In many countries, children are considered as the future of nation and should be provided with the best things, best condition for the development and nutrition. This is quite true and in fact, in developed countries such as the United States of America, France, Britain, Austria, etc. , children are always ranked as the highest priority more than other people.
As “the future of country”, they must be protected far away from violence, infringement and exploitation. However, in contrast to developed countries, children in developing countries are not provided with good conditions and sometimes they are affected from something called abuse. Vietnam is also one of those countries suffering from this situation. So what is the real situation, causes and which solutions could best deal with that problem are what this paper will look into. Moreover, through it is expected that through the research the awareness of people regarding children could be much improved.
In Viet Nam, child abuse is a very hot topic and attracts a lot of attention from public. As a developing country, children in Vietnam are not provided with good condition and sometimes they are also considered as a kind of labor force. That could be happened everywhere from the city, mountainous areas, or countryside. Research purpose: This research will identify the situation of child abuse in Vietnam and their causes, consequences as well as relevant solutions.
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Through it, reader may have better understanding of the situation and further contribute to the prevention of child abuse, at least in their family. Definition of the key terms: In this research, key terms are used and understood as follows:
- Child abuse: child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power.
- Child neglect: Neglect is the failure to provide for the development of the child in all spheres: health, education, emotional development, nutrition, shelter, and safe living conditions, in the context of resources reasonably available to the family or caretakers and causes or has a high probability of causing harm to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. This includes the failure to properly supervise and protect children from harm as much as is feasible
- Physical abuse: Physical abuse of a child is that which results in actual or potential physical harm from an interaction or lack of an interaction, which is reasonably within the control of a parent or person in a position of responsibility, power or trust. There may be a single or repeated incidents.
- Emotional abuse: Emotional abuse includes the failure to provide a developmentally appropriate, supportive environment, including the availability of a primary attachment figure, so that the child can develop a stable and full range of emotional and social competencies commensurate with her or his personal potentials and in the context of the society in which the child dwells. There may also be acts towards the child that cause or have a high probability of causing harm to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
These acts must be reasonably within the control of the parent or person in a relationship of responsibility, trust or power. Acts include restriction of movement, patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, threatening, scaring, discriminating, ridiculing or other non-physical forms of hostile or rejecting treatment. •Sexual abuse: Child sexual abuse is the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to, or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violate the laws or social taboos of society.
Child sexual abuse is evidenced by this activity between a child and an adult or another child who by age or development is in a relationship of responsibility, trust or power, the activity being intended to gratify or satisfy the needs of the other person. This may include but is not limited to:
- The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;
- The exploitative use of child in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;
- The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials.
Exploitation: Commercial or other exploitation of a child refers to use of the child in work or other activities for the benefit of others. This includes, but is not limited to, child labor and child prostitution. These activities are to the detriment of the child’s physical or mental health, education, or spiritual, moral or social-emotional development. (Source: World Heal Organization) 4. Significance of the research: As children will be the people who make up the future, when they are not provided with good conditions, that could lead to serious consequences to family and society.
The situation will worse when they are abused, the research, therefore, is aiming at find out the root causes, identify the possible consequences and solution. It can help readers to better understand the problem and have right behaviors such as: helping other children, having better behaviors to children. The best results could be raising awareness of the whole society and decreasing the child abuse in Vietnam.
In this research, the following methods are used: Data collection from books, magazines, internet to get statistics, data and general understanding of child abuse in Vietnam as well as to review other researches in this topic and identify which aspects are still missed. •Questionnaires have been distributed to 100 of people of over 20 years old to collect their opinion and understanding about child abuse as well as to find some suggested solutions. Procedures: At first, researcher finds books, magazines and all sources of information related to child abuse to get statistics, data about the problem.
From this activity, researcher has identified what is child abuse, its consequences, and the existing situation. Further more, it can help researcher to determine which aspect is still missed and needed to be studied more. After that, questionnaires are developed and distribute to 100 people from the age of 20 to identify their understanding about child abuse and also to collect some suggestions for the solutions. The questionnaires provides the researcher with practical point of view to compare with those written in book or magazines.
Situation of Child Abuse in Vietnam
For children, family is the most solid and quiet shelter in their early years. To live with their parents and relatives and enjoy love as well as physical and mental care are the inalienable rights of every child. However, in fact, there are many children in Vietnam, who can't live like that. Even though Vietnam is one of the first members of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, the situation of children affected by violence still occurs at serious level. It has actually become an anxiety for both society and family and does occur with not only girls but also boys.
For our country, the situation of violence against children or child abuse in recent years tends to increase in both number and extent. Here are some statistics on the media: From 2008-2009, there were 5956 cases of child abuse (an average of 3,000 cases a year), over 100 child murders and 50 kidnappings, child trafficking were detected and processed. Many children suffered from violence from their parents, family members, teachers, employers and the persons responsible for foster care. (em tim them mot so dan chung, so lieu ve lam dung tre em o Vietnam nhe) 2. Causes:
Through collection of information and conduct of questionnaires, the following causes of the child abuse in Vietnam has been identified: Poverty Insufficient legal system Inappropriate teaching method Family break (em tim them mot so nguyen nhan nua nhe) Two main reasons are the same thing repeated: -First, The law is not sufficient deterrent. -Second, despite the law, but we do not comply in. Article 110 of the Penal Code on charges of torturing other people who have defined cruelty with an audience of dependent children shall be subject to warning, non-custodial reform for one year to three years.
This is the sentence too light. While child abuse cases are often repeated in a long time that children not only affected physically but also mentally affected very badly, sometimes those that haunt the children for life. - At school, the punishment by using whips from customs, cultural traditions from the previous generation to the "Trade for the whip, to jump. " Under the old way of thinking of Vietnam, the teacher is very powerful, the idea that parents "should be the new hit". So, should the majority support him, his teacher pking children as a punishment to help them know the next time the error does not recur again.
In addition to the teacher, the teacher with the indifference of pedagogy, the lack of knowledge of social, legal, psychological. These factors led to the application of whips or insulting words to physical and spiritual children. - At home, along with the traditional view "Trade for whip, to jump", the parents reported that the use of whips children is their right, largely due to the education of children, with family present from 1 to 2 children, the parents are expecting children, investing heavily in education leading to heavy pressure with the children, using whips to force the children to achieve results as your parents want.
Besides, there are many different reasons for parents to use whips for children, husband and wife hit me angry, angry with her husband also hit me, hit me daughter in response to her husband, son in law does not by his mother and wife also brought me out to battle in addition, a form of violence in the family, it is the excessive demand for their age and development of children and with words or actions that cause children to be mental damage, outraged, abandoned, rejected love . There are also many cases of children being beaten by parents' own childhood by their parents also lead to violence so traumatic and they also teach children to use violence. The boys live in family violence, father or mother type . Long days also affected the character of father .
Violence against children is traumatic for children in psychiatric severity. The psychological research on children indicates that children are not cared for and caring will be taught psychological deviations unruly freedom, prefer to use violence. - The boys live in family violence, father or mother type ... Long days also affected the character of father. Many children are growing up and harsh, rude, even cruel to women like father or the child is more violence against women published. aking crime when enticeme. For girls, the most often aloof, afraid of men, afraid of marriage, illness self-esteem, depression, panic neurological ... that is, the girls would be difficult to integrate with the community than the boys. - Both boys and girls often witnessed violence in the family, make sure the child is likely to have violence, poor education, may be arising negative intentions, and psychological operations are passive, there be prone to headaches, stomach pain and neuralgia style schizophrenia. Vulnerable age group is 5-10 years old. Domestic violence causes mental trauma in children, injuries that can last a lifetime, causing deep wounds in the minds of children ".
The cases sexually abused children, domestic violence recently has once again sounding bells, there should be drastic measures to protect children. Along with that, in the current situation, policy system, legal protection, child care need to be completed quickly. Crimes against the immediate future, especially violence against children is to be heard with strict penalty, more closely.
Need to build inter-sectoral coordination mechanisms at both central and unified basis in the detection, treatment, intervention, help abused children, domestic violence. Propaganda and dissemination of policies and laws of the State and measures to prevent and combat violence against children should be taken regularly to the executive committee, government, communities, schools, families and children. To ensure that in future, prevent and gradually reverse the violence, child abuse should focus on the weaknesses in the coordination of activities between ministries, sectors, localities and communities society.
They also need to be urgently overcome the weaknesses in the overall investment structure and the overall budget for child protection; research established the National Commission on children to contribute to prevention of violence against children in the future. The authorities and relevant agencies should also consider the problem as a factor in the development of local society. Moreover, we should focus on building child protection system in which to strengthen and consolidate the team of civil servants, social workers engaged in the protection, care and forming services social protection young to be systematic and professional.
System policies and laws on the protection and care for children should be completed quickly, clearly defining the responsibilities of all levels and branches in this area, can even study the construction of the law. For localities should do better propagation and dissemination of knowledge and education on violence against children and raise awareness of parenting for parents. Parents also must quickly try to correct the pragmatism that is affecting families, such as overly pampered children or children at the mercy ... And each family member should review yourself, do not blame each other.
Need to devote more time to stay inside their loved ones, to understand and share with each other, especially when conflicts occur. Despite many difficulties and challenges, but in the next period by the resolution of legal, judicial, administrative and other measures of education, social conformity to stop and eventually reverse the violence power, abuse of children. In summary, to prevent violence against children requires the close coordination, synchronization between the three family environment, school and society.
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