Nowadays, our daily life can not be assumed without deviance being inherent in education, at workplace and other areas. The most common type of deviance can be observed at the workplace. Although this field is quite new, various conceptualizations are brought forward by different scientists.
At this point the research of Robinson and Greenberg (1998) is worthwhile. These researchers distinguish five dimensions of deviance: perpetrator, intention, target, action and consequence. In the following paragraph, the case of "Janet Cooke and the Washington Post" will be analyzed in the scope of above-mentioned dimensions.
Profound analysis of the case study
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According to Robinson and Greenberg`s five dimensions, perpetrator might be insider or outsider (Robinson and Greenberg, 1998). In this case, being involved in an illegal action Janet Cooke can be described as a perpetrator. So, working as a reporter in the Washington Post, she is an insider (person) and not an organization.
Deviant action can be executed intentionally or unintentionally (Robinson and Greenberg, 1998). Clearly, Cooke`s intentions were to get achievement and reputation, while using a spurious way to be on the list of well-known and recognized journalists. So, Cooke intentionally cheated both society and organization she was a part of, endeavoring to pursue her mercenary intentions.
In my point of view, the action of this reporter was not intentionally harmful, targeting either organization or people. Obviously, while writing the story about Jimmy, she did not suppose that her action would bring great damage to the reputation of the Washington Post. In addition, she did not expect her article to be awarded "Pulitzer".
Robinson and Greenberg divide targets of deviant actions into these categories: inside and outside; individual and organizational; additional. So, Janet`s action directed toward both inside – organization (Washington Post) and outside – readers of newspaper. Apart from it, organizational (organization itself) and additional (people reading Janet`s article) targets can be defined in this case, as both of these categories were misled.
Information given in Janet`s article was based on non-valid and exaggerated story. Consequently, the action of Janet, having an illegal basis, disrupts both organizational and societal norms. Certainly, if organizational norms and behavior are contrasted by actions of an individual, they are apparently focused on personal interests, being a workplace deviance.
Although Janet did not expect, her action resulted in negative consequences. First of all, the reputation of the newspaper she worked for was seriously damaged. Apart from it, such kind of activity is shameful for the name of journalism. The core of journalism is to provide society with valid and credible information, whereas, her action ran counter to it.
After having analyzed this case, it can be concluded that all the actions having illegal intentions should be avoided, otherwise, consequences can be inevitably harmful for both society and organization, either intentionally or unintentionally.
Robinson, Sandra L; Greenberg Jerald. Employees Behaving Badly: Dimensions, Determinants and Dilemmas in the Study of Workplace Deviance. Trends in Organizational Behavior, volume 5. Edited by Cooper, C.L, and D.M. Rousseau, 1998.IACA - INTERNATIONAL ANTI-
Concepts and Issues in Corruption
Since ancient times laws and regulations within countries all over the world have always been different, having their own principles and peculiarities. Clearly, laws have always been subject to amendment, though, some of them accepted in one country are completely objected at another one.
So, this situation paves the way for people and businesses to avoid law without breaking it in either their own countries or abroad. In the modern, rapidly developing world globalization and neo-liberalism heavily contribute to this process (Passas, 2005). The provided essay will discuss the concepts of "lawful, but awful" and "crimes without law violation" in the context of the Azerbaijan Republic, trying to find out differences and aspects they are based on. Moreover, there will be given examples to clarify it.
The concept of "lawful, but awful"
The concept of "lawful, but awful" was originally developed by professor Nikos Passas describing it as activities being legal while having negative consequences or eluding regulations and laws not accepted in this or that country (2005). Prior to giving examples reflecting the concept of "lawful, but awful" in the Republic of Azerbaijan, three categories of it defined by Passas will be given: Firstly, corporations have legal businesses while producing harmful or dangerous products such as cigarettes, weapons, and alcohol (Passas, 2005).
Secondly, despite producing useful products for the society corporations release toxic materials, wastes, and etc., causing damage to society, environment and country (Passas, 2005). Finally, the third category describes some industries pursing public purposes mostly aimed at raising money rather than positively contributing to the society, thus resulting in negative outcomes (Passas, 2005).
A few examples will be given to illustrate the concept of "lawful, but awful":
"Shadow education" in Azerbaijan
The "shadow education" is the term describing extra education provided by teachers for extra money beyond the official curriculum (Transparency International, 2013).
It is a widespread example of this concept severely spreading in some parts of the world. Turning to Azerbaijan there are many factual examples of this term. Since the Soviet Union collapsed many public sectors have deteriorated including the education system. In recent years, people have intensively been concentrated on education and career making to cope with stiff competition on the labor market. A
Additionally, the salaries of teachers do not conform to standards and cost of living in our country. Consequently, all the above mentioned circumstances have given teachers the opportunity to take advantage of them, getting involved in private tutoring to raise extra revenues.
Studying for exams to enter universities and other educational institutions most of current students tend to take extra classes to get scores they target as curriculum taught at school is deliberately lowered by teachers to attract more students to their private tutoring. Although this type of activity is not prohibited by the law provided a teacher pays taxes to government, yet such type of private tutoring has a negative impact on the level of education within the country.
Difficulties of entrepreneurship issuance in Azerbaijan
Some years ago potential businessmen used to go through complex stages to have their entrepreneurships issued. Initially, they had to be involved in long procedures taking fourty days until they were implemented, thus preventing many of them to set up businesses. Apart from it paved the way for corruption, involving bribery, to accelerate the process of entrepreneurship issuance.
Consequently, all the above indicated factors impeded the development of the private business sector being one of the important contributors in the economy of the country and well-being of the society. Due to the latest reforms this procedure has been reduced to only two days, stimulating the development of private sector.
The concept of "Crimes without law violation"
The concept of "crimes without law violation" is based on principles involving elusion of regulations and laws using various frauds and loopholes without infringing national or international legislation.
Tax machinations in Azerbaijan
In the Republic of Azerbaijan a person involved in entrepreneurship is supposed to pay taxes to the government depending on their turnover of business. Having a turnover not exceeding 120000 manats per year physical and legal persons are supposed to pay four percent simplified tax. However, if this amount is over 120000 manats, entrepreneurs are supposed to pay 18% value added tax (VAT) (taxes.gov.az, 2015).
Clearly, this large gap paves the way for tax evasion with many business people coming up with "tricks" to evade tax legislation. One of the "tricks" is to establish a few companies having different names and TINs sharing turnover among them so as not to pay 18% VAT. Consequently, this action is considered to be violation, however, no law is broken, thus reflecting the concept of "crimes without law violation"
Sale and purchase machinations in Azerbaijan
According to property and tax legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan, when selling or purchasing a real estate, an owner is supposed to pay taxes to government. One is supposed to pay four percent providing property price does not exceed 120000. However, the amount over this sum is subject to 18%.
So, some tricks are also used to evade this tax. Usually, seller and buyer agree to reduce the cost of property in the sale and purchase agreement to the amount being less than 120000. Consequently, in fact, these people are not involved in tax evasion as official documents have valid information with no law violation, though, their machination involves "tricks" to defraud the government.
It can be clearly concluded that, all countries over the world have laws and regulations, though they often differ from each other depending on a country. However, businesses and individuals having different intentions are often aimed at finding loopholes to avoid law violation and punishment, while pursuing their goals. Obviously, it is challenging for countries to monitor this activity with no law broken and anybody to bring to justice.
Exactly, there are certain reasons contributing to the above-mentioned tendency. Primarily, shadow education arises from law salaries and drawbacks in educational system, making teachers and people turn to private tutoring. As regards the example of tax machination, it is obvious that it is based on some flaws in the tax code, such as a large gap between 4% and 18% tax, inciting people to use "tricks" to elude high taxes. Consequently, along with public awareness these loopholes should be filled in, otherwise, this tendency is not subject to healthy change.
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