Medical Marijuana and Its Uses and Effects
Hastings Center Report, 36(3), 19-22.Cone’s credibility as a trustworthy author is indisputable, because of all of his accomplishments.He was a professor of anesthesiology at the University of Pennsylvania medical school, the chairman of the Society of Academic Anesthesiology, and of the Medical Society of the District of Columbia.
Cone’s formal article mainly focused on the lack of scientific evidence of the therapeutic use of marijuana, and how people were being prosecuted for using medical marijuana even though it was legal by state law.
His purpose throughout was to motivate scientists to perform research and testing of medical marijuana. He began taking about the Supreme Court case of Gonzales v. Rich, which ruled that the production and use of home-grown marijuana can be criminality. Rich legally grew marijuana for her own medical use under Californians Proposition 21 5, but she was still prosecuted by the federal government. Cohen cleverly used Roach’s example to show that medical marijuana needs further testing to show the extent of its benefits.
He manipulated the audience’s emotions by describing Rich as a 39 year old mother who had struggled with disabling ailments since she was a child, yet miraculously marijuana made her strong enough to stand p and learn to walk again. Cone’s tone throughout the article was very skeptical. For example, he referred to marijuana as an unproven therapy, and compared its use without scientific evidence to using liniments of turpentine for curing cancer. He also used pathos and logos to depict the political barriers to obtaining valid studies of medical marijuana.
For example, Cohen used the story of how he had to wait four years to try to obtain marijuana legally from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NADIA) to perform clinical studies of its effectiveness, and then later was rejected. Cotter, J. (2009). Efficacy of crude marijuana and synthetic delta-9- dehydrogenation’s as treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A systematic literature review. Oncology Nursing Forum, 36(3), 345-352. Jaime Cotter’s credibility as an author could be seen as reliable, although he has only written one article on medical marijuana.
Cotter is an oncology clinical nurse specialist at Aurora SST. Lake’s Medical Center in New Berlin, WI. , which affects his perspective on the uses of medical marijuana, which is that marijuana is better for treating patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINE). His targeted audience was mostly nurses and physicians. The goal of Cotter’s article was to evaluate side effects and patient preference of smoked marijuana to the oral version of marijuana, TECH. Also he wanted to encourage fellow nurses to suggest the use of the TECH for treatment of CINE to their patients and physician associates.
Cotter’s article gave a general overview of the history of marijuana and its uses, and it compared smoked marijuana to TECH and placebo for treating CINE, by gathered research from published scholarly articles. He used logos to convince his audience f the impossibility of death by a marijuana overdose, by reporting that the absence of cannoning receptors in the lower brainstem makes the probability for lethal overdoses impossible. Cotter also honestly stated that the adverse side effects of medical marijuana such as impaired memory, distorted perception, and anxiety.
He continued is persuasive remarks by stating that all drugs have their own unique side- effect, which is undeniable. Hathaway, A. D. , & Roister, K. (2007). Medical marijuana, community building, and Canada’s compassionate societies. Contemporary Justice Review, 10(3), 283-296. Hathaway and Rosette’s credibility paled in comparison to the other authors even though their Journal was well researched. Hathaway works at the University of Gulch’s department of sociology and anthropology, and he has a PhD. Roister also has a PhD and she works in the department of public health science at the University of Toronto.
The main goal of their Journal was to shed light on the obstacles that patients go through to obtain medical marijuana, and to expose clandestine communities like compassion clubs that helped patients to gain access he medical marijuana. The authors’ stance was in support of medical use of marijuana. Their Journal was mostly give out general information on the historical and present use of medical marijuana. Their main focus was to elaborate on the difficulty of patients to achieve access to medical marijuana through physicians, and how it caused them to go to other unreliable sources to gain medical treatment.
The authors gathered research by going to a compassion club to perform face-to-face interviews with people that used marijuana for medicinal purposes. The author used he interviews as a way to manipulate the audience to believe that the compassion clubs were a safe haven for patients seeking marijuana treatment. They depicted that the clubs provided a wealth of information about medical marijuana and spared the patients form the dangers of buying street drugs. Season, M. J. , Fast, J. A. , Maria, M. , & ABA-Shears, N. A. (2007). Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist.
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(10), 1037-1044. The authors of this text are highly creditable, because they all reactive within pharmaceutical companies, and some are practicing pharmacists themselves. That fact totally shaped the goal of their article, which was to encourage fellow pharmacists to learn as much as possible about the medical and social histories of marijuana. The authors perspectives on medical marijuana was that it is a drug that should be used with caution and can have potentially adverse side- effects, especially if it interacts with prescription drugs.
The authors used logos to convince the audience that the lack of scientific research is due to the fact the deiced marijuana is tightly regulated product, and its quality clinical trials are limited. The authors used ethos by naming prestigious institutes such as the Institute of Medicine and the House of Lords to support their claim that medical marijuana does have some value. The authors also made unsupported claims of marijuana being associated with adverse effects that impair the cardiovascular, respiratory, and nervous system. Tooting, W. , Collect, J. , Shapiro, S. & Ware, M. A. (2008). Adverse effects of medical cannabises: A systematic review. ECMA: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178(13), 1669-1678. The authors article overall is creditable as a source for general information on medical marijuana, but they sometimes make claims without any proof to support them. All of the authors have occupations relative to health care. This whole article in a nutshell, was about a systematic review of medical marijuana by evaluating eligible articles that were published in the past 40 years, their results, and their interpretation.
The purpose was to report known adverse effects of marijuana, so their Journal could inform physicians, policymakers and the public. The authors used logos in the way that they performed systematic review, so that could persuade their audience that they were creditable and well informed. Also they used varied types of graphs to visually show their results, and to impress the audience. According to the authors, medical marijuana has a risk factor for psychosis, cancer, and neurologist effects.
That study was focused on the recreational use of marijuana, so it cannot be trusted, because it is not relevant to medical uses. Ware, A. M. , Kahn, M. , Assertive, A. (2006). Is there a role for marijuana in medical practice? Canadian Family Physician, 52, 1531-1533. Ware, Kahn, and Secretariat’s Journal was highly credible and useful. They all had professions that relate to health and medicine, so they could easily be declared reliable authors. Ware was a practicing pain physician and assistant professor in anesthesia and family medicine.
Kahn was medical director of the addiction medical service and head of the alcohol clinic at SST. Josephs Health Centre for addiction and mental health. Also Assertive was a staff physician at SST. Josephs Health Centre and a clinical researcher. Their Journal entry was basically two opposing sides debating on whether marijuana use belongs in medical practice. The authors’ goal was to show both sides of the marijuana debate to educate patients and physicians. Both side made strong points that supported their opinions.
For example, the side for medical marijuana stated that marijuana could be cultivated under controlled conditions, which could reduce the risk of patients being prosecuted, and it could be documented and monitored as part of standard care. On the side against medical marijuana, they stated and oral TECH and a buyback spray are available, which is safer than smoking dried marijuana. Also they declared that patients that use marijuana are in a high risk for adverse effects like dependence and psychosomatic impairment, due to approved daily amounts that patients can consume.