Comparison Of Smes Between China And German Economics Essay
Nowadays the universe economic system has entered the epoch of planetary competition. Economic competition is far more intense than any old historical period, and its strength is turning really fast, so many SMEs face a crisis and a bad state of affairs.
The Nobel Laureate in economic sciences, Stiglitz ( cite? ) pointed out that the current globalisation procedure is driven by the involvement of international companies, and it has exacerbated the inequality in the universe.
When foreign endeavors enter one state, they frequently destroy local rivals and crush down the aspirations of local SMEs to develop their national industry.
Chinese SMEs have 95 % of the entire figure of the national endeavors, and over 3/4 of the urban employed population working in SMEs. Statisticss besides show that SMEs in China are the most dynamic portion of its economic, involve about 65 % of the patented engineering, and more than 75 % of the engineering invention. 80 % of new merchandises are developed by SMEs. Big concern besides comes from the development of SMEs. There is no uncertainty the hereafter of China ‘s economic system to a greater extent dependant on the development of SMEs.
Stiglitz besides pointed out that unemployment is more harmful than waste of resources, it is likely to destruct the full market economic system ( mention! ) , while the engine of making new occupations is SMEs.
So, how can SMEs to cover with the challenges of globalisation? Possibly the German companies can supply us with the best illustration. The German professor of direction, Herman Simon started to analyze the German endeavors because he was asked such a hard job when he sing Harvard Business School: Germany ‘s top 500 endeavors, in the universe ranking public presentation, are non outstanding, so how can Germany go the universe top exporter for such a long clip, and how did Germany go a universe economic heavyweight.
The ten old ages of research findings surprised him.The original German exporters every bit good as the pillar of the economic system is non those familiar companies like Siemens, Bayer, Mercedes-Benz, and so on, but some unknown SMEs such as Brita, Hauni, and Xilabulan. They focus on a peculiar industry, but far more in front in the international market than any other concern, such as production of Brita H2O filters which now have 85 % of the universe market. Most of these SMEs are non familiar to media and public, but they are the true title-holder exporters.
There are 100s of those stealth title-holder companies in Germany. Do non believe that they are now little size concerns. For illustration, in the production of tropical fish provender, the Tetra company owns 60 % of the planetary market portion, .Although this is a niche merchandise, it has a turnover of 6 billion USD, and Tetra have wholly-owned subordinates in more than 100 states in the universe.
The ground why these SMEs in Germany are little-known to people, is that they are largely non able and non willing to pass 1000000s in self-promotion, or they even intentionally avoid contact with the media in order to avoid excessively many trouble because it might increase the figure of rivals and impersonators.
In drumhead, for the developing Chinese SMEs, by comparing the endeavors criterion, direction public presentation, fiscal intermediation and societal services, we should be able to sum up the differences between the two states and seek to derive experience for China.
Will utilize the methodological analysis of comparative surveies, statistic analyzing, inductive logic.
Differences of endeavors standard, direction public presentation, fiscal intermediation and societal services between China and German.
a… . Enterprises standard comparative survey between China and Germany.
Standard of the Germans SMEs
At present, the popular criterions for SMEs in Germany are the new commissariats for SMEs criterion introduced by the SME Research Center in Bonn and the European Union in 2003. The consequence of Standard Research from SME Research Center in Bonn is shown in Table 1
Table 1 The SME criterion of Germany and the European Uniona‘?
Employees ( No. of individual )
Gross saless per twelvemonth ( 10,000 of EURO )
Employees ( No. of individual )
Gross saless per twelvemonth ( 10,000 of EURO )
Assetss ( 10,000 of EURO )
& lt ; 9
& lt ; 200
& lt ; 200
& lt ; 100
& lt ; 1000
& lt ; 1000
& lt ; 5000
& lt ; 4300
Standard of the Chinese SMEsa‘µ
Chinese SME criterion is introduced by the National Development and Reform Commission Ministry of Finance, National Bureau of Statistics survey in 2003 formulated the “ Probationary Regulations on Standards for SMEs ” , such as shown in table 2.
Table 2 The SME criterion of chinaa‘µ
Employees ( No. of individual )
Gross saless per twelvemonth ( 10,000 of RMB/EURO )
Assetss ( 10,000 of RMB/EURO )
& lt ; 300
& lt ; 3000/290
& lt ; 4000/387
& lt ; 600
& lt ; 3000/290
& lt ; 4000/387
& lt ; 100
& lt ; 3000/290
& lt ; 100
& lt ; 1000/97
& lt ; 500
& lt ; 3000/290
& lt ; 400
& lt ; 3000/290
Hotel & A ; providing
& lt ; 400
& lt ; 3000/290
In drumhead, by comparing of the SMEs criterion between China and German can pull the undermentioned decisions:
First, the SMEs criterion of China is different from Germany, except the criterion of figure of employees, with entire assets and gross revenues of three commonly are utilizing international indexs, industry indexs as standards for categorization of endeavors with Chinese features. In the standard demands of the seven industries, the primary industry and third industry is non included. The major difference between different industries is the figure of employees.
a…? . Business direction public presentation comparing between China and Germany
1. Business public presentation of Germany SMEs
At the terminal of 2005, the figure of SMEs is 99.7 % a‘¶of entire figure of endeavors in Germany has reached 33.8 million of gross revenues, in the terminal of 2004 micro-enterprises ( less than nine workers and gross revenues in 2 million euros or less ) ocuppy 81 % of SMEs, making 18.2 % of entire employment. By the terminal of 2005 the gross revenues of German SMEs achieved 39.1 % of entire, supplying 70.9 % of employment ; by the terminal 2004 the added value created 46.7 % , 51.5 % of investings, exports of 66.4 % .The development of SMEs in Germany has a clear difference between parts and industries. There is a rapid develop of west Germany SMEs. German SMEs has an absolute advantage in the agribusiness, forestry and piscaries, building, adjustment and catering industry. Among them, little and average endeavors occupy 94 % of all agricultural endeavors, 85 % of all building endeavors, adjustment and catering industry, 89 % , services 60 % .a‘¶
2. Business public presentation of Chinese SMEs
Since 1997, SMEs have been turning quickly in China after authorities declared that the private sector is an of import portion for the state ‘s economic development. The figure of Small and medium endeavors in late 2006 range 42 million, busying more than 99 % of the entire figure of enterprisesa‘· . At the terminal of 2002 the figure of Micro-enterprises ( less than nine workers ) reached 23.5 million, busying 56 % of the full little and average endeavors. Among them, micro-enterprises create 26.8 % of employment for entire registered labora‘? . During the tenth five-years plan period, little and average industrial endeavors reached about 28 % mean one-year growing rate of value-added, created 60 % of concluding goods and services and about 50 % of taxa‘· . SMEs have become the chief channel for spread outing employment, supplying more than 75 % of urban occupations, and more than 80 % of discharged workers were re-employed in little and average endeavors, the bulk of migratory workers are working in little and average endeavors. A group of powerful SMEs explore the international market really actively.
The information from the Ministry of Commerce shown that by the terminal of 2005, there is 88 % of endeavors investing is SMES in Africa a‘? . Chinese SME occupied 68 % of exports in late 2005 a‘? .
The development of SMEs in China is besides evidently differences differences between parts and industries. SMEs are located in the eastern part, particularly the southeasterly coastal countries of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Shanghai and Beijing a‘? .
Harmonizing to information provided by “ China ‘s Economic Development Index for SMEs ” , the fastest improving industry is the power, gas and H2O production and supply sectors and the index of bettering is 66.76 % ; The second is the building industry, for 66.09 % ; and 3rd is information transmittal, computing machine services and package industry, which is 65.92 % ; and the last is the fabrication sector with 63.22 % . In 1993, the norm registered capital of little and average endeavors is RMB 286,000, in 1995 is RMB 40 million, in 2002 it grow to RMB 2.5 million a‘» .
Because the deficiency of statistical informations for Chinese SMEs bankruptcy rate, there is a unsmooth estimation, bankruptcy rate of Chinese SMEs after the constitution in 3 to 5 old ages is every bit high as 50 % a‘» .
Because deficiency of statistical informations of Chinese SMEs bankruptcy rate. A unsmooth estimation, bankruptcy rate of Chinese SMEs after the constitution in 3 to 5 old ages is every bit high as 50 % a‘» .
In drumhead, through the comparative of little and average endeavors runing public presentation survey between China and Germany, the undermentioned decisions can be drawn.
First, whether in the underdeveloped China, or in the developed Germany, little and average endeavors played a prima function in economic development, with the addition exports and make the new occupations. It stabilizes and be the hardcore for economic development and societal development. However, due to the particular background of China ‘s passage economic system, the SME absorb a big figure of discharged workers and excess rural labour force who fired by the state-owned endeavors.
Regional is the 2nd ground for the differences between the development of SMEs in both states. The chief difference in Germany is because it divided into East and West. In China, it is because of the coastal countries and inland countries. Therefore, the development of little and average endeavors and regional degrees of economic development are closely linked.
Third, due to the lower capital ratio, Chinese and German SMEs both have a high rate of bankruptcy.
a…? . A Comparative Study of Chinese and German SME fiscal intermediation
1. German SME funding
The chief resource for SMEs loaning is from sedimentation Bankss, which is about 44.8 % within the entire loans, 20.3 % from the co-operative Bankss, 20.2 % from the private Bankss ( Deutsche Bank, Commerzbank, Dresdner Bank and Postbank ) . This proportion of loaning does non alter much in the market portion for a long clip already.
There is a direct relationship for the application of bank loans between the successful and the direction of the house. If the gross revenues are less than 100 1000000s euro, the rejection rate for the application of loans reaches 34.7 % . However, if the gross revenues are over 5000 million euro, the rejection rate is merely about 6.6 % .a‘?
Harmonizing to the study for the rejection of bank loans, 49.3 % of houses are unable to supply warrants or collateral, 46.8 % is because of the deficiency of free capital and there is 36 % for the alterations in banking policy.With the development of the capital market and the banking system in Germany, there are some alterations for funding within SMEs:
( 1 ) . the standardisation of first balcony funding reduces the cost and the proportion is increasing in the funding market. The German first balcony financing market becomes the 2nd largest market and the first is United Kingdom. With the addition of the first balcony funding, the houses are able to increase their ain capital ratios, thereby increasing the sum of external finance to broaden the beginnings of funding.
( 2 ) . the plus securitization and private capital investing has became the chief resources for the funding in German through the rise in capital market.
CLOs: Collateralized Loan Obligations is issued by the bank for the plus securitization in SME. The German Reconstruction bank, KfW Bankengruppe, has developed PROMISE for comprehensive merchandise trading. This market in Germany developed quickly and the trading sum reached 20 billion euro for the first 6 months in 2006. The SME loan securitization market development will take the connexion between the traditional and modern banking establishment. This helps the SME ‘s funding and greatly heighten the liquidness, security of dealing and profitabiliy for Bankss.
2. Chinese SMEs Financing
In the World Bank study about China ‘s investing environment, they compared with other Asiatic states and shown China ‘s SMEs are confronting a more serious recognition restraint. In 2000, single and private endeavors received short-run loans merely, by all fiscal establishments to 1 % .
The proprietor of the portion of ain capital funding will be reduced as the graduated table of concern rise. Large-scale endeavors ( with figure of employees from 100 to 500 people ) funding from the proprietor ‘s ain financess accounted for 22 % ; but in less than 50 individuals is 45 % . If the proprietor ‘s ain financess and retained net incomes are added as a beginning of funding within the figure of employees is less than 52 little concerns and 67 % of the financess is from the endogenous funding ; in more than 100 big endeavors, the per centum is 57 % . In add-on, the successful rate of obtaining bank loans for the large-scale endeavors is clearly more than the little endeavors. If the bank loans and financess received from the rural recognition co-ops as a amount of intermediation of financess from fiscal establishments, there is merely 8 % for the little concerns get financing while big endeavors are 27 % .. a‘?
Professor Lin Hanchuan ( 2003 ) a‘?conducted two studies for the current state of affairs of SMEs in 1998. The first study showed that 75 % of surveyed venture capital funding comes chiefly from self-financing ; acquire bank loans, finance companies accounted for 53.5 % of them state-owned endeavors accounted for 94 % . Bank loans from state-owned banking establishments in the bulk, there are a little figure of corporate endeavors received loans from rural recognition co-ops. And 25 % of private SMEs funding is from non-formal funding channels. The 2nd canvass for the first clip similar consequences, 55 % of the surveyed endeavors to capital derived from the ego, 24 % of the surveyed companies 50 % of the working capital come from self-financing, merely 9 % of endeavors to capital come from bank loans.
China Industrial and Commercial Federation and the China Private Economy Research Committee make five probes in 1993,1995,1997,2000 and 2002. Self-financing is the chief signifier of capital funding for SMEs, accounting for 65.5 % , bank loan funding is 21 % a‘? . In the 2002 study, 3258 was merely 23.4 % of SMEs surveyed by the funding Bankss and rural recognition co-ops. Obtaining bank loans to finance companies, 30 % of the endeavors get bank loans for less than RBM 10 million, 73.4 % of endeavors less than RBM 100 million. 53.8 % of the companies with “ trouble in obtaining loans ” are the obstruction to enterprise development, one of the most of import factor a’ˆ . Chinese SMEs using for bank loans, faced with three “ favoritism ” : the ownership of favoritism, size of favoritism and favoritism in the part. Harmonizing to the standard corporate ownership for the types of endeavors, taking to the Bankss of the differential intervention of different ownership endeavors. With the increasing degrees of economic openness and regional favoritism, favoritism in ownership bit by bit replaced. In more developed countries, non-state-owned endeavors are more readily available for bank loans. Guangdong, for illustration, in 1999 for non-state economic system, portion of bank loans has exceeded the province economic system, accounting for 56 % in 2002 lifting to 65 % . Because of the size of SMEs is self-limited with the deficiency of applications for bank loans warrants and collateral, hence, the smaller the size of the endeavor are more hard for bank loans from Bankss and other formal fiscal establishments, fiscal intermediation, which resulted in the graduated table of favoritism in bank loans.
Table 3 Loans for SMEs gained from bank when established
& lt ; 0.5
& gt ; 1000
SME loans among banking establishments in different and uneven development. For illustration, Sichuan Province, as of the terminal of 2007, three big state-owned commercial Bankss accounted for the state ‘s little concern loans little concern loans to 50.31 per centum, but merely the bank ‘s loans to 11.42 % ; while metropolis commercial Bankss and recognition bureau issued little concern loans accounted for 23.84 % , but it is the bank ‘s loan balance of 48.48 % a’? . Large state-owned commercial Bankss are merely developing micro-credit operations from the central office with the particular demands and more restrictive conditions, so the enthusiasm is non high.
( 1 ) there is widespread trouble in obtaining loans for SMEs, non merely is a passage economic system like China, that is, the economically developed in Germany every bit good. Endogenous funding is the chief beginning of SME funding, bank funding accounted for 26.3 % in Germany, but in China, this proportion is much smaller. ( 2 ) SMEs using for bank loans to the trouble is due chiefly to the deficiency of security or collateral, equity capital is unequal. However, in Germany, the banking sector SME loaning alterations are hard for particular grounds ; in China it is the ownership restraints. ( 3 ) funding merchandises offered by fiscal establishments in a individual, hard to run into the funding demands of SMEs in specific variegation. In China, fiscal establishments, the chief funding merchandises offered by bank loans. However, in Germany, in add-on to the traditional bank loan funding outside the capital, first balcony funding and securitization funding portion on the rise. ( 4 ) Germany there is a clear division of labour between Bankss, organizing the major banking establishments for SMEs, sedimentation Bankss and concerted Bankss. Local operation of these Bankss are specialised Bankss, has carried out the comparative advantages of SMEs. In China, about all of the banking establishments have developed little and average endeavors financing concern, nevertheless, big state-owned commercial Bankss and deficiency of motive. Fourth, China and Germany Comparative Study of the societal service system for SMEs
SME development requires non merely fiscal intermediation of fiscal services, but besides a assortment of security, evaluations, advice, information and engineering, societal services. Social service system, the building and flawlessness is a requirement for rapid development of SMEs.
a…? . Comparison of societal service between Chinese and Germany SMEs
1. Germany ‘s societal service system for SMEs
Germany ‘s societal service system for SMEs is comparatively healthy. Auditing organic structures, accounting houses and banking establishments provide SMEs with the chief information services. In Germany, the chief bank for SMEs, non merely in corporate finance has played a prima function, but besides provide SMEs with a assortment of confer withing, information, and assist them explicate a development program and other intermediary services besides play an unreplaceable function. German SME recognition warrant system for the development of early, early in 1954 set up its first guaranteed Bankss. Presently, in Germany, each province guaranteed at least one bank. After more than 50 old ages of development, Garanti Bank has established a sound recognition evaluation system, a major consideration factors such as corporate fiscal factors ( fiscal place, net incomes, etc. ) on their ain qualities ( director ‘s direction ability, concern history ) , enterprise development state of affairs ( merchandises, markets, etc. ) , and historical records ( recognition and non-compliance records, etc. ) . Garanti Bank secured rates at 1.75 % ~ 2.5 % , rate accommodations are chiefly based on the industry in which companies, merchandises and markets, risk-related. Germany guarantees bank loans to bank-specific recognition risk-sharing ratio of 8:2. Occurs when the secured bank loan losingss, the Government has to bear the loss of 65 % , the loaning bank to take hazards to 7 % , the security establishments to presume the hazard of 28 % . In add-on, the Garanti Bank asked to command the loss rate of 4 % or less, the excess by increasing the guaranteed rate, loss ratio or the Government to increase investing write-down, owned, etc.. At nowadays, single warrants Bankss mean loss rate of about 1 % .
SMEs have to cut down costs borne by the administrative scrutiny and blessing. In 2003 the German authorities, harmonizing to a study undertaken in the endeavor 460 sorts of administrative scrutiny and blessing costs, borne by SMEs accounted for 80 % . SMEs in order to cut down the costs borne by the administrative scrutiny and blessing, the German authorities promulgated the “ cut down the load on SMEs jurisprudence ” . Among them, a really of import step is the criterion
Quasi-oriented little and average endeavors to set up, alteration, confer withing services, systems and procedures and processs, to better and heighten services at a velocity and quality. In add-on, when the constitution of little and average endeavors by simplifying administrative scrutiny and blessing processs, set up an electronic enrollment processs to enable endeavors to put up every bit long as on-line enrollment can be completed within a few yearss.
2. China ‘s development of a societal service system for SMEs
( 1 ) Government better the societal service system for SMEs, the steps the Chinese authorities attaches great importance to the development of SMEs, the determination in the “ Eleventh Five-Year ” during the execution of the “ SME development undertakings. ” This is China ‘s SME development plan of action, including bettering the societal service system for SMEs and improves relevant Torahs and ordinances, heighten the ability of scientific discipline and engineering invention of SMEs in nine steps a‘? .
Laws and ordinances in the edifice of little and average endeavors, the Chinese authorities has promulgated the “ SME Promotion Law of The People ‘s Republic of China ” “ the State Council on Encouraging, Supporting and steering the person and private and other non-public economic development in a figure of sentiments ” , and formed a “ SME Promotion Law ” as the nucleus, the relevant supporting paperss to back up the publicity of SMEs and non-public economic development of Torahs, ordinances and policy model system to supply SMEs with a sound external environment for puting the foundation for the jurisprudence. The security system, China has started the pattern of SMEs recognition warrant in 1992, by 2006, the National SME recognition warrant establishments more than 1,000, a sum of 28.7 billion fund-raising, the cumulative sum of loan warrant 120 billion kwais, the cumulative security companies 5 10000.a’‚ In the proficient support for SMEs, the Chinese authorities chose Qingdao, Hefei and other metropoliss, combined with technological systems, established a city-backed, engineering invention services for SMEs, regional, professional engineering centre, while set uping and assorted types of technological invention and improved services.
( 2 ) the societal service system for SMEs, although the Chinese SMEs in the development of the societal service system has experienced from abrasion, from little to big rapid development, but still necessitate to foster better and hone. The chief jobs are:
Servicess, higher costs. Banking Bureau in Sichuan SME study, the high cost of societal services is to forestall the funding of SMEs, a really of import ground. Small concerns in the procedure of using for bank loans may hold to pay, including audits, indirect appraisals, mortgage enrollment, security, notary, insurance, legal advice, recognition evaluation, concern enquiries, and other disbursals more than 10 points, its amalgamate disbursal ratio may be up to 10 % . Assessment and mortgage enrollment fees occupy a big proportion in bank loan. Mortgage registered in the duplicate of the enrollment, rating and fees, and charges required by the Government has non purely enforced and others are caused by extra direct cause of the high cost a’? .
System is non perfect. Management of bank loans because of the high cost of a deficiency of societal recognition direction system, banking, industry and commercialism, revenue enhancement and other societal service bureaus have non yet set up a unified recognition direction system.
Government in SME recognition warrant system to step in excessively much in the outgrowth of capital, operational construction and direction of many jobs. For illustration, many local authoritiess funded the constitution of fiscal security bureaus, on the one manus a erstwhile injection of financess, deficiency of compensation mechanism, warrant financess to little ; the other manus, the deficiency of commercial operation, can non fulfill the diversified demands of SMEs. Even in the U.S. , Japan and other large-scale government-funded national, policy loans guaranteed no more than 10 % of SME loans. Therefore, the SME policy entirely can non vouch security, but besides to play a private capital and commercial security function.
( 1 ) Germany ‘s societal system is sound and SME services, including accounting, confer withing, scrutinizing, information and other societal service bureaus. Banks non merely provide fiscal services to SMEs, but besides includes other information and consulting services. Chinese SMEs in the service of societal system, the building and betterment, the biggest job is how to better the warrant system for little and average endeavors.
( 2 ) The German authorities attaches great importance to the development of SMEs, but how the Government will play a back uping SME development, the two states have important differences. The German authorities wage attending to utilize of indirect, economic and legal agencies, such as revenue enhancement policy, through the national policy Bankss indirect fiscal support, to set up a incorporate information system, standardisation of the Government ‘s assorted administrative scrutiny and blessing systems and processs. In add-on, the German authorities by supplying more instruction and preparation chances and better the capacity of endeavor directors to accomplish long-run and sustainable development of SMEs. The Chinese authorities in advancing the development of SMEs in the greater usage of the direct administrative steps and intercessions. For illustration, fiscal investors to set up a recognition warrant system for little and average endeavors, direct operation and direction of recognition warrant establishments, direct fiscal subsidies.
( 3 ) The German Government has set up export-oriented SMEs in specific administrative and societal service system. By the China Enterprise Evaluation Association in the “ export-oriented SMEs in the survey ” points out that China ‘s deficiency of specialised concern services for export-oriented societal system. In the surveyed endeavors, 51 % of export endeavors need to finance and consultative servicesa’? .
a…¤ . Enlightenment
1. Chinese SMEs are little, but employed more workers, this is the alone consequence of the development phases and conditions. Due to the passage of Economic and societal system, China ‘s SMEs faces an more particular development environment. To work out the specific jobs of SMEs development in China, we ‘d break larning from international experience of other advanced, but besides need to considerate with the particular conditions of China.
2. Chinese SMEs criterions require timely updates and uninterrupted polish.
3. Chinese SMEs faced with the general trouble in obtaining loans, which are an of import beginning of funding.
4. Chinese SMEs warrants system for the commercial operations need imperative development. Guarantee bureaus need to set up a sound capital injection mechanism, modulate the investing of authorities financess and compensation mechanisms to accomplish the variegation of support beginnings. Learn from the successful experience of Germany, the debut of risk-sharing warrant establishments and compensation mechanisms.
5. The constitution of SMEs exporting to China ‘s societal system of professional services. With the uninterrupted development of China ‘s export-oriented economic system, export portion of gross national merchandise is lifting, it should better the export-oriented SMEs, including finance, and consulting, international operations required a assortment of particular services. The Government should put up specifically for the export-oriented SMEs, service platforms, and simplification of administrative scrutiny and blessing processs, hastening the blessing procedure.
6. Rationally specify the authorities ‘s function in SME development. International experience tells us that the Government should utilize economic and legal and other indirect means to cut down the direct administrative intercession and capital subsidy, thereby heightening the effectivity of policy execution to advance sustainable growing of SMEs.