Introduction Chapter No. 1 Urbanization brings about a social change.
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Both the natural increase (population growth) and net migration are the major contributory factors to urban growth. As in other parts of the world, although the urban growth in Pakistan is dominated by the natural increase, about one-fifth of this growth is certified to internal migration. Internal migration or urbanization has played a major role in the expansion of the population density in the major cities of Pakistan. Internal migration has also been very important in the fast growth of these cities. Urbanization is more rapid than a population growth.
People are moving from rural areas to urban areas for a better living standard, to seek better quality education, mesmerizing work places. Besides all the positive aspects of urbanization, it also has a negative impact on the economy which includes the loss of agriculture land, urban food supply like vegetables, wheat, rice, maize etc. , the devastating of habitats and urban diseconomies. Economy of Pakistan thus has both negative as well as positive effects of urbanization. Further moving on with the details of effects of urbanization on Pakistani economy, we need to know the conditions of the economy of Pakistan at present.
The economy of Pakistan and the effects of urbanization on Pakistani economy are discussed in below: Economy of Pakistan: The economy of Pakistan is placed to be the 27th largest in dollar terms. Pakistan is surrounded by chemical industries, textiles, agriculture, food processing and other industries, which makes it the semi-industrialized economy. The economy of Pakistan has suffered a lot in the past from high inflation rates, increasing poverty levels, low quality of education, terrorism and a fast growing population. The economy of Pakistan has been going through hard times since last 5 to 6 years.
The gross domestic product (GDP) of Pakistan is US$167 billions, which makes it 48th largest economy in the world Today Pakistan is said to be having the 2nd largest economy in the South Asia. In Pakistan GDP growth and a prominent rise in the industrial and service sector remained in the range of 6% to 8% in 2004 to 2006, due to the transformation by the Musharraf government in the year 2000. In year 2005 World Bank named Pakistan to be the top reformer in its region and in the top 10 reformers throughout the world/globally. Pakistan’s GDP gross domestic product is estimated to be $475. billion if measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). The per capita Income in Pakistan is estimated to be 23% to 28%. GDP growth rate was stable during the mid of 2000 at a rate of 7% however it slowed down due to the economic crisis of 2008 to 4. 7%. Pakistan has a high inflation rate of 24. 4% and a low savings rate which makes it difficult to sustain a high growth rate. In year 2005 inflation rate jumped to more than 9% and reduced to 7. 9% in year 2006. Following the route, in year 2008 petrol prices hit the highest price in Pakistan as high as 25. 0%.
The State Bank of Pakistan is adopting the policy to tighten its monetary policy to preserve the growth of Pakistan. In year 2007 and 2008, the prominent rise in the international oil and food prices on combining with the internal political confusion leads to macroeconomics imbalances in Pakistan. In year 2008, Pakistan faced a balance of payment deficit. The government agreed to an International monetary standby agreement to overcome the balance of payment crisis. But all through year 2009-10 its current account strengthened and foreign exchange funds stabilized mainly due to reduced oil prices and record remittances from workers abroad.
Unfortunately, in July-August 2010 the agriculture output reduced which contributed to a jump in inflation. Government funds were spent on the recreation and reconstruction which led to limited recourses with the government. Pakistan keeps on emphasizing on the reduction of poverty, illiteracy, terrorism and social protection. It also works hard to enhance the weakest sections of the society. Pakistan also has a vital infrastructure, especially in water management, transport, communication, education and energy. The economy is of Pakistan is divided into three sectors; agriculture, industry and services.
The contribution to total GDP is mentioned below in terms of percentages. Agriculture includes farming, fishing and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, construction and power production. Services include communications, finance, transportation etc. The distribution will total less than 100% if the data is incomplete. Agriculture has a contribution of 21. 2% in the total GDP of Pakistan. Industry sector has 25. 4% share in the total GDP of Pakistan whereas services sector has the highest contribution of 53. 4%. Pakistan is facing economic and political instability these days.
The government is also destabilized and losing its control. The rapid development of cities is a regular and a persistent demographic occurrence in most of the developing countries including Pakistan. This rise has led to an increase in the degree of urbanization. In Pakistan, the most recent study says that 34% of the people are living in urban areas and about 66% of people are living in rural areas. It has been predicted that the level of urbanization in 2015 would increase by 39. 5%. The most recent study, states that the growth rate of Pakistan is 1. 73% and the population density of Pakistan is 177. 37 people per sq. km. Pakistan is grouped with countries having moderate level of urbanization; it has the highest share of population living in cities (urban areas) among the South Asian countries. It has also been projected that about half of Pakistan’s population will be living in cities by the year 2030. Year 2011 has proved out to be another difficult year for the economy of Pakistan because it could only achieve the growth of 2. 4% against the target of 4. 5 %. This was even worse and weaker than the growth rate achieved in year 2010.
The slowdown in the growth was predicted right at the time country suffered from devastating effects of the flood in August 2010. Growth was in a weak position, as the government had to transfer funds for the rehabilitation and recreational purposes for the flood victims. Another important factor that constrained growth was the energy crisis/power shortage in the country. Numbers of industries are shifted in Bangladesh due to energy shortfall, rising furnace oil prices, have forced power producers to run below capacity. The resulting shortage of power has added to the energy deficit to the country.
If we look at the agriculture sector of Pakistan in detail we will come to know that it showed a strong improvement after the devastating impact of the floods in early 2011. This recovery was mainly due to livestock sector, along with minor crops and some major crops (wheat and sugarcane). Despite the significant losses caused by the floods, growth in the livestock subsector was adequate to provide much needed momentum to agriculture growth. Trade and payments is the backbone of the Pakistani economy, in year 2011 total exports recorded a constructive growth of 27. % for the period of first ten months (July-April) against an increase of 8. 0% in the similar time period of previous year 2010. In total, exports have gone up from $15,773. 2 million to $20,154. 2 million in the period. On the other side imports in the first ten months of the current year 2011have gone up with an increase of 14. 7% against the same period of the last year reaching to 32. 2%. Education is considered to be very important in any economy, if we look at the literacy rate of Pakistan basing on the age groups then we see (10 years and above age group ) the total literacy rate in year 2008-2009 was 57. % which has increased to 57. 7% in year 2009-2010, which increased by 0. 5% in the current year. And if we look at the literacy rate basing on the provinces wise then the literacy was as follows; Sindh 58. 2 percent; Punjab 59. 6 percent; Balochistan 51. 5 percent; Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa 50. 9 percent. Total expenditures budgeted for health services are Rs. 42. 0 billion out of which Rs. 18. 7 billion for development in health care centers and Rs. 23. 3 billion for current expenditures which is equal to 0. 23 percent of GDP which is 79 billion in contrast to previous year.
Pakistan’s total population according to the census of 2011 is 177. 10 million and it is considered to be the 6th popular country in the world. And if the population keeps on increasing with the same tendency it will be 191. 7 million by year 2015 and 242. 1 million by 2030. The growth rate in Pakistan is calculated to be 2. 05 percent at present and the total fertility rate is 3. 5 children per woman. In Pakistan the life expectancy is 67. 9 for women and 64. 18 for men. And if we talk about the labor force of Pakistan we may conclude that it is the 9th largest country in the world basing on the size of its labor force which is 54. 2 million. Pakistan has given a great attention towards its infrastructure i. e. transport and communication and if we talk about the communication sector of Pakistan, then we may conclude that only 3 percent of the total population is using post paid connections whereas prepaid connection users are 97 percent. The total cellular subscribers have crossed 102. 8 million so far in Pakistan. Now that we have given a glance at the current position of the economy of Pakistan, we need to know what Urbanization is. And why is it increasing at a very rapid pace in Pakistan?
Urbanization: After going through the economy of Pakistan in detail, we now need to know what urbanization is. Urbanization is a transformation of rural life to urban life. Urbanization takes place when people living in rural areas (villages) decides to move to urban areas (cities or towns) to seek better living standards or for seeking better employment opportunities or to maximize their incomes. One of the definitions of urbanization is stated as, “Urbanization is the transformation of rural conditions (farms and small towns) to urban conditions (huge cities).
We can also say that urbanization is the migration of population from rural areas to urban areas. ” This definition tells us that urbanization takes place when a rural life transforms into an urban life. Rural life is a life where people work on farms and fields, whereas urban life is a complete opposite life where people work in big offices, they have better quality education, they dresses up professionally for their offices, they uses best possible ways of communication and transportation.
Urban life provides us with better quality living, better education facilities, better job opportunities, better infrastructure and better entertainment facilities apart from work. Another definition that I would like to state here is, “The change in a country or a region which is caused by the movement of the population from rural to urban areas is known as urbanization. ” The definition clearly explains that when people migrate from villages towards towns or cities, migration takes place.
Migration of people from villages towards cities causes a change in that particular region where immigrants plan to live in. The changes that can be seen within that particular region may be more food consumption, increase in rate of unemployment, increase in rate of poverty, it may also effect literacy rate; mortality rates are also being affected. Another definition of urbanization that I came across is, “Urbanization can also be termed as the quick and huge growth of and migration to cities from the villages.
Urbanization is the name for the movement of people from rural (villages) to urban areas (cities), thus results in increasing the population. ” This definition is also similar to the above definition. This definition also makes clear that urbanization takes place when people of the rural areas tends to move towards the urban areas, this movement is quick and thus it increases the growth of the particular area of the cities as compared to rural life.
By this definition we can come to know that apart from the increase of the population in any particular area of a city or movement of people from the rural areas. It is also more of a change in the employment sector; the industrialization sector; the service industry sector and also the agriculture sector. The definition is stated as, “The increase in the proportion of the population residing in towns, brought about by migration of rural populations into towns and cities, or the higher urban levels of natural increase resulting from the greater proportion of people of childbearing age in cities.
Urbanization indicates a change of employment structure from agriculture and cottage industries to mass production and service industries. ” Another definition that tells us that urbanization brings a change in the market size, health care services are also increased due to increase in the population size, transportation and communication services are also increased when urbanization takes place. Urbanization brings a change in many sectors either directly or indirectly, because many factors are dependent on urbanization.
The definition that tells us about the changing factors and sectors is stated below. “Urbanization is the rapid population growth, increase in industrialization, increase in transportation and communication, increase in health services, increase in market size etc. ” Urbanization comprises of population immigration to an already existing area or a town as a result of which causes expansion of that specific region at the expense of rural land. The process of a society transforming from rural to urban can be stated as urbanization.
As the number of people moving into cities rise, urban centers expand too, erasing rural, agricultural and forestland in their wake. Urbanization mainly occurs due to the reasonable economic variations within both rural and urban areas. As agriculture is becoming more and more technologically advanced so it has now been replaced by machines and people are becoming jobless in rural areas because their work is being replaced by the machines. This has tended to move people from rural to urban areas because urban areas have ample job opportunities.
In addition to above issue, urbanization is increasing rapidly because rural life and working on farms and fields is becoming unpredictable due to sudden happening of floods, deficiency of any other important seed, fertilizer or pesticides and deadly diseases which are fatal. On the contrary, urban areas posses’ great business opportunities, healthy jobs, better living standards and infinite number of services in terms of universities, schools, hospitals, housing, transportation etc.
Great variety of entertainment sources, such as hotels, cinemas, discos, clubs, restaurants etc and many other leisure time places and events which forces people to move to urban areas. We can also say that urbanization is a flow of physical growth of urban areas which is bringing about a global change. The question arises in our minds that why do people choose to migrate? What are the reasons that people choose to plan a shift from rural living standard to an urban living standard? What are the consequences of this shift? To answer these questions, first of all we need to know what a city is.
As old as species, people have gathered in the densely populated and highly structured areas, to which we call cities. Cities in the beginning were established 5,000 years ago, but from the past 200 years-with the advent and spread of industrial sector and with the increase in the global population which is rising with a prominent rate, which tells us that cities have grown considerably in size and number. In the beginning of the 20th century only one-tenth of a person lived in the cities, but today the proportion of urban and rural people is approximately equal.
It has been estimated that by the start of 2025 about 2/3rd of the world's population will live in the urban areas called cities. In the terms of economics, all cities are same basing on the following functions they perform; for example; manufacturing, retailing, and services (doctors, professors etc). These sources provides plenty of job opportunities for the individuals residing in the cities, thus it provides wealth which ultimately provides a better living standard. The larger a city is the more numerous and highly specialized its functions are.
By contrast, smaller cities and towns have fewer functions, which tend to be of a more general nature. Karachi in Pakistan is the highly populated and has high density rate in comparison to other cities like Lahore and Islamabad etc. In large cities we find clinics and hospitals in wide range of places. Big food chains like Mc’Donalds, Kfc, Pizza hut etc are rarely seen in small cities but in the large cities we find them at every passing way. People are tending to move towards the cities because of the attractive opportunities, people of the cities are benefited from.
There are lots of wealth opportunities in the cities, new business techniques are used to expand the business. Transportation is used which is considered to be the fastest medium of travelling in the cities whereas in the rural areas people are still using bullock-carts. Cities with best facilities and the best opportunities have made life easier to live. People in the cities can live comfortably and spend a peace full life. They can also enjoy the luxuries of the lives. Whereas people n the rural areas have to travel to the cities, to grab the opportunities and facilities provided in the cities.
Many of the people in the rural areas travel due to medical problems. As there is a lack of better hospitals and specialized doctors. Cities can also be defined basing on their social composition. Cities are typically places with a large, dense, and heterogeneous, or varied, population. As cities have expanded and mass communications which has dispersed urban values, however, it becomes increasingly difficult to identify a uniquely urban life style. Now if we compare an urban life with a rural life we get to know the following differences between the two. The contrast between the two has been discussed below.
Urban life is the result of individual and corporate efforts, which tends to reduce expenses and time in communicating and transportation, also improves opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. Living in cities allows individuals along with their families to take benefits from efficient jobs and effective job-places, a worth living life style, and a marketplace competition. People are moving into cities to grab different opportunities provided in cities. In villages, it is difficult to improve one's standard of living beyond basic nourishment because the whole family is dependent on a small family farm.
Farm living is dependent on volatile ecological conditions, and in times of deficiency, flood or deadly disease, survival becomes extremely difficult and challenging. Cities, in contrast, are the places where wealth, money, services are in abundance. Cities are the places where fortunes are made and where societal mobility is possible. Businesses, which create great number of job vacancies and excessive amount of capital, are generally situated in urban areas. Whether it is through buying and selling (trade) or tourism (sightseeing), it is all the way through the cities that foreign exchange flows into a country from another country.
Therefore it is the wish of every individual living in the rural areas to move to cities and make abundance of money to send back home to their struggling families. There are enhanced and essential services as well in the cities that are not found in the villages. There are great varieties of jobs and plenty of job opportunities in urban areas as compared to the rural areas. Physical condition and physical health is another key factor. People, when become old and weak are mostly sent to cities for a better health check-up with the help of specialized doctors and hospital.
There are also various attractive factors which becomes a reason that why people of the villages tend to move to the urban areas. Those factors includes cinemas, amusement parks, restaurants, shopping complexes and malls etc. other than entertainment it also provides a better quality of education, namely universities as compared to the rural areas. Effects of urbanization on Pakistani economy: Once we are done with the discussion about urbanization, life in cities, and the contrast of urban life with a rural life. We have to see what effects urbanization has on the economy of Pakistan.
It can either have positive effects or negative effects, may be the mixture of both can also be seen. Urbanization in Pakistan has increased very rapidly as compared to any other South Asian country. The people who are migrating from rural to urban, are in search for a better quality of life, but they are totally unaware of the fact that their this move is resulting in a chaos in the urban areas, a burden on the economy as well as an adverse effect on the quality of life. This high, in fact very much high rate of urbanization has also resulted in an increase of difficulties for the management as well.
Almost 3% to 4% of the national population is moving to urban areas every year. The economy of the country in case of GDP rate has improved a bit due to this urbanization. More jobs in manufacturing and service sectors have been created. About 27% of the GDP is being produced by the industrial sector . In the coming times, this huge urban population will definitely create a domestic market for goods and services and will provide with technically skilled and equipped manpower resulting in the definite rapid and certain growth of the country’s economy.
The other important effect of this urbanization on the economy of Pakistan rather than the increase in GDP is the growing manpower in the sectors of commerce and industry. Industries and private sectors have been a great increase factor in national income. They train their employees in their respective fields as well as in different interrelated subjects. They provide them with a broader vision of their respective fields where they can create their own ideas, bring new ones, mould the old ones in better forms, thus being more productive and creative.
This all multi-training and multi-tasking of employees results in the progress and prosperity of their respective industries and firms. And this ultimately brings a positive effect on the economy, as the productivity increases with technical expertise and so does the income. Urbanization has also paved the way for women empowerment as well as increase in women employment. Now women being more educated, confident and having vast visions are working together with men almost in every field.
The mutual work environment has provided an opportunity of exchange of ideas often where new methods, new techniques and new ideas are just found turning things more productive and better. Employment of women along with men has raised the number of people working to a very high extent, and this has ultimately resulted in the betterment of economy where not just one is earning for a family of six, in fact their partner is willing to accompany him/her too. Urbanization results in the increase of industrialization and services sector.
People they shift their capital from farm industry to big industries and competitive markets, where they get a chance to maximize their capital and to earn a healthy livelihood for themselves and their families also. By shifting to urban areas they can provide a better life style and a very bright to future to their families and children. Urbanization can bring a change in their living standards, a change in their dressing, a change in their communication and a change in their behaviors. People who shift from rural areas are benefited from the facilities and opportunities available in the urban areas.
The effect of urbanization on the economy is that people work in big offices, they have better quality education, they dresses up professionally for their offices, they uses best possible ways of communication and transportation. Urban life provides us with better quality living, better education facilities, better job opportunities, better infrastructure and better entertainment facilities apart from work. A lot of people claim that urbanization is the conventional outcome of economic growth, with the increase of skilled and trained craftsmen, merchants, and proprietors.
Urban growth or urbanization brings an attraction for the people residing in rural areas. They get attracted by the luxuries, comforts and opportunities which people of cities are enjoying. Urbanization though has increased the chances of availability of a better quality of life to the people who are migrating from rural areas to urban areas like towns and cities. They get better health care and educational facilities as compared to their respective rural areas, yet they become a reason of a high level burden on the country’s economy. The question is how? The high and fast wave of urbanization has added a lot more to urban slums.
Yet people are still migrating from rural to urban areas and this has resulted in the increase of difficulty for the management of the urban areas. The adjustment of these huge migrated masses and providing the basic facilities of life, in fact quality life to them does not turns out to be an easy task for the management. These people being not highly educated cannot go for the technical jobs, and what they do is either to get small ordinary jobs, sitting idle at their homes or they earn by begging. All the pressure to feed these unemployed masses comes on the city, provincial or federal government.
But how can a government feed them all when there is only 1 or no one to work and so many to eat? In Pakistan, almost 3-5 million people migrate from rural areas to urban areas each year and approx. 40% of the Pakistani population now resides in the urban areas of the country. This has brought a great burden on the already burdened economy of Pakistan. The aids that are said to be given to Pakistan are mostly used for the military purposes, not in the economic growth sectors. Pakistani economy is really going through a crisis since last few years due to this war on terrorism.
The immigrants from our neighboring country Afghanistan, aren’t residing in the rural areas of the country but in the urban ones. And the ones who lived in the rural ones have started migrating towards urban areas in order to secure their lives and children. This also is a burden on the economy, I mean a country whose economy cannot feed its own people properly, cannot provide them with a better quality of life, healthcare facilities, proper education; how can such a country feed the refugees as well? But being a brotherly neighbour, Pakistan is giving its fullest support i. e. economical and social help to these refugees.
They can get jobs anywhere they want to, live anywhere they want to. But the people who aren’t working at all, still need to be looked after by the government and a worse fact is that the ratio of such people isn’t very low, so the economy of Pakistan has been truly burdenized by this factor as well. This trend of urbanization has increased the number of beggars in the cities and towns. At some places there are special beggar mafias and begging has become a profession and a skilled art of earning money quickly and easily. This thing is now being strictly seen by the government and strict measures have been taken now.
This rapid urbanization has also paved the way for increasing crime rate in the urban areas. When the people migrating from rural areas in spite of all their efforts aren’t able to find jobs or any means of earning, they indulge themselves in anti-state activities and different small and big crimes, because obviously they have to earn something to feed themselves and their families. In spite of all their efforts when they can’t find any legal or right opportunity or way to earn, they get themselves involve in illegal means of earning. The high crime rates involving every crime i. e. mall crime like mobile snatching, money snatching to big crimes like that of target killing or pre planned murders are amongst the most disastrous effects of this urbanization. This high crime rate results in a frightened and disturbed society, where both, the quality as well as the quantity of work being done is affected. This disturbs the standards of economy by disturbing the work potentials of manpower. The consequential population from urbanization has also played an important role in increased crime rates in urban areas. This study of consideration may also be due to the variation in the behaviors of the people living in towns.
Following are the factors due to which the crime rates are increasing: factors such as low income, availability of jobs, poverty etc. , and sometimes family conditions such as divorce, single parenthood, frustrated past due to any incident may also be related to increased crime rates. This rapid and high level wave of urbanization has very adversely affected the healthcare sector as well. The shortage of medicines, vaccines, unavailability of doctors, bad hygienic conditions at the hospitals, is some of the main after effects of this strong and fastest wave of urbanization.
The availability of health care facilities to all its inhabitants is one of the most important and foremost duty of a state. The private sector here though provides much better facilities, is more equipped and trained and is quick than the government sector, yet it isn’t in the reach of common man to get treated in the private sector because they charge too much for all these healthcare services but the option of government hospitals is open to every commoner, where he can get a better health care service and all other facilities as well. But more population has adversely affected that healthcare sector too.
The mess and rush of the people in the government hospitals is also affecting the health care sector. Another major problem in result of urbanization that is rapidly taking place in the economy of Pakistan is “poverty”. Poverty occurs when the basic food that is the necessity of living is out of the reach of the people. People starve, they beg, and they die because they cannot afford to have meal, three times a day that is merely due to the high inflation rates prevailing in Pakistan these days. Environment confronts and problems of Pakistan are linked first and foremost with an unfair social and economic expansion in the past few years.
This challenge is additionally compounded with quick urbanization due to a change of population from rural to urban areas. Consequently, all main cities of Pakistan face unexpected and accidental growth leading to boost in the pollution. This unnoticed growth has taken us to the point where there is a creation of slums areas in the region of city’s edge. Ever since the metropolitan authorities and utility service supplier have confined boundaries in expanding their facilities, urban overcrowding, blocking and jamming is the main reason of ever weakening air and water quality, along with this solid waste management.
Under the current scenario, the managers are facing problems in providing sufficient water facilities, improved sanitation and sewerages systems, healthy and hygienic health care services and to ensure a hale and hearty environment. Environmental poverty is primarily connected to poverty in Pakistan. Poverty is the chief obstacle in dealing with the surroundings and their related problems. The demand of the already diminishing natural resources is increasing in Pakistan. Since poor frankly rely on natural resources of the country for their living i. . agriculture, forestry, hunting, fisheries, etc. Poverty collective with a fast growing population and swiftly increasing urbanization is leading to create more and more pressure on the environment. As a result, there is a terrible need to work on poverty elimination. Considering this problem, Benazir Income Support Programme has organized by the current government, is anticipated to have an optimistic effect on poverty elimination. Urbanization is also causing a shortage of food and nutrition in Pakistani economy.
Since a part of the population has decided to move to a particular area or a region of the city and it is becoming densely populated and the population size is increasing in a particular city so it is very natural that the food and nutrition needs can’t be fulfilled and thus the economy of Pakistan faces a shortage of food and then it goes for a call to the foreign countries to fulfill its needs of those food items which ran short of supply in the market. This again disturbs the balance of payments of Pakistan. Apart from this agriculture is considered to be the backbone of the Pakistani economy.
And Pakistan earns maximum foreign exchange by exporting the wheat, sugarcane, cotton etc as compared to any other items. Ever since urbanization is seen to be rapidly increasing, it is considered to be a setback for the economy of Pakistan because agricultural land is totally being neglected and left barren. This again will push us further towards failure as an economy as well as a nation. The statistical analysis is presented in chapter 2. Recommendations and conclusions are listed in chapter 3. Urbanization is closely related to modernization, industrialization, and rationalization.
Urbanization also has adverse effects on the growing density in specific affected areas, mainly in large growing cities and often accompanied by number of other problems and after effects. Another major issue can also be disruption of agriculture uses. In addition to this, there would also be conflicting interests in terms of land use for rural and urban purposes. There would also be a negative impact on the agriculture of industry and also a loss of farm and forest land. Another prominent problem that arises from urbanization is the significant rise in respiratory problems in people living adjacent or very close to urban areas.
Following are the factors due to which the respiratory problem occurs are: vehicular and industrial emissions, the toxic smoke arising from the chimneys of the leather factories or tire manufacturing industries, mining and drilling tend to be responsible for greater level of toxins in the air. It has also been acknowledged that global warming is also a resulting problem from increased urbanization. There has also been seen adverse air quality in houses and buildings within urban areas due to air conditions outside the buildings and houses.
Respiratory infections may also occur from excessive exposure to nitrogen oxides, which results in decreased lung function. The consequential population from urbanization has also played an important role in increased crime rates in urban areas. This study of consideration may also be due to the variation in the behaviors of the people living in towns. Following are the factors due to which the crime rates are increasing: factors such as low income, availability of jobs, poverty etc. , and sometimes family conditions such as divorce, single parenthood, frustrated past due to any incident may also be related to increased crime rates.
Some of the issues of urbanization that can be seen in any economy are Employment; Sanitation; Housing; Sewerage; Water; Social welfare; Role of government; Political machines (controlling organizations); increased Crime rates; Respiratory problem. Employment problem occurs when there are less job opportunities or may be due to Less capabilities amongst the people of the rural areas, this problem can be seen due to lack of technical education. People living in urban areas get technical education to achieve the highest rank of designations in the offices or their work places.
Increased rates of urbanization can also cause an increase in the crime rates. Increased crime rates are due to frustration caused amongst the people when they are unemployed or any other personal/family problems like divorce and single parent upbringing. When the population increases in a particular region of the city many other problems are seen like housing, sanitation problems and transportation problems etc. , this causes frustration amongst the people thus increasing the crime rates. Sometimes government is also biased towards the immigrants
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