All over the world, education is not only acknowledged to benefit individuals but as well recognized to promote national development. Education expands the life choices and opportunity for both boys and girls; nevertheless, approximately 60 million girls continue to be out of school (“Gender Equality in Education”).
Several government and non-government organization have been continually working to eliminate the disparity between boys and girls by identifying gender-related barriers, evaluating the extent of education disadvantage that the latter confront, and implementing systems to overcome and remove the aforesaid impediments.
Basically, ensuring gender equality in education suggests that boys and girls have equal opportunities to enroll and access school, as well as to benefit from, and participate in the array of subjects or other learning practices presented in schools and classrooms. Effective Strategies for Equality In Education An effective approach for educating boys and girls requires incorporating attention to enrollment and admission, in addition to achievement and excellence.
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Through gender-sensitive teaching-learning methods, learning materials, and curricula, boys and girls in the same way become prepared with the attitudes and life skills needed to achieve their definitive skill, within and beyond the educational system, irrespective of their sex (“Promoting Gender Equality in Education” 2). Unfortunately, in developing countries, girls generally come up against textbooks, teaching practices, and other school materials that endorse gender stereotypes that are disadvantageous to their educational success.
In addition, unsafe school environment creates difficulties to the completion of education, more especially to girls. Keeping girls in schools necessitates donors, policymakers, educators, community members, and parents to look further than enrollment and deal with bigger, related issues. For instance, poor families normally have to choose between educating their daughters or sons, and more often than not parents routinely prefer to educate their sons.
Evidently, decisions are normally not be anchored in the natural skills, aptitudes, or the enthusiasm levels of their children. However, the prearranged gender responsibilities may not automatically benefit boys either, and may even be detrimental to them. Young age boys may experience a profound responsibility to academically perform in order to meet their families’ expectations to be successful. Consequences of Gender Equality In Education
Exceptionally numerous children, particularly those form poor families and living in remote or rural areas, constantly needs quality learning opportunities, such as access to a sheltered, nearby school. Child soldiers, trafficked children, orphaned children, displaced children, refugee children, street children, indigenous children, working children, as well as those who are living in conflict areas, and physically challenged are not receiving an adequate education (“Education From A Gender Equality Perspective” 6).
Even more unfortunate, being female aggravates an already problematical situation. In many developing countries, girls are less encouraged than boys to stay in school, enroll in school, or less expected to have their educational requirements provided using non-formal approaches (“Education From A Gender Equality Perspective” 6). Evidently, the most excellent, available development investment is not being totally exploited by these nations. Educating girls takes in significant outcomes.
Educating girls to a certain extent generates a higher rate of return than any other investment presented in the developing world. When girls are provided with access to a rights-based, quality education, they have a tendency to postpone marriage, boast healthier and fewer children, and throw in more to nation productivity and family income (“Education From A Gender Equality Perspective” 6). Whether consideration is focused on primary or secondary education, providing and ensuring access to high quality education is essential if nations are to realize their development objectives.
Developing countries that fall short of guaranteeing impartial access to basic education are, as a result, affected by distressing consequences, such as the increase in fertility and increase costs, poverty, malnutrition, and child mortality. Worldwide Status of Gender Inequality In Education According to the visionary educator Dr. Kwegyir Aggrey, “Educating the men and neglecting the women is the most certain approach to keep a population down” (“Girl Power: Educating Girls in the 21st Century” n. p. ).
Accordingly, a nation basically educates a person if it educates a man; however, a nation educates a family if it educates a woman. The good news these days, however, is that over recent decades a record numbers of girls have swarmed into school. Girls have closed the gender gap with boys, and prevailed over considerable development, social, and economic gains for their communities as well as for themselves. In poor countries, in general, girls’ primary school enrollments in 1990 to 2004 soared from 87 percent to 94 percent; with more girls today in secondary school than in any documented period in history (Mercy and Fort).
Nevertheless, despite the fact that inequalities in the enrolment rates in primary and secondary education have decreased, they have not been eradicated up until now. At present, more than two-thirds of the estimated 860 million uneducated persons around the world are women (“Decent childhoods: Educate both girls and boys”). Conclusion Education is a basic human right, and children regardless of sex, color, nationality and religion are entitled to it. Education is significant to the development of people and societies, as it helps bring about a productive and successful future.
For the millions of illiterate children, admission to education is the pathway to an improved life. Moreover, educating girls leads the way for more extensive changes in the work places, societies and families. When governments guarantee access to a rights-based, quality education that is founded on gender equality to their young citizens, it generates a wave effect of benefits that clearly affect future generations.
- “Decent childhoods: Educate both girls and boys. ” June 2008.
- International Labour Organization. 4 March 2009 <http://www. ilo. org/gender/Events/Campaign2008-2009/lang--en/WCMS_093652/index. htm>.
- “Education From A Gender Equality Perspective. ” May 2008. USAID. 4 March 2009 <http://www. ungei. org/resources/files/Education_from_a_Gender_Equality_Perspective. pdf>.
- “Gender Equality in Education. ” 20 April 2009. USAID. 4 March 2009 <http://www. usaid. gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/ed/index. html>.
- “Girl Power: Educating Girls in the 21st Century. ” 5 March 2009.
- The World Bank. 4 March 2009 <http://web. worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:22091605~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607,00. html>.
- “Promoting Gender Equality in Education. ” n. d. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 4 March 2009 <http://www2. unescobkk. org/elib/publications/brochures/Gender%20in%20Education%20E-brochure_2009. pdf>.
- Tembon, Mercy, and Lucia Fort. n. d. “Girl’s Education in the 21st Century. ” The World Bank. 4 March 2009 <http://siteresource
Short Speech about Discrimination Among Girl Child and Boy Child
Discrimination against girl children has been a topic of debate. It has been a subject of concern and sociological significance. This subject raises the cultural aspects about the role of a girl child in society, what her human rightsare as a human being and a number of sensitive issues. This issue is important because there is nearly universal consensus on the need for gender equality. Gender based discrimination against girl children is pervasive across the world. It is seen in all the strata of society and manifests in various forms.
As per the literature, girl child has been treated inferior to boy child and this is deeply engraved in the mind of the girl child. Some argue that due to this inferior treatment the girls fail to understand their rights. This is more predominant in India as well as other lesser developed countries. Sex selection of the before birth and neglect of the girl child after birth, in childhood and, during the [teenage] years has outnumbered boys to girls in India and also in countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh and South Korea.
There are 1029 women per 1000 men in North America and 1076 women per 1000 men in Europenbut there are only 927 women per 1000 men in India. These numbers tell us quite a harsh story about neglect and mistreatment of the girl child in India. Women have a biological advantage over men for longetivity and survival, however, in spite of this there are more men than women. The figures above support that gender discrimination of girl child is a basic facility area.
Though the demographic characteristics do not show much or in some cases, anti-girl bias, there is always a woman who receives a small piece of the pie. There are two main inequalities as pointed out by Amartya Sen, the educational inequality and health inequality, these are the indicators of a woman’s status of welfare. In India irrespective of the caste, creed, religion and social status, the overall status of a woman is lower than men and therefore a boy child is preferred over a girl child.
A boy child is considered a blessing and his birth is celebrated as opposed to a girl child where her birth is not celebrated and is considered more of a burden. Therefore, [education] and health care of the girl child in India is an important social indicator to measure equality between men and women. According to the 2001 Indian census, overall boy-girl ratio was 927 girls per 1000 boys. However, the 2011 Indian census shows that there are 914 girls per 1000 boys.
During the last [decade] the number girl children to boy children in the youngest age group fell from 945 per 1000 boys to 927 per 1000 boys. As per the data available there seems to be gender disparity depending on the location, as the Northern states(particularly Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh) seem to be more biased then the Southern states. The sharpest decline for the age group of zero to six years is observed in the Northern States particularly in Punjab (793 per 1000 girls) and Haryana (820 per 1000 girls).
These new figures point out that the use of new technology contributes to the gender composition. Furthermore, the availability of and access to new technologies provides new ways for parent to achieve such goals of sex determination before birth. Due to the widespread use of this technology the Indian Government banned the sex determination before birth. In spite of these bans imposed by the Government, the law is not widely followed.
A social development report presented in 2010 to the World Bank and UNDP, found that the time a girl child and a boy child spends on various activities is similar, with the exception of domestic work and social/resting time; a girl child spends nearly three forth of an hour more on domestic work than a boy child and therefore lesser hours of social activity/resting then boys. Despite progress in advancing gender equity from a legal standpoint, in practice many women and girl children still lack opportunities, and support for the socio-economic advancement.
Historically, the inclusion of young girls and women in education has helped challenge gender [stereotypes] and discrimination. This suggests that providing space for young girls to develop leadership skills, through education and healthy living is important. This can shape attitudes towards women [capabilities] as leaders and decision makers especially in conventionally boy domains and boy dominated cultures. Because of the sex preference of boy children in India, girl children are deemed of resources in the areas of health and education.
Gender Discrimination in the Workplace
Discrimination Against Women in the Workplace Unfair treatment of women has been prevalent throughout time. Although there have been many movements to attempt to terminate this tendency, it is still ubiquitous in today’s society. Sex discrimination in the workplace occurs when women are treated differently because of their gender. Many factors influence employers and coworkers to display prejudice against women. Gender bias in the workplace is an unfair practice that results in lower payment, disrespect, and an overall bad occupation experience for victims.
Gender discrimination is not necessarily a new issue, but it remains to be a major struggle despite the attempts that have been made to stop it through legal manners. In a report by The Institute for Women’s Policy Research’s Ariane Hegewisch, Cynthia Deitch, and Evelyn Murphy, the results of these attempts are summarized on both simple and complex levels. “The 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits employers from discriminating in their employment practices on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Although Title VII banned employment discrimination, it did not require specific actions to achieve this objective. ” Because the Act lacks such a critical detail, employers are able to avoid obeying it very easily. Laws besides the Civil Rights Act have been put into place in order to reduce unjust treatment in the workplace. For example, in 1963 the Equal Pay Act was passed. This act was supposed to end “the practice of paying men more than women when performing the same jobs and duties. Despite these protections, many women still feel gender biased discrimination is a problem” (Gluck).
The effects of both the Equal Pay Act and the Civil Rights Act have obviously been minimal, seeing as women are still very much looked down upon in the workplace. One of the most direct effects of sex discrimination in the workplace is the stereotyping that occurs. The mass overrepresentation of men in “senior management positions” is a sub-result of discrimination (“Sex Discrimination and Sexual Harassment”). The favoring of the selection of men over women for promotions has had a dramatic effect in the workplace over time. “Stereotypical views regarding gender can cause supervisors to engage in the llegal practice of passing a person over for promotion due to gender. Supervisors most often pass over women due to preconceived notions about their roles and abilities” (Gluck). Stereotypes about women come not only from their under representation in the workplace, but from preconceived notions about their family roles. Even If a woman is hired without being asked about her family responsibilities, once she takes the position, her boss can “view her employee file to see that she has young children” and then will be able to “give her less responsibility or assign menial tasks to her that do not fit her job description.
Although illegal, this practice still exists in offices today” (Gluck). Once again, employers ignore the laws put in place to stop discrimination because of stereotyping. The only way gender bias will disappear is if stereotypes disappear as well. One of the reasons sexual discrimination is so prevalent today is that sexual harassment has become so accepted in society and in places of employment. “Women have long been exposed to workplace harassment which involves conduct of a sexual nature or is premised on the sex of the victim” (McCann).
Because of the wide range of behaviors that are considered sexual harassment, it is difficult to identify some action as harassment, which means rules against it are easy to ignore. Sexual harassment has terrible effects on the morale of victims. A loss of motivation “necessary to perform their jobs effectively” is one of the most notable results of bias (Gluck). “Offensive jokes of a suggestive or sexual nature and jokes implying that an employee’s work is sub-par due to her gender” are one of the major causes for the loss of motivation that victims experience.
Sexual discrimination is obviously an extremely negative practice, but one of the most devastating effects of the prejudice is the payment gap between men and women. According to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR), “in 2011, female full-time workers made only 77 cents for every dollar earned by men, a gender wage gap of 23 percent” ("Pay Equity & Discrimination"). IWPR predicts that “if change continues at the same slow pace as it has done for the past fifty years, it will take almost another fifty--or until 2056--for women to finally reach pay parity. Such inequality in payment is absurd, especially since “women compromise 47% of the total U. S. labor force” (“Women’s Bureau”). Throughout history, women have battled gender discrimination inside and outside of the office. The difference in payment of men and women is a significant problem that needs to be paid more attention to. Once stereotypes are dissolved, problems with gender bias will dissolve as well and the payment gap will become easier to close. Until then, the laws that have been imposed need to become enforced more strictly and individuals need to pay more attention to sexual harassment norms.
Women deserve every right that men have and vice versa. Sexual discrimination affects all of society in some way or another, so it is important that society’s members work towards ending it. Works Cited Gluck, Samantha. “The Effects of Gender Discrimination in the Workplace. ” Small Business. N. p. , n. d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013. Hegewisch, Ariane, Cynthia Deitch, and Evelyn Murphy. Ending Sex and Race Discrimination in the Workplace: Legal Interventions That Push the Envelope — IWPR. Rep. N. p. , 2008. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. McCann, Deirdre. Sexual Harassment at Work: National and International Responses, Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 2. ” Sexual Harassment at Work. N. p. , n. d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. "Pay Equity & Discrimination. " — IWPR. N. p. , n. d. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. “Sex Discrimination and Sexual Harassment. ” Knowledge Center | Catalyst. N. p. , 1 July 2012. Web. 11 Mar. 2013. "Women's Bureau (WB) - Quick Facts on Women in the Labor Force in 2010. " Women's Bureau (WB) - Quick Facts on Women in the Labor Force in 2010. N. p. , n. d. Web. 24 Mar. 2013.
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