Timber frame construction

Introduction

Modern building comes in many signifiers, from traditional masonry, to precast concrete, to steel, and in recent times timber frame building.

Timber frame and masonry building are really similar looking edifices. Over the last 30 old ages in Ireland the chief type used in domestic home was masonry building which consists of block inner foliage, pit, insularity and a block outer foliage, externally finished usually with a brick or plaster rendered block. Over the last 12 old ages timber frame building has grown to account for about 40 per centum of the market. Timber frame building consists of an off site engineered edifice which arrives to site and the pieces are assembled to finish the unit. The external coating is likewise to masonry with brick or plaster rendered block. The ground for chosen this subject is to happen why this alteration occurred. The intent of this thesis is to analyze the Irish lodging market over the last figure of old ages, besides to happen out the grounds for lumber frame building going more popular.

Purpose

To happen out why the tendency of edifice domestic lodging in Ireland has changed from masonry building to timber frame building.

Aims

  • To look into the Irish lodging market and happen grounds for the tendency alteration from masonry building to timber frame building.
  • To analyze the grounds why lumber frame building has grown to the degree it has over masonry building.
  • To analyze the positions of householders and belongings developers towards lumber frame building.

Literature Review

The primary informations will be sourced from RGU database, Internet sites, RGU books and diaries. Relevant Irish authorities studies and web sites will besides be looked at to derive an indifferent position. Besides the positions of the building bureaus in Ireland will be explored.

Research and methodological analysis

The writer programs on making a comparing of the two building types in order to accomplish grounds for the displacement in tendency. The brief comparing instance surveies will include cost, clip, heat and energy of both types of building.

Questionnaires

Questionnaires provided the primary research for this thesis. The writer shall make up one and give it out to relevant householders and belongings developers to derive an penetration into their positions. By making this the writer will happen out the market potency of lumber frame building.

Structure of Dissertation

Chapter One

This chapter explains the rubric of the thesis, introduces the motives and gives a background for the grounds for taking this subject. The writer explains to the reader the purpose and aims of the thesis and how they are traveling to be achieved.

Chapter Two

The literature reappraisal will look into in tendency in Irish building. Current building bureaus studies will be looked to seek and derive an penetration to the alteration in tendency. The writer feels that this will accomplish the first expostulation of this thesis.

Chapter Three

This chapter will look into the two edifice options with respect to be, clip, heat and energy. This will be done by a figure of interviews and instance surveies. Areas looked at will be building cost and life rhythm costs. Besides will include a instance survey of both types of building where U-Values and Building Energy Rating will be achieved and assessed to derive an penetration into why the tendency shifted. The writer feels that this will accomplish the 2nd expostulation of this thesis.

Chapter Four

This chapter the sentiments and positions of householders and belongings developers towards lumber frame building and masonry building are explored by agencies of a questionnaire. The writer feels this will accomplish the 3rd expostulation of the thesis.

Chapter Five

In this eventually chapter the decision provides a brief sum-up of the determination of the predating chapters.

Literature Review

Background

Over 70 % of place in the developed universe are timber frame places. 60 % of Scots new home are timber frame and over all in the United Kingdom timber frame histories for 15 % of new places. Ireland is easy following our neighbors. Over the last 10 twelvemonth Ireland had been sing a building roar. Housing units been completed in 2000 being 49,812 units turning to 62,686 in 2003, top outing in 2006 with 82,980 unit completed. After 2006 the lodging market in Ireland started to fall, Numberss of units being built in 2007 being 71,356 go oning to fall in 2008 as 48,151 units and go oning to fall in 2009. ( Cardinal Statistics Office Ireland 2008 )

Many lodging estates and flat blocks had been starting up in every metropolis, town and small town chiefly around the computing machine belt around the capital metropolis of Ireland Dublin. Then easy the remainder of the state following. In 1992 lumber frame building history for merely 5 % of the new brooding market. Since so it has grown to tremendous degrees to account for 30 % of entire lodging building nationally ( Construction Industry Federation 2009 ) .

Typical these edifice were constructed by masonry building, this consisted of a 300mm pit wall with block inner foliage, insularity, pit and a brick/block outer foliage finished with a plaster render. Over the last 17 old ages timber frame building has shown steady growing. Timber frame building consists of an off site engineered edifice which arrives to site and the pieces are assembled to finish the unit. The external coating is likewise to masonry with brick or plaster rendered block. Some industry experts predict that by 2012 it will account for 50 % of the new brooding market.

“ The lumber frame industry in Ireland has shown strength and resiliency, despite these hard economic times. When the upturn comes, timber frame building will be presented with legion chances. ” ( Maurice Buckley, CEO, NSAI – National Standards Authority of Ireland. )

Reasons for this occurrence?

Energy

In Ireland over the last figure of old ages at that place has been a bend in attitude sing the environment, which has in some portion resulted in alterations been implemented by the building industry with respect to energy preservation. The chief subject that has come to the bow on an Irish domestic degree is the preservation of fuel and energy ingestion. The building industry has been identified as a considerable portion of the national energy measure. Attitudes of developers and householder are altering to environmentally friendly edifices. Due to this lumber frame building has seen a steady growing. Timber frame is renewable constructing option, for every tree cut down two more are planted. The cost of turning the natural merchandise into a edifice stuff is conceivably less than traditional methods.

“ Timber is the lone sustainable renewable commercially feasible constructing stuff. The production of concrete green goodss huge sums of Carbon Dioxide ( C02 ) , which has a negative impact on the environment and contributes significantly to planetary heating. ” ( Irish Timber Frame Manufacturing Association 2009 )

Speed

As the building roar grow so did the demand for lodging and more significantly fast lodging. One of the chief factors for this bend towards timber frame is speed of building. The frame of the edifice can be erected in a figure of yearss which compared to typical masonry edifice is improbably faster. This is due to the lumber frame been constructed off site in a mill and delivered to site as a planned procedure of assembly. Masonry on the other manus takes a figure of hebdomads to make roof degree where as lumber frame is erected in a figure of yearss. Even in moisture conditions work can still go on as a staging system is in topographic point around the foundation, where as blocks for masonry building can merely be laid in dry conditions. Besides with lumber frame building the edifice is weather proof much faster so internal plants can get down much quicker. Besides a batch of the slower work for pipe fitters and linemans such as first repair is much easy done in a lumber frame house. “ Timber frame has 30 % shorter, more predictable building clip than brick and block ” ( UK Timber Frame Association 2009 ) .

In masonry building the usage of moisture trades in the physique causes excess clip needed for drying out. Because lumber frame is a dry signifier of building there is no drying out clip which is a economy of a figure of hebdomads. Besides because of this there is less lightly a hazard of checking looking on walls and ceilings for shriveling which can happen in masonry often.

Cost

The cost of a lumber frame house is similar to masonry built. Unlike masonry, costs of a lumber frame physique can be fixed long before the foundations are poured. This is due to most timber frame providers besides fix the construction. So a fix monetary value for a fixed solution. No rain yearss for wet trades or no extra costs.

“ This ensures that the extra disbursals that spiral as a edifice advancement can be eliminated. ” ( Irish Timber Frame Manufacturing Association 2009 ) .

The figure of individuals need to repair the construction is lower than a masonry physique, besides with respect to clip, clip is money so the faster the physique the cheaper for the developer and home-builder. Besides the manus over clip for a complete home is must faster so this will profit developer ‘s hard currency flow and profitableness. Due to the velocity of building on site security cost or greatly reduced.

Flexibility of Layout

Because timber frames internal walls being building out of light weigh divider walls the internal infinite of a lumber frame physique is really flexible. Any errors in layout of internal walls is easy rectified, where as masonry internal wall would be peculiarly more hard to rectify.

Case Studies

Introduction

To acquire existent grounds for the tendency mover towards timber frame building and to acquire a true indicant of the cost difference in both timber frame and traditional masonry domestic building the writer looked at two cardinal countries, building costs and life rhythm costs. In relation to building costs the countries of preliminary costs ; works and equipment costs and site labor costs are looked at in greater item.

Construction Costss

Preliminary Costss

Every building undertaking incurs preliminary costs. Preliminary costs are defined as,

“ Costss which are straight involved with the overall completion of a building undertaking ” ( Roy Chudley 2002 )

These costs include points such as site direction, insurance for the undertaking, drivers and secret agents. On larger sites where site cabins, offices, storage rooms, lavatories and canteens are required the costs incurred are besides referred to as preliminary costs.

For each undertaking there is an allowance set aside for preliminary costs. However in relation to timber frame building these costs are included in the overall lumber frame bundle. This is a consequence of the bulk of the work required for lumber frame building being carried out off site, which in bend makes the budget costs a batch cheaper than traditional masonry. Derek Moore a manager with Timberline edifice contractors Ltd Dublin provinces,

“ by pre-manufacturing the lumber frame off-site, houses are constructed more cost efficaciously ” . ( Pick a Pro 2009 )

To endorse up this point the Irish Timber frame manufactures association provinces “ this method of building is non cheaper peculiarly if the builder has n’t thought his patterns through but because mill fiction means much greater predictability, better controls and of class, a faster gait ” ( Irish Timber Frame Manufacturing Association 2009 ) .

This is non the instance for its traditional masonry opposite number as preliminary costs are required as a separate budget, this is due to the fact that all of the work required for traditional masonry is carried out on site. A bulk of the preliminary budget for the traditional masonry method includes hire of works and proviso for skips and concrete silos on site etc. Another factor to be taken into consideration is the clip period taken to build a lumber frame house, which is significantly lower than that of traditional masonry opposite number. Costss such as site supervising and the demand for applied scientists and the similar on site are greatly reduced.

Plant and Equipment Costss

Plant and equipment costs should be taken in to consideration when covering with building costs. Every undertaking requires certain types of equipment and works to transport out work to a decision. Harmonizing to Colm Kilroy a measure surveyor with Michael Higgins and associates in Galway, “ works and equipment costs are a major portion of all building undertakings, the use of such equipment is critical as a batch of money can be wasted due to bad direction and planning on site ” . He continued to state “ if works is required on site for a certain occupation it is critical that the site is ready for that equipment as once it arrives on site it has to be paid for. ” ( Colm Kilroy 2009 )

The conditions can besides plays a portion in works and equipment costs, inauspicious conditions conditions can take to a batch of equipment being left idle while the cost for holding it on the site is still being charged. Obviously the conditions conditions can non be controlled by the undertaking squad but in periods of forecasted inclement weather the ordination of works and stuffs should be avoided if possible.

Site Labour Costss

This country of site labor costs greatly differs with both methods of building. A batch of the factors in relation to be for the lumber frame method of building are all inclusive of the over lumber frame bundle, the bulk of the work to be carried out by specialized labor is completed in the mill and one time the lumber frame unit leaves for the site their work is finished.

This in bend reduces any call back costs, to complement this, the Irish lumber frame manufactures association provinces that,

“ There are lower call back costs ; any jobs encountered can be eliminated instantly by the lumber frame specializers before go forthing the mill. ” ( Irish Timber Frame Manufacturing Association 2009 )

The cost for the labor to rectify these jobs is still inclusive of the lumber frame bundle.

Traditional masonry building is in comparing carried out otherwise with all the building work associated with traditional masonry been carried out on site and with each single trade necessitating labors to transport out the work.

Cost Case Study

The writer compiled a cost comparing from a building contractor ‘s point of position for the development of a lumber frame and masonry domestic home. The house programs used to transport out this comparing were based on a individual house within a development of five similar houses, merely the major elements of the constructions were included in the pricing. for the comparing were obtained from Barry Doyle a measure surveyor with a Co Carlow company and John O Connell a building contractor in Co Galway.

The lumber frame house is more expensive to build than its masonry opposite number. There is a cost difference of about a‚¬9,000 between both methods to build a individual house taking the chief structural elements in to consideration. For the development consisting of five houses where this house is located the entire monetary value difference in the building of the five houses utilizing both methods of building can be up to a‚¬45,000 to a‚¬50,000. The undermentioned information shows the logical thinking behind the monetary value differences for the of import elements of the building.

Timber frame kit

This component looks to be really expensive but the bulk of stuffs needed to finish the lumber frame house including the labor needed for the building are included.

Concrete raft foundation

The monetary value of the raft foundation differs as there is less steel required in the raft for the lumber frame house in comparing to the masonry built house, this leads to nest eggs for both the labor and stuffs.

Block work

The difference in the monetary value of the block work is due to the interior foliage and the internal walls of the lumber frame house been constructed of lumber.

Roof

The lumber frame kit incorporates a bulk of the roof in the over all bundle which leads is a monolithic monetary value difference from the standard roof for the masonry home.

Insulation

Due to the demand for more insularity in the lumber frame house there is a difference in monetary value over its masonry opposite number.

Slabbing

As with the insularity due to the sum of timber stud internal dividers and timber interior foliage walls the lumber frame brooding requires more plaster board than the masonry method which increases both the sum of stuff and labor.

Plastering

The daubing component differs entirely because of the decreased measure of abrasion coat required in the lumber frame house.

Carpentry

The monetary value difference in relation to woodworking is a consequence of a batch of the lumber work coming pre fabricated as portion of the lumber frame kit, an illustration being the doors coming pre hung with ironmongery fitted and architrave already attached.

Main contractors Profit

The chief contractors net income has been calculated on the standard per centum being 5 % .

Life Cycle Costss

Introduction

Life rhythm costs are normally interpreted as, ” The operating costs of edifices over the prognosis utile life attributed to them ” ( Bruceshaw 2009 )

These costs include initial capital costs, business costs and operating costs. In relation to the edifice industry and in peculiar to the traditional masonry and lumber frame methods of building, life rhythm costs are indispensable in make up one’s minding which is the overall cost effectual method of building is. In this chapter the writer discusses countries such as the running costs and other costs that are involved with both signifiers of building.

Design Differences and Changes

From an aesthetic point of position lumber frame and traditional masonry constructed homes when constructed look really similar, nevertheless lumber frame houses,

“ Let for more versatile designs than block built houses ” ( Pick a Pro 2009 )

The inquiry is one time the house is constructed how easy is it to transport out alterations to the design. In relation to these changes Kingspan Century province,

“ Due to the fact the interior foliage of your lumber frame house is constructed of solid wood and gypsum board, and non concrete blocks and plaster, extensions and changes by and large have significantly reduced impact on the bing edifice ” . ( Kingspan Century 2007 )

To further this statement MBS Timber frame Ltd province,

“ Because the inside of a lumber frame house is made of wooden panels and gypsum board, changes and extensions will non affect the muss and terrible break of strike harding down solid block walls, and all the other tests and trials that accompany this type of work ” . ( MBC Timber Frame 2009 )

Alternatively the block work internal foliage of a masonry house has distinguishable advantages over is timber frame opposite number. Undertakings such as repairing a shelf or drape rail can be a slippery with the lumber frame method,

“ There is no job making this in a masonry physique place as all the walls are capable of keeping shelves, drape tracks etc. it would be a simple affair of boring the holes in the right topographic point and sleep togethering your shelf into topographic point ” ( Irish Concrete Federation 2009 ) .

In comparing, with a lumber frame house, harmonizing to John Meehan a carpenter with a Co Galway Company,

“ If you are put ining a new kitchen or telecasting unit, you may happen that there are no evidences in the wall where you need a repair. If in this state of affairs if your repair is put in topographic point without happening a he-man, the unit is certain to fall down under force per unit area ” . ( David Treacy 2009 )

Property Market and Selling Value

Influencing factors in relation to domestic building include resale value and easiness of sale. The traditional masonry constructed procedure has built up a repute of been a good marketer and a front-runner with the Irish populace, Galway auctioneer John Gilmore provinces,

“ Block built houses are easier to sell as people by and large go for the sure method, a batch of people asking about lumber frame houses are wary and are non easy convinced as to its benefits ” ( Liam Gordon 2009 ) .

The position of an Irish lumber frame company is that,

“ Auctioneers and estate agents are by and large of the sentiment that non merely is timber frame non an obstruction in selling a place, but on the contrary, is going more and more a major merchandising point. The energy efficiency of lumber frame houses is going an progressively valued characteristic ” . ( Kingspan Century 2008 )

To repeat this,

“ For mortgage intents and insurance, most loaners and insurance companies rank lumber frame every bit with block work. Equally far as resale value is concerned, there appears to be no difference at all between the two systems. However some persons have their ain penchants, built up from their ain experience or things they have heard about either system ” . ( Homebuilding and Renovating Magazine 2005 )

Runing Costss

The lumber frame method of domestic building brushs big nest eggs over its traditional masonry opposite number. These nest eggs result from the lumber frame house holding an allowance for insularity on both the external and internal walls ; this differs well from the traditional masonry method where in most instances merely the external walls contain insularity.

“ Because lumber frame constructions are highly good insulated and have less mass than more traditional signifiers of building, important nest eggs can be made in warming costs ” . ( Homebuilding and Renovating Magazine 2005 )

A taking Irish lumber frame company states,

“ Savingss of between 30 % and 40 % on warming measures are reasonably typical ” . ( Devsan Timber Frame Homes 2009 )

In relation to farther nest eggs in the hereafter with lumber frame,

“ It is estimated that the warming cost of a lumber frame place can be 30 % lower than that of a masonry home, and the rapid rise in energy costs these costs look set to increase ” . Sunday Business Post Newspaper 2007 )

In decision the nest eggs to be made with the lumber frame method of domestic building in relation to warming and energy usage are extended over its masonry opposite number.

Time of Construction

Introduction

From a clip to build perspective the length of clip it takes to construct and complete both signifiers of building differs. The building of a traditional masonry home has a longer clip programme than its lumber frame opposite number. The chief factors lending to the difference in building times include.

Programme of plants

The programme of plants for both methods has a clip difference of about seven hebdomads from foundation phase to decorating and traveling in phase. Derek Moore of Timberline edifice contractors provinces,

“ In footings of physique velocity, timber frame can present a important 30 % decrease on traditional building times, which affect hard currency flow and reduces local perturbation ” . ( Pick a Pro 2009 )

The position of another Irish lumber frame provider is the building clip of both methods of building is even larger depending on the edifice,

“ Construction clip is cut by about 40 % as your lumber frame construction is erected on site within yearss depending on size and complexness of edifice ” . ( Clark Group 2008 )

Building Coatings

During the phase whereby the lumber frame unit is erected the internal first repairing work can get down. This work can continue inside the house as the masonry tegument is being built, in comparing no internal work can get down on the masonry house while the block work component is being constructed. The long drying out period associated with traditional masonry building is besides a disadvantage in comparing to the lumber frame method.

“ Apart from the obvious labor economy, lumber frame does n’t necessitate any drying-out clip, unlike a standard masonry building, which needs up to 1,500 gallons of H2O to vaporize before it is dry ” . ( Sunday Tribune 2001 )

To repeat this a prima Irish lumber frame provider provinces,

“ Timber frame AIDSs internal coatings, all walls are consecutive and plumb, corners are square and true. With lumber frame there are less of the “ wet ” trades, gypsum board needs merely to be skimmed and pigment, cosmetic stuffs and floor coverings can be applied sooner to dried surfaces ” .( Castle Timber Frame Homes 2009 )

Heat Loss in Buildings

Introduction

For the intent of this thesis the writer compared the U Value of the external walls of both a lumber frame and masonry constructed home, the writer besides decided to obtain the Building Energy Rating ( BER ) for both methods of building so as to do an accurate comparing. Both the U Value computation and the Building Energy Rating are based on the house programs. With the expertness of Michael Sweeney of Sweeney Energy the U Value and BER computations were compiled and the consequences are as follows.

U-Value Calculation

A U-value is the term given to the step of heat loss through subdivisions of a edifice. It measures the rate that heat transmits through a constituent or construction when there is a difference in air temperature at both sides.

“ Uracil Valuess are expressed in Watts per meter Kelvin which is the rate of heat transportation in Watts through 1m2 of the construction for one unit of temperature difference between the air on the two sides of the construction ” .( Roy Chudley 2002 )

U-Value Footings

The following are footings associated with the computation of the U-Value.

Thermal Conductivity

“ It is the step of a stuffs ability to convey heat and is expressed as the energy flow in watts per square meter of surface country ”. ( Roy Chudley 2002 )

Thermal Resistance

“ This is symbolized by the missive R, as representative of a stuffs thermic opposition achieved by spliting its thickness in meters by its thermic conduction ”. ( Roy Chudley 2002 )

Timber Frame U-Value Calculation

The above computations show that a traditional masonry external pit wall has a U-Value of 0.35 W/m2K in comparing to the lumber frame outer wall, which has a U-Value of 0.25 W/m2K. The findings for this peculiar computation show that the lumber frame domestic building has a better U-Value than its masonry constructed opposite number.

Building Energy Rating ( BER ) Calculation

The writer decided to compare the Building Energy Rating of both methods of building. To accomplish this the writer availed of the expertness of a qualified BAR assessor who calculated both BER values utilizing the same house programs as used for the U Value Calculations. For the intent of the reader the writer explains some of the footings associated in the Building energy evaluation process.

Building Energy Rating Footings

The process is based on ciphering the energy balance for a home,

“ this is the energy required by the brooding plus any losingss, so less the energy additions this is equal to the energy delivered in to the home ”( Cheveron Training 2009 )

Delivered Energy, expressed as kWh/year. This corresponds to the energy ingestion that would usually look on the energy measures of the home for the false standardization tenancy and terminal users considered.( Cheveron Training 2009 )

Primary Energy, expressed as kWh/year. This includes delivered energy, plus an allowance for energy “ overhead ” incurred in pull outing, processing and transporting a fuel or other energy bearer to the home. For illustration, in the instance of electricity it takes history of coevals efficiency at power Stationss.( Cheveron Training 2009 )

The consequences show that both timber frame and traditional masonry domestic building have an energy evaluation of B2 for this house. The B2 evaluation is acceptable for a edifice, which incorporates a natural airing design.

The primary energy value for the lumber frame method of building is lower than it ‘s masonry opposite number and indicates that the operating expense incurred in pull outing, processing and transporting of energy to the home is lower for lumber frame method.

The comparing of the Co2 emanations consequences in the lumber frame method holding lower emanations end product and as antecedently discussed the lower the Co2 emanation the better it is for the environment.

Finally the lumber frame method had a lower delivered energy evaluation. This shows that the energy ingestion on the energy measures of the home are once more lower than its masonry opposite number.

Developers positions sing the alteration from masonry to timber frame:

To accomplish a true indicant on the positions of the building industry in respect to both methods of building and why the tendency has moved towards timber frame it was necessary to obtain the positions of developers who really carry out the edifice works.

As portion of the writer research, many building bureaus were contacted. Philip Mahoney of timber frame industries association was contacted and helped with the writer ‘s inquiries.

Philip Mahoney of the Timber Frame Manufacturing Association said when asked why the tendency has moved from masonry to timber frame.

“ From a developers point of position velocity of building was really of import, because a lumber frame house can be up and roofed in a affair of yearss and ready for the follow on trades to travel in. for the developer this was a great advantage as they were in and out much quicker and hence turn hard currency over.

Timber frame would hold besides have got popular with the ego physique sector because of the fact that a ) rather an instruction procedure was carried out by the association and its members, B ) the green card besides began to come into drama every bit good as lumber frame is seen as environmentally friendly which the industry has been advancing. ”

Tom McHugh, Director of Kilcloghans Ltd Galway who have been outstanding traditional masonry builders for a figure of old ages said in respects to ease of build “ we are masonry builders and we build timber frame, we find that it is particularly simple to construct the lumber frame method ” he went on to state in relation to building costs “ timber frame is every bit economical to construct as traditional masonry ” sing building costs in relation to the downswing in the building industry he stated “ yes the building cost for both methods had dropped but both methods still work out in and around the same monetary value ” . He besides stated that they found the chief advantages of lumber frame to be “ a dry signifier of

building every bit good as the obvious advantages of velocity to construct and economical to run ” . From a merchandising point of position he found lumber frame, “ easier for the ground that they are more economical in footings of energy usage ” .

Francis Geraghty Director of Frame to complete edifice contractors Co Galway stated in footings of easiness of building,“ the lumber frame method depends mostly on the type of house the client wants to construct every bit good as the quality of site readying before the lumber frame edifice reaches the site ”. He sees the chief advantages of the lumber frame method for him are“ the U-Values that can be achieved ”and besides“ the whole lumber frame construction is up and ready for internal work in a affair of yearss ”.

Colm Kilroy a Quantity Surveyor with Michael Higgins and Associates Galway said“ from a cost of stuffs point of position certain stuffs have dropped in monetary value, but the existent bead in monetary value has come from the shopkeepers themselves more so for traditional masonry instead than the lumber frame method. With such competition for work cost of labor has decreased quickly ” . He went on to state, “ this bead in labor costs could be a key to the pick of the populace in the coming old ages with traditional masonry acquiring so inexpensive to construct ”.

John O ‘ Connell, a builder, based in Co. Galway stated that he sees the chief disadvantages of Timber Frame building as“ the inclement conditions conditions in this state, have people concerned that lumber may decompose over clip. Peoples besides feel more unafraid with bricks and howitzer ”.

Sean O Donnell a chief with a edifice contractor in Co Galway who specialises with both signifiers of building sees the chief advantages of lumber frame over traditional masonry in relation to be to be“ less labour intensifier, less wastage of stuffs on site, and when lived in less cost in running ” . In relation to clip to build he said, “ less clip lost due to adverse conditions, you get to see the finished merchandise quicker and easier and timber frame leads to quicker installing of electrical wiring ” . Sing insularity he states, “ with a lumber frame house you are closer to the life country and so non heating the outside wall before making insularity value, it takes really small to heat up house and the quality of insularity is cardinal to better acoustic public presentation ”.

Questionnaire Consequences

Introduction

To acquire a true and realistic position on both methods of domestic building the writer decided to obtain the positions of the occupants who live in lumber frame places. To accomplish this, a questionnaire was compiled and distributed around the Galway country. A transcript of the questionnaire is included in the appendix at the terminal of the thesis and the consequences are as follows.

As can be seen from the pie chart decidedly shows that 100 % of the surveyed occupants notice the lumber frame method of building to be cheaper to heat than its traditional masonry opposite number. The remarks received included,

“ Traditional block was more expensive ; I used solid fuel scope with a back boiler and oil cardinal warming. It was necessary to hold heat invariably from back boiler toped up by oil, in comparing the oil warming in the lumber frame runs for 4 hours per twenty-four hours from November until March to the downstairs radiators merely. We have 2 unfastened fires that we ne’er use as it would be excessively hot. Our oil measure is reduced by 2/3 and we do n’t necessitate solid fuel ”.

A farther remark stated,

“ Timber frame is cheaper every bit non as cold during the twenty-four hours so no demand for much heat during the winter months ”

clearly shows that the occupants find their lumber frame homes to be warmer than the traditional masonry opposite number with 84 % happening it a batch heater and 14 % of occupants saying it to be somewhat warmer

shows how good people rate the acoustic public presentation of their lumber frame house in relation to external noises. 55 % of the occupants find there to be no noise while 45 % of the occupants find there to be a small noise. One of the occupants stated,

“ The lone noise to be heard is that of the rain H2O running to the gully ” .

A farther occupant stated,

“ External noises are non an issue, but my house is located on a spot of an elevated site and on a really blowy twenty-four hours the air current can be an issue ” .

Other illustrations of external noises to be heard included traffic from a nearby chief route and Canis familiariss barking, but no extra noises than would besides be heard in a traditional masonry home.

shows what the occupant ‘s ideas are on the acoustic public presentation of their homes in relation to upstairs noise. 22 % of the occupants province that there is a batch of noise to be heard from floor to floor, a bulk of the noise is a consequence of hapless sound insularity being used. One occupant stated,

“ Floor sound proofing between floors is a job, we did non take this in to account during building ” .

44 % of the occupant ‘s province there is a small noise to be heard from upstairs with motion on floors and doors shuting being the chief subscribers. Finally 34 % of the occupants province there is no noise to be heard, a figure of them said that during building phase they had the builders put in excess sound proofing between floors, which acted most beneficially in cutting down the noise. Other occupants who found there to be no upstairs noise lived entirely and in a consequence had no upstairs motion while in the house.

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