I think that urbanization is necessary for the improvement of one’s life. According to G. Nicolas, the financial crisis of the country plays a vital rule in urbanization, with higher demands for goods and services manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers tend to increase the cost of goods and services trying to make a profit for their business. Persons who are working sometimes tend to have a hard time of finding the money to acquire these high pricing goods and services to satisfy their needs.
In spite of the high pricing of goods and services; with an increase in the population, getting a job becomes much harder especially if a person has no qualifications and applies for a job, then a more qualified person applies for the same job, the qualified persons is more than likely to get hired over the unqualified persons. In most cases rapid population growth in urban areas gives rise to poverty in such a way that when overpopulation occurs, jobs might be limited in that area and increasing social problems associated with unemployment and underemployment.
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According to the Encarta Encyclopaedia, urbanization also contributes to environmental issues in various ways as it relates to overpopulation. It may lead to pollution such as noise pollution in such a way that when potential health effects of noise pollution are numerous, pervasive, persistent, and medically and socially significant. Noise produces direct and cumulative adverse effects that impair health and that degrade residential, social, working, and learning environments with corresponding real and intangible losses.
Air and water pollution are other environmental effects of urbanization and the most important reasons for population explosion in the cities of developing countries like Jamaica is rapid urbanization. Urbanization in Jamaica is accompanied by a number of challenges arising from population concentration in metropolitan cities; environmental degradation is occurring very rapidly and causing shortage of basic needs. The worsening water quality, air pollution and problems of disposal solid wastes and hazardous materials that is harmful to them.
Health issues can arise from urbanization and cause a wide-spread epidemic of illnesses. These illnesses can be transmitted in crowded areas where airborne, respiratory and hand to hand transmission of illnesses can occur. The source, G. Nicolas, stated that deforestation is an effect of urbanization where it is a contributor to global climate change and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Urbanization allows clearance of naturally occurring forests by the processes of logging and or burning of trees in a forested area to make space available to build new houses or apartment building.
Deforestation also leads to soil erosion; it decreases permeable surfaces in the soil faster forming of surface runoff, more frequent appearance of flood waves. Urbanization influences on development of erosion processes, land degradation with significant reduction of soil water capacity. In Jamaica, crime and violence also contributes to urbanization in an emerging area of concern in the increase levels of crime and violence in urban areas. Important gender differentiation exists in terms of violent response to unemployment. While men turn to crime and violence, women more frequently turn to dependency on men.
It is not too hard to believe that Kingston’s reputation as a place of violence ranks third in the world. Gang violence and shootings occur regularly in inner-city areas of Kingston. Some inner-city neighbourhoods are occasionally subjected to curfews and police searches. Impromptu street protests sometimes occur, during which demonstrators often construct roadblocks or otherwise block the streets. Unemployed persons may turn to crime because they failed to acquire or keep a steady job and decide to turn to the act of stealing from the hard working and law abiding citizens in their community to earn a living for themselves.
The frequent outbreak of violence between persons or rival gangs in a community may cause persons to feel unsecured and afraid of what might happen to them. This may cause families in the community to migrate to a violence free area where they might feel safer. Although urbanization has many negative and positive effects, I think that it is in the countries best interest to try and improve the negative influences that are associated with urbanization to improve the living condition of urbanized areas.
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