Climate Chenge in Bangladesh
Term Paper on “Climate Change and Bangladesh” Submitted by 1. Quazi Nizam Uddin, ID-5176 2. Kazi Md.
or any similar topic only for you
Golam Quddus, ID-5168 MBA(F) 4th Batch , Fall semister-2010 Submitted for Mohammad Jahangir Alam Asst Professor , Jahangir Nagar University & South East University Managerial Economics (ECO-5123) South East University Executive Summary
Bangladesh is frequently cited as one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change because of its disadvantageous geographic location, flat and low-lying topography, high population density, high levels of poverty, reliance of many livelihoods on climate sensitive sectors- particularly agriculture and fisheries and inefficient institutional aspects.
Many of the anticipated adverse affects of climate change, such as sea level rise, higher temperatures, enhanced monsoon precipitation, and an increase in cyclone intensity, will aggravate the existing stresses that already impede development in Bangladesh, particularly by reducing water and food security and damaging essential infrastructure. These impacts could be extremely detrimental to the economy, the environment, national development, and the people of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh has developed some capacity for dealing with the impacts of climate change at the national level, and policy response options have been mobilized that deal with vulnerability reduction to environmental variability in general, and more recently, to climate change in particular. In addition, Bangladesh has for some time been recognized as a particularly vulnerable country by the international community, and has received disaster management and adaptation support in several sectors.
Some reasons for climate changes are increase in CO2 levels, green house effect, industrialization, urbanization, burning fossils fuels, deforestation, population growth etc. Many of the projected impacts of climate change will reinforce the baseline environmental, socio-economic and demographic stresses already faced by Bangladesh. Climate change is likely to result in i. Increased flooding, both in terms of extent and frequency, associated with sea level rise, greater monsoon precipitation and increased glacial melt (ii).
Increased vulnerability to cyclone and storm surges (iii. ) Increased moisture stress during dry periods leading to increased drought (iv. ) Increased salinity intrusion (v. )Greater temperature extremes All kinds of climate change impacts should be accounted for in both design criteria and location. Selected development programs on the need and possibilities to include climate change considerations in their approach and the possible contribution they could have to anticipatory adaptations.
Sometime physical interventions are generally in-effective and costly, whilst requiring maintenance arrangements and coordination of separate initiatives. More promising anticipatory adaptations are changes in behavioral patterns, human practices and international actions. However, these type of adaptations meet serious institutional constraints and consequently should be carefully prepared and, if possible, integrated in existing structures and procedures. The main mechanisms to gradually overcome these constraints are coordination of climate change activities, (integrated) planning and information management.
Capacity building including assisting the creation of a ‘climate change cell’ within the Department of Environment (DOE) to build government capacity for coordination and leadership on climate change issues needed. The cell can coordinates awareness raising, advocacy and mechanisms to promote climate change adaptation and risk reduction in development activities, as well as strengthening existing knowledge and information accessibility on impacts and adaptation to climate change. Introduction As a part of our MBA course program we have to submit a term paper.
As our course teacher selected the topics “Climate Change and Bangladesh”. Accordingly we have to write on this topic. Climate change is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in the average weather conditions or a change in the distribution of weather events with respect to an average, for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events. Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth.
In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate. It may be qualified as anthropogenic climate change, more generally known as global warming or anthropogenic global warming Bangladesh is frequently cited as one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change because of its disadvantageous geographic location, flat and low-lying topography, high population density, high levels of poverty, reliance of many livelihoods on climate sensitive sectors- particularly agriculture and fisheries and inefficient institutional aspects.
Many of the anticipated adverse affects of climate change, such as sea level rise, higher temperatures, enhanced monsoon precipitation, and an increase in cyclone intensity, will aggravate the existing stresses that already impede development in Bangladesh, particularly by reducing water and food security and damaging essential infrastructure.
These impacts could be extremely detrimental to the economy, the environment, national development, and the people of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is one of the largest deltas in the world, formed by a dense network of the distributaries of the rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra, and the Meghna, and more than 230 major rivers and their tributaries and distributaries. The total land area is 147, 570 sq km and consists mostly of low, flat land. 0 per cent of the land is floodplain, and only in the extreme northwest do elevations exceed 30 meters above mean sea level, making the majority of Bangladesh (with the exception of the highlands) prone to flooding at least part of the year, with the floodplains of the north western, central, south central and north eastern regions subject to regular flooding. Between 30-70 per cent of the country is normally flooded each year. The extent of flooding is exacerbated by the sediment loads brought by the three major Himalayan rivers, coupled with a negligible flow gradient, which increases congestion.
Bangladesh has developed some capacity for dealing with the impacts of climate change at the national level, and policy response options have been mobilized that deal with vulnerability reduction to environmental variability in general, and more recently, to climate change in particular. In addition, Bangladesh has for some time been recognized as a particularly vulnerable country by the international community, and has received disaster management and adaptation support in several sectors. Reasons
The increase in CO2 levels due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols (particulate matter in the atmosphere) and cement manufacture. Other factors, including land use, ozone depletion, animal agriculture and deforestation, are also of concern in the roles they play – both separately and in conjunction with other factors – in affecting climate, microclimate, and measures of climate variables. Greenhouse Effect The Earth is surrounded by a layer of gases that act to trap heat. These so-called ‘greenhouse gases’ are necessary to sustain life on Earth.
Like the glass walls of a greenhouse, they let the sun’s rays enter but stop some of the heat from escaping, keeping the planet warm enough to allow life. However, as people cause more greenhouse gases to be released into the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect becomes stronger. More heat is trapped and the Earth’s climate begins to change unnaturally. Greenhouse gases mainly consist of water vapours and carbon dioxide, sulpher dioxide and include other gases like methane and nitrous oxide. Industrialization From the 16th Century and onwards the European nations went to developed industries.
With the inception industrialization, there is more emission, deforestation (for place, fuel and buildings) had occurred. Urbanization With the modern civilization, people went for urbanization in every country. People made houses, offices, factories, schools, hospitals, markets and roads etc by eliminating forests and woods. Burning fossil fuels When fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas are burned, they release greenhouse gases. In 2005, burning fossil fuels sent about 27 billion tones of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
People burn fossil fuels to create energy, which is used for many things including • heating homes and buildings • growing, transporting and cooking food • traveling (for example, by car, plane, bus and train) • treating water to make it drinkable, heating it and piping it into homes • manufacturing, using and transporting products, from clothes to fridges, from plastic bags to batteries Deforestation Cutting down forests faster than they are replaced (deforestation) is a major contributor to climate change. It causes 5. 9 billion tones of CO2 per year to be released into the air.
This accounts for 20 per cent of the world’s carbon emissions – more than the entire global transport sector produces. Deforestation makes such a huge contribution to carbon emissions because trees absorb CO2 as they grow. The more trees that are cut down, the fewer there will be left to absorb CO2, leading to it building up in the atmosphere. In addition, the agriculture and industry that replace the forests often cause an extra problem by producing carbon emissions of their own. Population Growth As the world’s population grows, there are more people who need food, livestock and energy.
This increased demand leads to increased emissions. ImpactsLoss on Environment Many of the projected impacts of climate change will reinforce the baseline environmental, socio-economic and demographic stresses already faced by Bangladesh. Climate change is likely to result in i. Increased flooding, both in terms of extent and frequency, associated with sea level rise, greater monsoon precipitation and increased glacial melt ii. Increased vulnerability to cyclone and storm surges iii. Increased moisture stress during dry periods leading to increased drought iv. Increased salinity intrusion v.
Greater temperature extremes Increased flooding Sea level rise is also associated with increased riverine flooding, because it causes more backing up of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers along the delta. This will result in increased drainage congestion due to higher water levels, which will be exacerbated by other factors associated with climate change such as siltation of estuary branches in line with increased surface runoff, and higher riverbed levels. Higher temperatures will result in increased glacier melt, increasing runoff from the neighboring Himalayas into the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers.
Increased intensity of cyclone winds and precipitation The IPCC conclude that there is evidence of a 5-10 per cent increase in intensity (wind speed) that would contribute to enhanced storm surges and coastal flooding, and also project a 20 per cent increase in intensity of associated precipitation that would contribute to flooding. Cyclone winds are likely to increase in intensity because of the positive correlation with sea surface temperature. In November 2007, for example, the tropical cyclone Sidr, with a 100 mile long front covering the breadth of the country and with winds up to 240 km per hour, hit Bangladesh.
This was noted to be an unusual occurrence given the intensity and timing of the storm, particularly given that it occurred in the same year as two recurrent floods. Increased moisture stress during dry periods Climate change will exacerbate drought in Bangladesh both in terms of intensity and frequency linked to higher mean temperatures and potentially reduced dry season precipitation. Monsoon rains produce 80% of Bangladesh’s annual precipitation, and when this is reduced, drought is a significant problem; between 1960 and 1991, a total of 19 droughts occurred in
Bangladesh. The Southwest and Northwest regions are particularly susceptible to drought. Greater precipitation extremes associated with climate change also mean less rainfall in the dry season, which will increase water stress on those areas that already experience water shortages, particularly in the winter months. This will be worse for those areas that depend on glacial melt water for their main dry-season water supply, as glaciers recede with rising temperatures. Increased salinity
The availability of freshwater will be reduced by increased salinity intrusion into fresh water sources during the low flow conditions. In the coastal regions this is brought about by sea level rise resulting in saline water intrusion in the estuaries and into the groundwater. The effects are exacerbated by greater evaporation and evapo-transpiration of freshwater as temperatures increase, coupled with a greater demand for fresh water in times of water stress. Greater temperature extremes Climate change is associated with hotter summers and colder winters.
Temperatures in Bangladesh have increased about 1°C in May and 0. 5 °C in November between 1985 and 1998, and further temperature increases are expected. However, although the overall climate is warming, temperature extremes are increasing, and winter temperatures as low as 5°C have been recorded in January 2007, reportedly the lowest in 38 years. ImpactsLoss on Economy Agriculture and fisheries The economy of Bangladesh is based on agriculture, with two thirds of the population engaged in or indirectly relying on agricultural activities.
Agriculture is one of the most sensitive sectors to climate change, particularly changes in temperature, rainfall patterns, and increased likelihood of extreme events such as droughts and floods. Although an increase in CO2 levels could under moderate temperature increases result in an increase in cropping yields, through carbon fertilization, modeling studies suggest that increasing frequency of crop loss due to extreme events, such as droughts and heavy precipitation, may overcome any benefits of moderate temperature increases.
In Bangladesh, the overall impact of climate change on agricultural production will be negative. While inundation to a lesser degree has had a positive impact on production, with perennial floods bringing silt and nutrients increasing the fertility of the soils, prolonged floods have had a detrimental impact on crop yields; in two severe floods, 1974 and 1987, the shortfalls in production were about 0. 8 and 1. 0 Mt respectively. On average during the period 1962-1988, Bangladesh lost about 0. million tones’ of rice annually as a result of floods, which accounts for nearly 30% of the country’s average annual food grain imports Other impacts of climate change such as temperature extremes, drought, and salinity intrusion, are also causing declining crop yields in Bangladesh. Several studies have been conducted in Bangladesh to assess the vulnerability of food grain production to various climate scenarios. One such study2 noted that a 4°C increase in temperature would have a sever impact on food production in Bangladesh, resulting in a 28 per cent reduction for rice and a 68 per cent reduction for wheat.
Temperature and rainfall changes have already affected crop production in many parts of Bangladesh, and the area of arable land has already decreased. The shortening of the winter season is resulting in a decline in production of winter crops, particularly potatoes. The salinity intrusion experienced by the coastal area of Bangladesh is having serious implications for the quality of the soil in areas that were traditionally used for growing rice. Under a moderate climate scenario the decline in yields due to salinity intrusion could be 0. 2 Mt, which increases to 0. 6 Mt under more severe scenarios. Increases in water stress have also affected the production of major crops, again particularly rice, which needs significant amounts of water. The fisheries sector may also be adversely affected by climate change. The fisheries sector contributes to about 3. 5 per cent of the GDP in Bangladesh, and people rely on fish products to make up the majority of daily protein dietary requirements. There are 260 species of fish in Bangladesh, all of which are sensitive to particular salt and freshwater conditions.
The changes in tidal patterns, as well as increasing saline intrusion into the freshwater rivers, associated with climate change, will impact on fish populations, although the extent to which this occurs is still uncertain. The implications of climate change for agriculture and fisheries are extremely significant, not only because of the livelihoods implications for the majority of the population who depend on agricultural outputs and systems, but also because of the threat to Bangladesh’s food security, where projections suggest that by the year 2030 food-grain requirements will be 41. 6 million tones.
To become self sufficient in food grain production by 2030, an additional 14. 64 million tones will be required. Further, about 80 per cent of animal protein intake in Bangladeshi daily diets comes from fish. The population of Bangladesh almost doubled in less than thirty years from 1961, and now stands at over 143 million. According to projections the requirement of food grain in the country will be 42. 8 Mt by 2030. Increase vulnerability to crop production makes this near impossible and with fisheries also vulnerable to climate change, food security in Bangladesh is unlikely to be achieved.
Water resources and hydrology In Bangladesh, the effects of climate change on the surface and groundwater resources will be entirely negative. In terms of flooding, a report by the states that future changes in precipitation in Bangladesh have four distinct implications i. The timing of occurrence of floods may change, with implications for the seasonality of the hydrological cycle ii. Increase precipitation in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna basins may increase the magnitude, depth and patial extent of floods iii. The timing of peaking in the major rivers may also change, which may in turn change the likelihood of synchronization of flood peaks of major rivers iv. Increased magnitude, depth, extent and duration of floods will bring a dramatic change in land use patterns in Bangladesh. Other changes include increases in evaporation rates, reduction in dry season transboundary flows resulting in an increase in irrigation water requirements, sea level rise that will exacerbate drainage congestion.
Bangladesh also faces frequent flash floods, higher frequency of tropical cyclones, rise in storm surge depths, and slower accretion of coastal lands. Changes to water resources and hydrology will have a major impact on Bangladesh, where people depend on the surface water for fish cultivation, navigation, industrial and other uses, and where the ground water is used for domestic purposes and irrigation. The impacts on agriculture have already been noted. These problems will be further exacerbated by poor water management, both nationally and trans-boundary.
For example, the effect of water diversion upstream on dry season flows and salinity levels on coastal mangroves in Bangladesh was found to be comparable, if not higher, than the impact that might be experienced several decades later as in line with climate change projections. Coastal areas Coastal areas in Bangladesh are on the ‘front line’ of climate change, directly affected by storm surges, drainage congestion, and sea level rise. Most of Bangladesh is less than ten meters above sea level, with almost ten per cent of the country below 1 meter, making it extremely vulnerable to increasing high tides.
With sea levels expected to rise by an average of two to three mm per year during the first part of this century, the effects on the coastal areas will be severe, and include erosion, coastal land subsistence, siltation of river estuaries, reduced sedimentation, water logging, and saltwater intrusion. The coastal area of Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal are located at the tip of the northern Indian Ocean, which is frequently hit by severe cyclonic storms, generating long tidal waves that are aggravated by the shallow bay .
Although Bangladesh now has good early warning systems and cyclone shelters have been constructed along much of the coast, infrastructure and livelihoods are still threatened and severely affected, hampering further development of the coastal areas. 30 districts were damaged by clone Sidr for example, with the 11 districts closest to the coast damaged most severely. Coastal areas will also be affected by salinity intrusion. Saltwater from the Bay of Bengal already penetrates 100 kilometres inland during the dry season, and climate change is likely to exacerbate this.
Pressure from an increasing population and rising demand for groundwater further reduces the availability of freshwater supplies for domestic and industrial purposes A quarter of the population lives in the coastal areas, with the majority of the population reliant on or affected by coastal activities. If sea levels rises up to one meter this century, Bangladesh could lose up to 15 per cent of its landmass and up to 30 million Bangladeshis could become climate refugees. In these areas, agriculture, industry, infrastructure, livelihoods, marine resources, forestry and biodiversity, human health, and utility services will all suffer.
Such a scenario could lead to a decline in GDP of between 27 and 57 per cent. Forestry Biodiversity Ecosystems and biodiversity may be at greatest risk of all sectors sensitive to climate change. Bangladesh has a diverse range of forest ecosystems, including savannah, bamboo, freshwater swamp forests and mangroves. The Sundarbans of Bangladesh, a world heritage sight, is the single largest mangrove area in the world, comprising an area of 577,00 ha, and housing one of the richest natural gene pools. A total of 425 species have been identified there, the most notable of which is the Bengal tiger, which is endemic to the area.
Climate change will have a detrimental impact on all of the forest ecosystems in Bangladesh, and the Sundarbans are likely to be the worst affected. Sea level rise may inundate parts of the Sundarbans and ecosystems are threatened by salinization of surface and groundwater. Higher water temperatures, loss of brackish-waters and reduced flows could harm fisheries. Human development has in many cases fragmented or reduced habitat decreased species population and blocked the migration routes of species. The Sundarbans also offer subsistence to around 3. million inhabitants who live within and around the forest boundary. The inundation and intruding salinity are interrupting traditional practices in the Sundarbans. Although there are opportunities for shrimp farming in increased salinisation, shrimp farmers are encouraged to inundate their land with brackish water during times of low salinity, exacerbating damage to the forest cover. Depleting forests are putting further pressure on forest resources such as fuel wood and timber, enhancing the rate of forest depletion. Human Health Climate change affects health directly and indirectly.
The most direct impacts of climate change on human health occur through extreme events, for example the floods in Bangladesh in 2004 caused 800 deaths, while the recent cyclone affected more than 8. 5 million people, causing more than 3,500 deaths. Climate change will also affect the distribution of climate sensitive diseases. Malaria is a frequently cited example, because its prevalence increases in line with the warmer, wetter climates that are anticipated with climate change. Incidences of malaria have increased dramatically in Bangladesh over the last 30 years, and it is now a major public health problem, with 14. million people in Bangladesh classified as high risk for catching the disease. Other diseases such as dysentery, diarrhea, dengue, hypertension associated with heat stress, asthma and skin diseases are also increasing in Bangladesh, particularly during the summer months. While a causative connection between climate change and these diseases is of course difficult to verify, the conditions associated with climate change (in terms of temperature, rainfall, and salinity) and the impacts on water supply, sanitation and food production, generate favorable environments for the incidence and spread of such diseases.
For example, increased flooding as well as drought is resulting in a decline in the availability of clean water, for a country where water-borne diseases are already responsible for 24 per cent of all deaths. Urban areas The risk to human health in tropical developing countries is one of the salient risks of climate change. Drainage congestion and standing water will increase the potential for outbreaks of cholera and other waterborne and diarrheal diseases.
The pressure on the availability and access to safe water, in particular during the dry period, and the increasing reliance on groundwater are an additional threat. Natural disasters threaten people and there belongings. Finally the pressure on agricultural production may result in malnutrition. Cyclone Sidr affected the infrastructure of more than half a million homes, with nearly one million all or particularly destroyed, and more than 10,000 schools all or partially destroyed.
The key sectors affected by floods in Bangladesh’s cities include infrastructure, industry, trade, commerce and utility services, all of which reduce in productivity during and after major flooding, increasing the vulnerability of the urban poor. And the adverse impacts of climate change on rural areas cause increased migration to urban areas in search of non-agricultural employment, putting greater pressure on scarce housing, water, sanitation, and energy services and increasing the number of vulnerable urban poor who are particularly at risk from climate related disasters.
A greater part of this migrated population lives in slums and squatter settlements in the cities. Particularly vulnerable groups The urban poor are therefore especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, because of the fragility of the infrastructure of slums and squatter settlements, and the lack of employment security. In the rural areas, those with insecure land tenure, particularly the lower Adivasi castes, and women, are also particularly vulnerable. Women are the main users and carriers of water. As the availability and uality of water declines and resources become scarcer, women will suffer increasing work loads to collect un-salivated water to sustain their families. ResponsesProtection Measures National policy response options There is no comprehensive national policy in Bangladesh that specifically targets climate change risks. However, the Bangladesh government is aware of the importance of climate change, as well as the country’s historical sensitivity to climate variability in general, and there are several policy response options that exist that relate to climate change.
These include indirectly addressing the impacts of climate change through programmes that reduce vulnerability through for example poverty alleviation, employment generation, crop diversification; directly addressing vulnerability to climate variability and extreme events through disaster risk reductions and management schemes; and specifically targeting climate change by mainstreaming climate change into sectoral plans and national policies. A selection of policies that reduce vulnerability to climate variability, and also specifically climate change, will be discussed here.
Vulnerability Reduction In Bangladesh ongoing projects address food insecurity and food production shortfalls by crop diversification and generation of alternative employment opportunities aimed at community development, agricultural development, credit facilities, and infrastructure improvement. Fish and shrimp production for domestic consumption and exports are promoted with special emphasis on rural poverty alleviation and employment generation. All such developmental programmes are important in enhancing the resilience of the poor. Disaster Management and Climate Risk Management
Bangladesh has a Participatory Disaster Management Programme (PDMP) with a focus on disaster management and prevention, and also adaptation to climate change. The focus is on ‘soft’ measures to reduce the impacts of disasters, with an emphasis on preparedness, such as awareness raising of practical ways to reduce disaster risks and losses, to strengthen national capacity for disaster management; enhance knowledge and skills of personnel in handling disasters; establishing disaster action plans in the most disaster prone areas; promoting local-level risk reduction measures; and improving early warning systems.
In 2003 Bangladesh also established a Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) with UNDP and other donor assistance, with the aim of refocusing the government towards greater emphasis on disaster preparedness and risk reduction. CDMP has a number of disaster management components, among them to establish an integrated approach to climate change and disaster management, expanding risk reduction approaches across a broader range of hazards, with specific reference to climate change. There are three main areas of focus i.
Capacity building for the Ministry of Environment and the Department of Environment to coordinate and mainstream climate change into their existing activities; ii. Strengthening existing knowledge and information accessibility on impact prediction and adaptation; iii. Awareness raising, advocacy and coordination to promote climate change adaptation into development activities. Capacity building included assisting the creation of a ‘climate change cell’ within the Department of Environment (DOE) to build government capacity for coordination and leadership on climate change issues.
The cell coordinates awareness raising, advocacy and mechanisms to promote climate change adaptation and risk reduction in development activities, as well as strengthening existing knowledge and information accessibility on impacts and adaptation to climate change. Mainstreaming climate change into development and national planning The Bangladesh government is integrating climate change into sectoral plans and national policies. The World Bank’s recommendations on the impacts of limate change have been incorporated into coastal zone management programs and adopted in the preparation of disaster preparedness plans and a new 25 year water sector plan. In agriculture, research programs have taken place in light of climate change information, particularly drought and saline tolerant rice varieties. Bangladesh’s interim poverty reduction strategy paper (I-PSRP) recognizes the direct link between poverty and vulnerability to natural hazards, and notes that the incidence of disasters is likely to increase rather than decrease as a result of global warming.
According to the National Water Management Plan (NWMP) (in 2001), the factors determining future water supply, including the impacts of sea level rise, which guides the implementation of the National Water Policy (NWP). Further, many of the NWP and NWMP priorities are synergistic with climate change adaptation, such as the recommendation in the NWP for early warming and flood proofing systems. Other environmental policies, including the National Environmental Management Plan (NEMAP), the National Land Use Policy, and the National Forest Policy, do not make specific reference to climate change.
Some initiatives usually taken and some are in underway for adaptation 1. Giving donations and raising after disaster. In Bangladesh, after any major disaster we went for relief activities, rehabilitation and medical care with local and foreign donations. Government and NGOs are involved in extensive activities after the disaster. Bangladesh has already earned a reputation for disaster management especially after the management of cyclone Sidr in 2007. 2. Raising homes in the flood prone areas. In the flood and cyclone hit areas people are building houses with higher heights. 3.
Building protecting walls and dams is important to save houses and croplands from floods and inundation. These are needed to avert erosion. 4. Need faster maturing crops (seeds). In this regards, we got some achievements. Now in our country, we can grow three crops in a year in the high agricultural lands. Research is underway in this regard by BRRI, IRRI and other private organizations and NGOs. 5. Need drought tolerant crops (seeds). Research is underway in this regard by BRRI, IRRI and other private organizations and NGOs. In some African nations, some successful plantation f drought tolerant crops (seeds) encourages us to grow in the north-western regions of Bangladesh. 6. We need saline tolerant crops (seeds) as the salinity in the southern region is increasing and it is swarming deeper inside. An Extensive research is underway in this regard by IRRI and other private organizations and NGOs for the southern region of Bangladesh. 7. Met office information should be communicated with all even farmers. Met office always tries to communicate the information through radio and television and also through print media.
But it should be more intensive. In this regard, Mobile communication can be used for disseminating information to the farmers. 8. Using rainwater in gardens and household use. It is not that popular in our country though government is trying to promote it. 9. Seed and food storage is needed for the food and seed security. Government is increasing its capacity to store food. Government is also trying to build capacity of the seed bank in Jessore. People also should play their role in this respect. 10. Flood and cyclone shelters.
Governments with its own fund and donors’ funds have built many shelters. Many more shelters will be built in future. 11. Raised wells and ponds in the flood and cyclone hit areas. 12. Raising latrines in every house because low level toilet facilities would contaminate water when flood strikes. People are coming forward for making safe and raised latrines. 13. Reforestation is important because trees are lifesavers. They help to regulate rainfalls, mitigate extremes of floods and droughts and also landslides.
In Bangladesh government department, NGOs and common people are planting trees. There is a campaign for tree plantation from all. 14. In some areas floating vegetable gardens are built on water bodies. Farmers can grow vegetables even during flood. It will be popular in future in many more areas. Conclusions and recommendations Climate change is not only an “environmental” concern but really a “development” concern for Bangladesh. This means that climate change as an issue must take center stage as a major developmental problem.
Bangladesh is particularly vulnerable to climate change in its coastal zone, covering about 30 per cent of the country. Here prospects of industrial development, based on its rich energy resources, will seriously be constrained by the increased occurrence of coastal storms, flooding and reduced fresh water availability. The study also analyzes impacts on water resources, agriculture, ecosystems and human health, concluding that in all these sectors, the country’s drive to development might be seriously restrained if no anticipatory actions are taken.
Ecosystems and biodiversity, as a key sector for sustainable development, merits particular attention and of all sectors vulnerable to climate change this may be the most vulnerable. This not only refers to a few itemized ecosystems or endangered species. This will result a loss of productivity as well, seriously challenging the country’s prospect for sustainable development. Cyclone shelters and improved warning systems are confirmed as effective tools against the increased risks of disasters. Bangladesh has already a good record in this respect, which merits to be strengthened where possible.
For water resources should aim to substantially reduce the risk of drainage congestion, erosion and drought, explicitly addressing the management of water resources both in the wet and in the dry season for domestic, industrial, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystem use. Reducing water demand may be needed and this requires an integrated approach to water resources planning and management that will also coordinate design, operation and maintenance of major infrastructure and embankments. In agriculture should aim at changing agricultural practices to improving water efficiency and crop diversification in the whole country.
The development and introduction of new varieties and corresponding dissemination measures are important and need to be facilitated by (inter)national research. Government and private sector should invest more money and resources in Research activities. Experience with new crops and agricultural practices have to be shared on the farm level. The impact of climate change on human health depends critically on the success to adapt to climate change in the other sectors. Of course, human health would be less vulnerable with an improved health care system, reliable drinking water supply and improved sanitation.
All kinds of climate change impacts should be accounted for in both design criteria and location. Selected development programs on the need and possibilities to include climate change considerations in their approach and the possible contribution they could have to anticipatory adaptations. Sometime physical interventions are generally in-effective and costly, whilst requiring maintenance arrangements and coordination of separate initiatives. More promising anticipatory adaptations are changes in behavioral patterns, human practices and international actions.
However, these type of adaptations meet serious institutional constraints and consequently should be carefully prepared and, if possible, integrated in existing structures and procedures. The main mechanisms to gradually overcome these constraints are coordination of climate change activities, (integrated) planning and information management. It is highly recommended that next steps to reduce Bangladesh’ vulnerability to impacts of climate change and sea level rise, concentrate on the adaptation mechanisms of planning, information management and international actions.
Here, the National Water Management Plan (NWMP) that is currently being developed and the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) under design offer key opportunities. The following specific actions are recommended 1. Establish an operational structure to coordinate climate change activities in Bangladesh. The following steps could be considered. 2. Revive the Climate Change Committee and review their Terms of Reference. 3. Involve the CCC in the design of planning procedures and guidelines; the research agenda and activities; the awareness building program; and the preparation and support of Bangladesh’ international actions. . Establish an operational technical secretariat, to support the CCC. 5. Link the CCC activities to or establish communication with the national councils on water resources and environment. 6. Strengthen the existing structure and ongoing processes to develop and implement integrated water resources management. Participation on different levels and strengthening of local management organizations are essential parts of integrated planning. 7. Strengthen integrated coastal zone management, focusing on protection, land use and water management. 8.
Prepare practical guidelines to include climate change issues in procedures for planning and design, and explore the possibility and feasibility of Climate Change Impact Assessments. 9. Establish, manage and execute a coordinated research agenda on climate change impacts. 10. Develop and operate a shared climate change knowledge base 11. Develop a plan of action for awareness building, optimally using the platforms and avenues created by the BEMP and SEMP projects, explicitly involving the Ministry of Information, the FEJP, CBOs and NGOs. 12. Promote, structure and support international activities.
Two types of international activities have been identified (i) international debates on effects, mitigation and adaptation, and (ii) water sharing negotiations with neighboring countries. Bibliography 1. The European Parliament’s temporary committee note on climate change February 2008 (Ref. to contract IPACLIMIC2007-106) 2. DOE (Department of Environment, M. o. E. a. F. , Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh),, Addressing Climate Change in Bangladesh National Efforts”. 2006, 3. Huq, S. , Climate Change and Bangladesh. Science, 2001(294) p. 1617. 4. Rahman, A. nd M. Alam, Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) Bangladesh Country Case Study. IIED Working Paper, 2003(2). 5. UNDP (United National Development Programme), Country-in-focus Bangladesh. UNDP RCC web bulletin, 2007(2). 6. Huq, S. and J. M. Ayers, Critical list the 100 nations most vulnerable to climate change, in IIED Sustainable Development Opinion. 2007, International Institute of Environment and Development London. 7. WB, An investment framework for clean energy and development a progress report in DC2006-0012. 006, World Bank Washington DC. 8. Climate Change Cell, Who is doing What in Bangladesh Report on the First Meeting. 2006, Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme, Government of Bangladesh 9. Agrawala S, et al. , Development and Climate Change in Bangladesh Focus on Coastal Flooding and the Sundarbans 2003, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 10. IPCC, Summary for Policymakers, in Climate Change 2007 Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.
L. Parry, et al. , Editors. 2007, Cambridge University Press Cambridge. p. 1000 26. Bangladesh Department of Environment, D. Ongoing Projects. [cited 2008 11. 01. 2008]; Available from httpwww. doe-bd. orgprojects. html. 12. Agrawala, S. , et al. , Development and Climate Change in Bangladesh Focus on Coastal Flooding and the Sundarbans. 2003, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 13. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). [cited 22012008]; Available from httpunfccc. intparties_and_observersitems2704. php.