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Monetary Policy

2. Some economists suspect that one of the reasons that economies in developing countries grow so slowly is that they do not have well-developed financial markets. Does this argument make sense? Yes it does make sense since the financial markets have a big role in a country’s economy and has a greater affect on it if it’s working well or not (channeling the funds to people who will use them efficiently and productively).

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When a country works its financial markets in an efficient way (having the right investments, having enough money supply to better develop the country with its education, health, and infrastructure, and also enough to give for entrepreneurs to help develop the country, etc. ) it will defiantly affect the country positively and result in having a faster developing country. 4. If you suspect that a company will go bankrupt next year, which would you rather hold, bonds issued by the company or equities issued by the company? Why?

I would rather hold bonds than equities because a company will pay whatever left of their assets to their bondholders before their shareholders since bonds are forms of debt; therefor bondholders have claim on a company’s assets before shareholders (owners). 11. How can the adverse selection problem explain why you are more likely to make a loan to a family member than to a stranger? Adverse selection is the problem created by asymmetric information (when one party doesn’t have enough information about the other party to make an accurate decision) before the transaction of a loan occurs.

So making a loan with a family member is better, or most likely to occur, rather than with a stranger because one will have more information available (knowing their honesty, risk tolerance and more, and also easier contact) with a family member than a stranger, which will help him/her (the lender) avoid the adverse selection problem. 16. “In a world without information costs and transaction costs, financial intermediaries would not exist” Is this statement true, false, or uncertain? Explain your answer. Uncertain.

Information costs and transaction costs are two of the main reasons why financial intermediaries exist, so if these two costs fall, people will lend and borrow at zero cost and so they won’t be needing any financial intermediary. Nonetheless, financial intermediaries do have other functions such as enhancing individual and national income through interest or dividend on the lender’s surplus fund. Enhancing the GDP of a country through using the funds in a more productive way. They create capital for the country through the savings flow they receive.

They help determine the price of traded financial assets through buyers and sellers, and based on the demand and supply. They also provide a sign for the allocation of funds. And finally they provide selling mechanism on financial asset to offer the benefit of marketability and liquidity of such assets. | 17. Why might you be willing to make a loan to your neighbor by putting funds in a savings account earning a 5% interest rate at the bank and having the bank lend her the funds at a 10% interest rate rather than lend her the funds yourself? To avoid asymmetric information (adverse selection and moral hazard) and to decrease transaction cost.

Putting funds in a bank has no risk and not let one worry about having enough information about his/her neighbor (asymmetric information). If for example I lend my neighbor $100 and the chances for him/her to pay me back were 50%, then my expected return would be $55 [100* (1+10%)*50% + 0*50%]. But if I deposited my funds in a saving account, my expected return would be $105 [100*(1+5%)]. And that is because banks as intermediaries are more capable on providing better-expected return by diversifying their risk. Banks also have better resources on monitoring their borrowers actions; therefor they can avoid the asymmetric information problems.