The Cause and Effects of Global Issue
The cause and effects of global issue Because of the development of technology, which people use to treat diseases, the deaths caused by communicable disease are decreasing all over the world.However, the deaths of Non-communicable diseases increase.Non-communicable diseases such as Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer, which are caused mainly by the bad lifestyle result in the burden to the global economy and caused many deaths in the whole world.
In this essay, firstly, the causes and effects of Diabetes will be introduced.
Secondly, those things of CVD will be demonstrated. Finally, the Cancer’s cause and effect will be discussed. Diabetes is a quite widespread disease, which is caused by the lack of an important hormone called insulin. However, researches show that people who exercise less, insobriety and smoke more possibly get this disease and these factors are the primary causes of this disease (Colditz 1990, Helmrich 1991, Lynch 1996, Manson 2000, Ajani 2000). Because of the spread of this disease, people all over the world were greatly affected and it mainly includes three aspects.
Above all, diabetes widely affects our health and daily life. Up to now, it’s still hard to cure diabetes. Diabetes has an excessive morbidity. DIABETES UK (2010) estimates that in 2009, 2. 6 million people in the UK were found to have diabetes and it predicted that the number would increase to 4 million people by 2025. Not only, in the UK, diabetes is also a big problem in the US. In a research (2011) shows that 25. 8 million people in the United States suffered diabetes, which represents 8. 3 percent of the total population. In other developing countries, the situation is even more difficult.
In addition to the extremely high rate, diabetes always leads to other diseases like heart disease, High blood pressure, blindness, kidney disease, nervous system disease. In 2004, 68 percent of people older than 65 who were died from heart disease turned out to have relationship with diabetes (2011). From the year 2005 to 2008, 67 percent of people who suffered diabetes have greater blood pressure than the equal level (2011). Besides, diabetes is the leading factor of factors of blindness. In 2008, a total of 20290 people were living on kidney disease in the United States.
Most of them have the history of diabetes. What’s more, about 60% to 70% of people with diabetes have a tendency of developing into nervous system disease (2011). Finally, it is also an economic issue to both governments and individual. ‘The Cost of Diabetes in Europe-Type 2 study’ is the first coordinated attempt to measure total healthcare costs of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Europe. It evaluated more than 7000 patients with Diabetes in eight countries which shows that the total costs of diabetes were estimated at the EUR 29 billion a year(Jonsson,2004).
It has the same situation in other countries all over the world. In Canada for 1998, the economic burden of diabetes was likely to between $4. 76 and $5. 23 billion(Keith, 1998). In Sweden, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is about 3%-4% of the population. The economic burden of diabetes is estimated at 5746 MSEK in1994. (Jonsson, 1983) CVD are the most common complication of diabetes: diabetes causes the microscopic blood vessels of the heart which brings myocardial necrosis. In addition, it also causes atherosclerotic which contributes to coronary heart disease.
Myocardial necrosis and heart disease both are a kind of CVD (Goldberg, 2000). Not only are CVD caused by diabetes, but also both of them have something in common. It shows clearly the connection between CVD and unhealthy lifestyle as diabetes does (Wright, Douglas, Rahman, 2004). In other words, unhealthy lifestyle is the main factor of CVD. Unhealthy lifestyle is reflected in using of tobacco, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise and staying up late. On the one hand, with the development of social economy and the living standard improving, people have sufficient money to purchase tobacco.
Consequently, tobacco is introduced into people’s life. It has an enormous negative effect on human’s health and is also one of incentives of CVD (Millett, Gray, Saxena, Netuveli, 2007). As another effect of society progress, diet style has changed a lot: people’s staple bread has changed into the high adipose and high protein instead of grain and vegetables (W. H. O. , 2005). Fat intake more than reasonable limit intake, which was the main factors of nutrition superfluous. Over nutrition causes overweight and obese people greatly increases.
Overweight and obesity are the common risk factors of CVD (W. H. O. , 2005). On the other hand, the quick pace of city life produces lack of exercise and staying up late. Lack of exercise causes the obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia ( Furberg and Thune, 2003). It has been reported by Furberg and Thune (2003) the main risk factors of CVD are hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia and obesity. As a result of staying up late, people usually feel ill next day. Phillips (2005) explained the reason why people feel sick. It is because staying up late engenders endocrine disorders.
In addition, endocrine disorders will cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which is one of CVD (Phillips, 2005). Although the decrease of the death rates from CVD appears in some part of western countries (Slattery, Jacobs, Nichaman, 1989), it is still one of the most serious threats to humans, especially among the seniors, in developed countries where medical equipment and technology is comparatively advanced(W. H. O. ,1993). That means the current state of CVD is not that positive as it seems to be. CVD is still one of the deadliest diseases in most parts of western world.
Statistics demonstrate that More than 30% of deaths in the United States were caused by CVD (Pakenham, 2010). To make matters worse, the disease, which considered to be solely happening in the western world, now spread to the developing countries and is becoming a worldwide leading cause of death (W. H. O. , 2005). Take China as an example, the number of patients with CVD reached 230 million in 2008, which means that 2 in 10 adults are suffering from cardiovascular disease (The Ministry of Health, 2010). As a whole, this kind of problem still remains a challenge for human beings (Pakenham, 2010).
CVD not only causes large quantities of death, but also increases the enormous economic burden. People who have contracted this kind of diseases suffered unbearable cost pressure including expensive cost of drugs, of undertaking body examinations regularly and of surgery. In 2010 in China, as far as cardiovascular disease is concerned, the acute myocardial infarction costs Chinese society 1. 946 billion Yuan, while 6. 587 billion Yuan in intracranial bleeding and 9. 817 billion Yuan in cerebral infarction. (The Ministry of Health, 2010).
According to China cardiovascular disease report(2010) despite of the fact of price changes, a respectively average annual growth rate of acute myocardial infarction, intracranial bleeding and cerebral infarction respect attained 34. 46%, 26. 85% and 31. 05% since 2004. China cardiovascular disease report (2010) stated that such a rapid growth of cost of CVD have a close connection with the rapid growth of the number of people and increases personal and national economic burden. Be similar to diabetes and CVD, the cancer spread very wide and quick and influence seriously. There are many factors, which can cause the increasing of Cancer.
The main factor is the unhealthy lifestyle, such as alcohol abuse, inadequate diet, physical inactivity and tobacco’s use. Tobacco’s use, which has the biggest influence on human causes highest rate of cancer. The more and more use of tobacco causes the increasing of lung cancer, which has a high fatality rate. According to the J Natl Cancer Inst (1981), by far, the largest reliably known percentage is the 30% of current U. S. cancer deaths that are due to tobacco. On the other hand, the physical inactivity also causes the increasing of cancer, because the cancer is from the genic mutation.
If people do fewer exercises, the more rate of genic mutation will be. So people will have a higher rate of getting cancer. Moreover, the pollution of environment causes the increasing of cancer too. It even can cause 37 forms of cancer (core-reading. No date) Because of the increasing of the cancer described above, it costs much money and influences the economy. This phenomenon not only occurs in developing countries but also in developed countries. According to the Boyle (2008), this is going to present an amazing problem at every level in every society worldwide. However, the influences in different countries are different.
For example, the cost of cancer in the United States is less than 1. 73% of GDP but in the Hungary, which has a smaller population and domestic economy it is more than 3. 05% of GDP. (Global Health, 2010) This kind of difference between developing and developed countries is the result of the different degree of attention in the countries. In developing countries, the government pay more attention to the development of economy thus the control of cancer was ignored. Only when cancer becomes an evident disaster, the government will turn to treat it. However, it will cost more money, because the treatment costs more money than the prevention.
The truth is that both developing and developed countries spend much money on cancer. The total economic impact of premature death and disability from cancer worldwide was $895 billion in 2008. This cost represents 1. 5 percent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP). This economic toll from cancer is nearly 19 percent higher than heart disease, the second-leading cause of economic loss ($895 billion and $753 billion, respectively). (Global health, 2010) The high cost of cancer happened because the cancer has direct and indirect influences on the economy.
The direct influences include the cost of treatment and prevention of cancer and the funds which be used in research of cancer. The indirectly influences is the decrease of the productivity, because there are no longer enough healthy adults who can work for the industry. Moreover, the death of cancer is more than any other disease, especially in the developing countries. People in Butler County are more likely to die from cancer than heart disease, counter to the trend seen nationally and across the region, according to Journal News’s examination.
In some developing countries, the cancer death can equal or larger than 60% of the total death in there per year(Boyle,Levin,2008). In 2008, there were 12. 4 million new case of cancer diagnosed and 7. 6 million deaths from disease (Boyle,Levin,2008). There are a number of factors, which account for the increasing of Non-communicable diseases. However, the main factor is the bad lifestyle of people. On the other hand, the Non-communicable diseases cause many deaths and loss of global economy. It has been argued that there are three kinds of Non-communicable diseases, including Diabetes, CVD and Cancer, which play the important role in NCD.
These three diseases caused by the bad lifestyle such as the lack of the exercise and the superfluous or unhealthy diet. Because of the increasing of the NCD, it cost a lot of government’s money to treat it and becomes a heavy burden to the global economy. All in all, the Non-communicable diseases as a global issue result in the burden with the global economy and cause many deaths in the whole world. References Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ,(1990)Weight as a risk factor for clinical diabetes in women. Am J Epidemiol Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW, Paffenbarger RS Jr.
Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1991 Lynch J, Helmrich SP, Lakka TA, et al. Moderately intense physical activities and high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness reduce risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men. Arch Intern Med 1996 Manson JE, Ajani UA, Liu S, Nathan DM, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of cigarette smoking and the incidence of diabetes mellitus among US male physicians. Am J Med 2000 Ajani UA, Hennekens CH, Spelsberg A, Manson JE. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among US male physicians.
Arch Intern Med 2000 Data from the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet (released Jan. 26, 2011) http://www. diabetes. org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/ Revealing the cost of Type II diabetes in Europe(B Jonsson – Diabetologia, 2002 – Springer) Goldberg, K. B. (2000) Risk factor CVD in diabetic patients modification for cardiac disease. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies JT Wright Jr, JG Douglas, M Rahman(1998)Prevention of cardiovascular disease in hypertensive patients with normal renal function, [online]Available at <http://www. ciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S0272638698003357 >(13/12/2011 15:27) Gerald B. Phillips(2005)Is Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease an Endocrinological Disorder? The Estrogen-Androgen Paradox, [online]Available at <http://jcem. endojournals. org/content/90/5/2708. short> (13/12/2011 15:38) ML Slattery, DR Jacobs Jr and MZ Nichaman (1989)Leisure time physical activity and coronary heart disease death. The US Railroad Study [online]Available at http://circ. ahajournals. org/content/79/2/304. short (13/12/2011 15:38)
The Ministry of Health. (2010) China cardiovascular disease report, 21th Oct [online]Available at http://www. moh. gov. cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/mohbgt/s6717/201109/52995. htm(13/12/2011 15:39) world health organization report(2005) Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)not date [online]Available at http://www. who. int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/index. html (13/12/2011 15:41) Making connection Unit 1 reading 2 J Natl Cancer Inst, (1981) . The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. online]Available at<http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/sites/entrez/7017215? dopt=Abstract&holding=f1000,f1000m,isrctn> (13/12/2011 10:25) <<Core reading book>> Cancer In Developing World(2010). [online]Available at<http://www. globalhealth. org/view_top. php3? id=1056>(13/12/2011 10:26) American Cancer Society,lnc. (2010),The Global Economic [online]Available at<http://www. globalhealth. org/images/pdf/2010_cancer_report. pdf> (13/12/2011 10:34) Boyle/ P, and Levin, B. World Cancer Report (2008),