they able to perform their work effectively, which the manager expect from them, the subordinates ask themselves a question: “If will I receive the award which I wanted to gain, whether will it be enough valuable or not in order to satisfy my basic needs? ” According to Vroom (1995) the answer to this question consists in measurement the value of the award. Besides, the value of reward is the most important element of the motivation theory and, unfortunately, not always is taken into consideration by managers.As such, Maslow (1987) is used the term “domination” in order to define the general level of needs satisfying of which will manage over the individuals actions. However, the new question is arises: “How the manager will define, which reward is means of satisfaction of the needs this or that subordinate? ” To answer this question, Vroom (1995) uses the term "valence" for definition the force of preference of this or that reward. In brief, the expectancy theory of Vroom offers some suggestions about the improvement of manager’s performance (Kumar A. 2000). First of all, the process of comparison needs of subordinates with the reward received by them from the organization should be regular.
Secondly, the help is often required to subordinates in order to realize connection between the exert efforts and the result received and also between the reward and satisfaction of needs. On other words, their confidence grows if they see that the manager pays much attention to this interrelation and appreciate their subordinates to keep the concrete course of actions.Additionally, as for different people the diversified needs is priority and; hence value of the reward received from the organization for all is not identical. Thus, the manager can strengthen the motivational potential of reward only in case if he will understand that which stimulus is most effective for each subordinate. Finally, the managers should strengthen the motivational potential of the work offered by them to the subordinates. Besides, the managers should show their abilities as manager constantly giving the significant rewards when the organizations goals are already advanced.In order to find out what would motivate mine peers in the workplace the brief survey of the 10 people were carried out and the data collected are shown in appendix 1 attached.
The 10 participants were asked the multiple-choice question: “What are the things that will motivate you at the workplace? ” The next variables were also provided:
1) the personal achievements,
2) working with others,
3) the recognition by others,
4) helping others,
5) varied and interesting work,
6) financial reward,
7) good working atmosphere.
The rate of effectiveness of the survey is arranged as Good/Ok/Not good/Poor motivator. This survey displayed that first 3 variables are the most dominance amongst the responders. It is clear from the appendix 1 that the such motivator as self-achievement is at the top of the table as the responders feel a great sense of achievement and self-contribution to overall performance. The participants respond variously: “Feels like I have made a significant contribution” etc. The positive relations between peers are also appeared as a strong motivator with such response of participants as “colleagues should support each other and have a respect from them”.Next motivator which is “recognition by others” is the 3 rd.
place variable that makes up 8 votes as good motivator and 2 as ok that makes it equal self-achievement motivator. , The following results showed that such motivators as helping others, varied and interesting work, financial reward and good working atmosphere shared the places left with equal votes per 5 as a good motivator; however some of it appeared as a not good motivator, according to survey, that makes slight difference between it. Nonetheless, it remains the parity as it is the question of the validity and reliability of the data from responders obtain.As it has been noted by Maslow (1987) that the needs of the bottom levels should be satisfied first of all, only after that it is possible to address to needs of higher levels. Thus, survey indicate that in average the participants thought that the first 3 variables are the best motivator for them that makes possible to assume that there are located on such stages of hierarchy of needs as esteem stage in case of the recognition by others. As such, most of the responders are reached the highest level of hierarchy – self- actualization in case of personal achievement. To conclude, Sapru R. 2006) claimed that the most of the problems within the organization are motivation problems. Those involved in the study of organizational behavior recognize the importance of motivation as a determinant of effective performance in the organization. Recognizing the level of motivation in the workplace can address a lot of worker-related problems. This assignment including questionnaire results has shown new angles to human behavior, which affect the individual's productivity. By analyzing these aspects, management in the organization can improve the productivity of their employee. A successful application of these theories requires an understanding of the situations and circumstances surrounding the organization. For example, according to Maslow’s theory, managers sometimes don’t understand the indifference of employees to their work.
It is possible that even if management is constantly giving recognition to their outstanding work, a part of the problem lies on the inability of these employees to fulfill the lower needs. A manager can say please and good work to a particular employee and the effect would still be negative.By understanding the weakness of these theories will help the manager decide which features of which theory can best be applied in their organization. Building morale is an important concept in motivating employee; it will help create productivity. Developing a shared vision is a way to begin building morale. Understanding the needs and expectations of construction workers is basic to motivation. The knowledge of motivational theories can help a lot in this regard.
It is important to point out that motivational theories must be used wisely.Misuse of some theories and techniques could result in negative consequences
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4) Maslow Abraham H. 1987. Motivation and Personality.New York: Harper & Row
5) Sapru R. 2006. Administrative theories and management thought. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India
6) Vroom V. 1995. Work and motivation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Classics
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