Universal Suffrage

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Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, distinct from other rights to vote, is the right to vote gained through the democratic process. In English, suffrage and its synonyms are sometimes also used to mean the right to run for office (to be a candidate), but there are no established qualifying terms to distinguish between these different meanings of the term(s). The right to run for office is sometimes called (candidate) eligibility, and the combination of both rights is sometimes called full suffrage.

In many other languages, the right to vote is called the active right to vote and the right to be voted for (to run for office) is called the passive right to vote. In English, these are sometimes called active suffrage and passive suffrage. Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives; however, suffrage applies equally to initiative and referendum. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but also the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote.

The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or non-elected representatives. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by initiative may be available in some jurisdictions but not others. For example, Switzerland permits initiatives at all levels of government whereas the United States does not offer initiatives at the federal level or in many states. That new constitutions must be approved by referendum is considered natural law. citation needed] Citizens become eligible to vote after reaching the voting age, which is typically 18 years as of 2012. Most democracies no longer extend different rights to vote on the basis of sex or race. Resident aliens can vote in some countries and in others exceptions are made for citizens of countries with which they have close links (e. g. some members of the Commonwealth of Nations, and the members of the European Union).

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Types of suffrage

Universal suffrage

Where Universal suffrage exists, the right to vote is not restricted by sex, race, social status, or wealth. It typically does not extend a right to vote to all residents of a region; distinctions are frequently made in regard to citizenship, age, and occasionally mental capacity or criminal convictions. The short-lived Corsican Republic (1755–1769) was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage for all inhabitants over the age of 25. This was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville (1889).

In 1893, New Zealand became the first major nation to achieve universal suffrage, and the Freedom in the World index lists New Zealand as the only free country in the world in 1893. In 1906, Finland became the second country in the world, and the first in Europe, to grant universal suffrage to its citizens. Women's suffrage German election poster from 1919: Equal rights - equal duties!

Women's suffrage

Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote on the same terms as men. This was the goal of the suffragists and the suffragettes. Limited voting rights were gained by some women in Sweden, Britain, and some western U. S. states in the 1860s. In 1893, the British colony of New Zealandbecame the first self-governing nation to extend the right to vote to all adult women. In 1894 the women of South Australia achieved the right to both vote and stand for Parliament. The autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire was the first European nation to allow all women to both vote and run for parliament.

Equal suffrage

Equal suffrage is sometimes confused with Universal suffrage, although its meaning is the removal of graded votes, where a voter could possess a number of votes in accordance with income, wealth or social status. Census suffrage Also known as "censitary suffrage", the opposite of Equal suffrage, meaning that the votes cast by those eligible to vote are not equal, but are weighed differently according to the person's rank in the census (e. g. , people with high income have more votes than those with a small income, or a stockholder in a company with more shares has more votes than someone with fewer shares).

Suffrage may therefore be limited, usually to the propertied classes, but can still be universal, including, for instance, women or ethnic minorities, if they meet the census. Compulsory suffrage Main article: Compulsory suffrage Where Compulsory suffrage exists, those who are eligible to vote are required by law to do so. Thirty-two countries currently practice this form of suffrage.

Forms of exclusion from suffrage Religion

In the aftermath of the Reformation it was common in European countries for people of disfavored religious denominations to be denied civil and political rights, often including the right to vote, to stand for election or to sit in parliament. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, Roman Catholics were denied the right to vote from 1728 to 1793, and the right to sit in parliament until 1829. The anti-Catholic policy was justified on the grounds that the loyalty of Catholics supposedly lay with the Pope rather than the national monarch.

In England and Ireland, several Acts practically disenfranchised non-Anglicans or non-Protestants by imposing an oath before admission to vote or to run for office. The 1672 and 1678 Test Actsforbade non-Anglicans to hold public offices, the 1727 Disenfranchising Act took away Catholics' (Papists') voting rights in Ireland, which were restored only in 1788. Jews could not even be naturalized. An attempt was made to change this situation, but the Jewish Naturalization Act 1753 provoked such reactions that it was repealed the next year.

Nonconformists (Methodists andPresbyterians) were only allowed to run for elections to the British House of Commons in 1828, Catholics in 1829 (following the Catholic Relief Act 1829), and Jews in 1858 (with theEmancipation of the Jews in England). Benjamin Disraeli could only begin his political career in 1837 because he had been converted to Anglicanism at the age of 12. In several states in the U. S. after the Declaration of Independence, Jews, Quakers or Catholics were denied voting rights and/or forbidden to run for office. [9] The Delaware Constitution of 1776stated that "Every person who shall be chosen a member of either house, or ppointed to any office or place of trust, before taking his seat, or entering upon the execution of his office, shall (…) also make and subscribe the following declaration, to wit: I, A B. do profess faith in God the Father, and in Jesus Christ His only Son, and in the Holy Ghost, one God, blessed for evermore; and I do acknowledge the holy scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be given by divine inspiration. ". This was repealed by article I, section 2 of the 1792 Constitution: "No religious test shall be required as a qualification to any office, or public trust, under this State. ".

The 1778 Constitution of the State of South Carolina stated that "No person shall be eligible to sit in the house of representatives unless he be of the Protestant religion", the 1777 Constitution of the State of Georgia (art. VI) that "The representatives shall be chosen out of the residents in each county (…) and they shall be of the Protestent (sic) religion". In Maryland, voting rights and eligibility were extended to Jews in 1828. In Canada, several religious groups (Mennonites, Hutterites, Doukhobors) were disenfranchised by the wartime Elections Act of 1917, mainly because they opposed military service.

This disenfranchisement ended with the end of the First World War, but was renewed for Doukhobors from 1934 (Dominion Elections Act) to 1955. The first Constitution of modern Romania in 1866 provided in article 7 that only Christians could become Romanian citizens. Jews native to Romania were declared stateless persons. In 1879, under pressure of the Berlin Peace Conference, this article was amended granting non-Christians the right to become Romanian citizens, but naturalization was granted on a case-by-case basis and was subject to Parliamentary approval. An application took over ten years to process.

Only in 1923 was a new constitution adopted, whose article 133 extended Romanian citizenship to all Jewish residents and equality of rights to all Romanian citizens. In the Republic of Maldives, only Muslim citizens have voting rights and are eligible for parliamentary elections. On 25 November 2011, the UN human rights chief called on Maldivian authorities to remove the discriminatory constitutional provision that requires every citizen to be a Muslim. [edit]Wealth, tax class, social class Until the nineteenth century, many Western democracies had property ualifications in their electoral laws; e. g. only landowners could vote (because the only tax for such countries was the property tax), or the voting rights were weighed according to the amount of taxes paid (as in the Prussian three-class franchise). Most countries abolished the property qualification for national elections in the late nineteenth century, but retained it for local government elections for several decades. Today these laws have largely been abolished, although the homeless may not be able to register because they lack regular addresses.

In the United Kingdom, until the House of Lords Act 1999, peers who were members of the House of Lords were excluded from voting for the House of Commons because they were not commoners. In Britain and some other monarchies, the sovereign is ineligible to vote in parliamentary elections. Sometimes the right to vote has been limited to people who had achieved a certain level of education or passed a certain test, e. g. "literacy tests" in some states of the US.


Various countries, usually with large populations of people of color (POC), have historically denied the vote to people of particular races or to POC in general. This has been achieved in a number of ways:

  • Official - laws and regulations passed specifically disenfranchising people of particular races (for example, the U. S. in the 19th and most of the 20th centuries, or South Africa under apartheid).
  • Indirect - nothing in law specifically prevents anyone from voting on account of their race, but other laws or regulations are used to exclude people of a particular race.

In southern states of theU. S. before the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, poll taxes, literacy and other tests were used to disenfranchise African-Americans. [19][20] Property qualifications have tended to disenfranchise POC, particularly if tribally-owned land is not allowed to be taken into consideration. In some cases this was an unintended (but usually welcome) consequence.

  • Unofficial - nothing in law prevents anyone from voting on account of their race, but people of particular races are intimidated or otherwise prevented from exercising this right.

In New Zealand POC (Maori) were enfranchised in 1865 at the conclusion of the Maori War. Maori still have the choice of voting in a general (all race) electorate or a solely Maori electorate. Age Main articles: Voting age and Age of candidacy All modern democracies require voters to meet age qualifications to vote. Worldwide voting ages are not consistent, differing between countries and even within counties, usually between 16 and 21 years. Demeny voting would extend voting rights to everyone including children regardless of age. Criminality Many countries restrict the voting rights of convicted criminals.

Some countries, and some U. S. states, also deny the right to vote to those convicted of serious crimes after they are released from prison. In some cases (e. g. the felony disenfranchisement laws found in many U. S. states) the denial of the right to vote is automatic on a felony conviction; in other cases (e. g. France and Germany) deprivation of the vote is meted out separately, often limited to certain crimes such as those against the electoral system. In the Republic of Ireland, prisoners are allowed the right to vote, following the Hirst v UK (No2) ruling, and this was granted in 2006.

Canada allowed only prisoners serving a term of less than 2 years the right to vote, but this was found unconstitutional in 2002 by the Supreme Court of Canada in Sauve v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer), and all prisoners were allowed to vote as of the 2004 Canadian federal election. Residency Under certain electoral systems elections are held within subnational jurisdictions, preventing persons who would otherwise be eligible from voting because they do not reside within such a jurisdiction, or because they live in an area which cannot participate.

In the United States, residents of Washington, DC receive no voting representation in Congress, although they have (de facto) full representation in presidential elections. Residents of Puerto Rico have neither. Sometimes citizens become ineligible to vote because they are no longer resident in their country of citizenship. For example, Australian citizens who have been outside Australia more than one and less than six years may excuse themselves from the requirement to vote in Australian elections while they remain outside Australia (voting in Australia is compulsory for resident citizens).

In some cases, a certain period of residence in a locality may required for the right to vote in that location. For example, in the United Kingdom up to 2001, each 15 February a new electoral register came into effect, based on registration as of the previous 10 October, with the effect of limiting voting to those resident five to seventeen months earlier depending on the timing of the election. Nationality Main article: Right of foreigners to vote In most countries, suffrage is limited to citizens and, in many cases, permanent residents of that country.

However, some members of supra-national organisations such as the Commonwealth of Nations and the European Union have given voting rights to citizens of all countries within that organisation. Until the mid-twentieth century, many Commonwealth countries gave the vote to all British citizens in the country, regardless of whether they were normally resident there. In most cases this was because there was no distinction between British and local citizenship. Several countries qualified this with restrictions preventing non-white British citizens such as Indians and British Africans from voting.

Under European Union law, citizens of European Union countries can vote in each other's local and European Parliament elections on the same basis as citizens of the country in question. Naturalization In some countries, naturalized citizens do not enjoy the right of vote and/or to be candidate, either permanently or for a determined period. Article 5 of the 1831 Belgian Constitution made a difference between ordinary naturalization, and grande naturalisation. Only (former) foreigners who had been granted grande naturalisation were entitled to vote or be candidate for parliamentary elections or to be appointed as minister.

However, ordinary naturalized citizens could vote for municipal elections. Ordinary naturalized citizens and citizens who had acquired Belgian nationality through marriage were only admitted to vote, but not to be candidate, for parliamentary elections in 1976. The concepts of ordinary and grande naturalization were suppressed from the Constitution in 1991. In France, the 1889 Nationality Law barred those who had acquired the French nationality by naturalization or marriage from voting, eligibility and access to several public jobs. In 1938 the delay was reduced to 5 years.

These discriminations, as well as others against naturalized citizens, were gradually abolished in 1973 (9 January 1973 law) and 1983. In Morocco, a former French protectorate, and in Guinea, a former French colony, naturalized citizens are prohibited from voting for 5 years after their naturalization. In the Federated States of Micronesia, Micronesian citizenship for a minimum of 15 years is an eligibility condition to be elected to the parliament. In Nicaragua, Peru and the Philippines, only citizens by birth are eligible for being elected to the national legislature; naturalized citizens enjoy only voting rights.

In Uruguay, naturalized citizens have the right of eligibility to the parliament after 5 years. In the United States, the President and Vice President must be natural-born citizens. All other governmental offices may be held by any citizen, although citizens may only run for Congress after an extended period of citizenship (seven years for the House of Representatives and nine for the Senate). Function In France, an 1872 law, rescinded only by a 1945 decree, prohibited all army personnel from voting. In the United Kingdom, public servants have to resign before running for an election.

The 1876 Constitution of Texas (article VI, section 1) stated that "The following classes of persons shall not be allowed to vote in this State, to wit: (…) Fifth--All soldiers, marines and seamen, employed in the service of the army or navy of the United States. ". Most countries that exercise separation of powers forbid a person to be a legislator and government official at the same time. Such provisions are found, for example, in Article I of the U. S. Constitution.

History of suffrage around the world

Finland was the first nation in the world to give all adult citizens full suffrage, in other words the right to vote and to run for office (in 1906). New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all adult citizens the right to vote (in 1893), but women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature until 1919.


Suffrage in Australia and Voting rights of Australian Aboriginals

  • 1884 - Henrietta Dugdale forms the first Australian women’s suffrage society in Melbourne.
  • 1894 - South Australian women eligible to vote.
  • 1899 - Western Australian women eligible to vote.
  • 1902 - Women able to vote federally, and in the state of New South Wales.
  • 1921 - Edith Cowan elected to the West Australian Legislative Assembly as member for West Perth, the first woman elected to any Australian Parliament.
  • 1962 - Aboriginal peoples guaranteed the right to vote in Commonwealth elections Canada
  • 1916 - Manitoba becomes the first province where women have the right to vote in provincial elections. [citation needed]
  • 1917 - Wartime Elections Act - Gives voting rights to women with relatives fighting overseas.
  • Voting rights are stripped from all "enemy aliens" (those born in enemy countries who arrived in Canada after 1902; see also Ukrainian Canadian internment).

Military Voters Act - gave the vote to all soldiers, even non-citizens, and to females serving as nurses or clerks for the armed forces, but the votes are not for specific candidates but simply for or against the government.

  • 1918 - Women gain full voting rights in federal elections.
  • 1919 - Women gain the right to run for federal office.
  • 1940 - Quebec becomes the last province where women's right to vote is recognized.
  • 1947 - Racial exclusions against Chinese and Indo-Canadians lifted.
  • 1948 - Racial exclusions against Japanese Canadians lifted.
  • 1955 - Religious exclusions are removed from election laws.
  • 1960 - Right to vote is extended unconditionally to First Nations people. (Previously they could vote only by giving up their status as First Nations people; this requirement was removed. )
  • 1960 - Right to vote in advance is extended to all electors willing to swear they would be absent on election day. citation needed]
  • 1965 - First Nations people granted the right to vote in Alberta provincial elections, starting with the Alberta general election, 1967[40]
  • 1969 - First Nations people granted the right to vote in Quebec provincial elections, starting with the Quebec general election, 1970[40]
  • 1970[citation needed] - Voting age lowered from 21 to 18.
  • 1982 - Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees all adult citizens the right to vote.
  • 1988 - Supreme Court of Canada rules mentally ill patients have the right to vote.
  • 1993[citation needed] - Any elector can vote in advance.
  • 2000 - legislation is introduced making it easier for people of no fixed address to vote
  • 2002 - Prisoners given the right to vote in the riding in which they received their conviction. All adult Canadians except the Chief and Deputy Returning Officers can now vote in Canada. Finland
  • 1906 - Full suffrage for all citizens adults aged 24 or older at beginning of voting year.
  • 1921 - Suppression of property-based amount of votes on municipal level; equal vote for everybody.
  • 1944 - Voting age lowered to 21 years.
  • 1969 - Voting age lowered to 20 years.
  • 1972 - Voting age lowered to 18 years.
  • 1981 - Voting and eligibility rights were granted to Nordic Passport Union country citizens without residence condition for municipal elections
  • 1991 - Voting and eligibility rights were granted to [extended to all foreign residents in 1991 with a 2 years residence condition for municipal elections
  • 1995 - Residence requirement abolished for EU residents, in conformity with the European legislation (Law 365/95, confirmed by Electoral Law 714/1998)
  • 1996 - Voting age lowered to 18 years at date of voting.
  • 2000 - Section 14, al. of the 2000 Constitution of Finland states that "Every Finnish citizen and every foreigner permanently resident in Finland, having attained eighteen years of age, has the right to vote in municipal elections and municipal referendums, as provided by an Act. Provisions on the right to otherwise participate in municipal government are laid down by an Act. " Hong Kong Minimum age to vote was reduced from 21 to 18 years in 1995. According to the Basic Law, the constitution of the territory since 1997, stipulates that all permanent residents (a status conferred by birth or by seven years of residence) have the right to vote.

The right of permanent residents who have right of abode in other countries to stand in election is, however, restricted to 12functional constituencies by the Legislative Council Ordinance of 1997. The right to vote and the right to stand in elections are not equal. Less than 250,000 of the electorate are eligible to run in the 30 functional constituencies, of which 23 are elected by less than 80,000 of the electorate, and in the 2008 Legislative Council election 14 members were elected unopposed from these functional constituencies. The size of the electorates of some constituencies are less than 200.

Only people who can demonstrate a connection to the sector are eligible to run in a functional constituency. The Legislative Council (Amendment) Bill 2012, if passed, will amend the Legislative Council Ordinance to restrict the right to stand in Legislative Council by-elections in geographical constituencies and the District Council (Second) functional constituency. In addition to people who are mentally disabled, bankrupted or imprisoned, members who resigned from their seats will not have the right to stand within six months' time from their resignation. The bill is currently passing through the committee stage.


Universal suffrage for all adult citizens aged 21 or older was established under Art. 326 of the 1950 Constitution of India. The minimum age was reduced to 18 years by the Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1988, with effect from 28 March 1989.

Japan Main article: Suffrage in Japan New Zealand Main article: History of voting in New Zealand * 1853 - British government passes the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, granting limited self rule, including a bicameral parliament to the colony.

The vote was limited to male British subjects aged 21 or over who owned or rented sufficient property, and were not imprisoned for a serious offence. Communally owned land was excluded from the property qualification, thus disenfranchising most Maori (indigenous) men. * 1860 - Franchise extended to holders of miner's licenses who met all voting qualifications except that of property. * 1867 - Maori seats established, giving Maori four reserved seats in the lower house. There was no property qualification; thus Maori en gained universal suffrage before other New Zealanders. The number of seats did not reflect the size of the Maori population, but Maori men who met the property requirement for general electorates were able to vote in them or in the Maori electorates but not both. * 1879 - Property requirement abolished. * 1893 - Women given equal voting rights with men, making New Zealand the first nation in the world to allow adult women to vote. * 1969 - Voting age lowered to 20. * 1974 - Voting age lowered to 18. 1975 - Franchise extended to permanent residents of New Zealand, regardless of whether they have citizenship. * 1996 - Number of Maori seats increased to reflect Maori population. * 2010 - Prisoners imprisoned for 1 year or more denied voting rights while serving the sentence. * 2012 - The National party, lead by Prime Minister John Key, places a four year suspension on electing Environment Canterbury Councillors. Earthquake hit Canterbury residents lose their power to decide how their regional land is used. Poland 1918 - In its first days of independence in 1918 after 123 years of partition rights to vote were granted to both men and women. Eight women were elected to the [Sejm] in 1919. [58][59] South Africa * 1910 — The Union of South Africa is established by the South Africa Act 1909. The House of Assembly is elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies. The franchise qualifications are the same as those previously existing for elections of the legislatures of the colonies that comprised the Union.

In the Transvaal and the Orange Free State the franchise is limited to white men. In Natal the franchise is limited to men meeting property and literacy qualifications; it was theoretically colour-blind but in practise nearly all non-white men were excluded. The traditional "Cape Qualified Franchise" of the Cape Province is limited to men meeting property and literacy qualifications and is colour-blind; nonetheless 85% of voters are white. The rights of non-white voters in the Cape Province are protected by an entrenched clause in the

South Africa Act requiring a two-thirds vote in a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament. * 1930 — The Women's Enfranchisement Act, 1930 extends the right to vote to all white women over the age of 21. * 1931 — The Franchise Laws Amendment Act, 1931 removes the property and literacy qualifications for all white men over the age of 21, but they are retained for non-white voters. * 1936 — The Representation of Natives Act, 1936 removes black voters in the Cape Province from the common voters' roll and instead allows them to elect three "Native Representative Members" to the House of Assembly.

Four Senators are to be indirectly elected by chiefs and local authorities to represent black South Africans throughout the country. The act is passed with the necessary two-thirds majority in a joint sitting. * 1951 — The Separate Representation of Voters Act, 1951 is passed by Parliament by an ordinary majority in separate sittings. It purports to remove coloured voters in the Cape Province from the common voters' roll and instead allow them to elect four "Coloured Representative Members" to the House of Assembly. 1952 — In Harris v Minister of the Interior the Separate Representation of Voters Act is annulled by the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court because it was not passed with the necessary two-thirds majority in a joint sitting. Parliament passes the High Court of Parliament Act, 1952, purporting to allow it to reverse this decision, but the Appellate Division annuls it as well. * 1956 — By packing the Senate and the Appellate Division, the government passes the South Africa Act Amendment Act, 1956, reversing the annulment of the Separate Representation of Voters Act and giving it the force of law. 1958 — The Electoral Law Amendment Act, 1958 reduces the voting age for white voters from 21 to 18. * 1959 — The Promotion of Bantu Self-government Act, 1959 repeals the Representation of Natives Act, removing all representation of black people in Parliament. * 1968 — The Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Act, 1968 repeals the Separate Representation of Voters Act, removing all representation of coloured people in Parliament. * 1969 — The first election of the Coloured Persons Representative Council (CPRC), which has limited legislative powers, is held.

Every Coloured citizen over the age of 21 can vote for it, in first-past-the-post elections in single-member constituencies. * 1978 — The voting age for the CPRC is reduced from 21 to 18. * 1981 — The first election of the South African Indian Council (SAIC), which has limited legislative powers, is held. Every Indian South African citizen over the age of 18 can vote for it, in first-past-the-post elections in single-member constituencies. * 1984 — The Constitution of 1983 establishes the Tricameral Parliament.

Two new Houses of Parliament are created, the House of Representatives to represent coloured citizens and theHouse of Delegates to represent Indian citizens. Every coloured and Indian citizen over the age of 18 can vote in elections for the relevant house. As with the House of Assembly, the members are elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies. The CPRC and SAIC are abolished. * 1994 — With the end of apartheid, the Interim Constitution of 1993 abolishes the Tricameral Parliament and all racial discrimination in voting rights.

A new National Assembly is created, and every South African citizen over the age of 18 has the right to vote for the assembly. Elections of the assembly are based on party-list proportional representation. The right to vote is entrenched in the Bill of Rights. * 1999 — In August and Another v Electoral Commission and Others the Constitutional Court rules that prisoners cannot be denied the right to vote without a law that explicitly does so. * 2003 — The Electoral Laws Amendment Act, 2003 purports to prohibit convicted prisoners from voting. 2004 — In Minister of Home Affairs v NICRO and Others the Constitutional Court rules that prisoners cannot be denied the right to vote, and invalidates the laws that do so. * 2009 — In Richter v Minister for Home Affairs and Others the Constitutional Court rules that South African citizens outside the country cannot be denied the right to vote. United Kingdom See also: History of British society and The Parliamentary Franchise in the United Kingdom 1885-1918 King Henry VI of England established in 1432 that only male owners of property worth at least forty shillings, a significant sum, were entitled to vote in a county.

Changes were made to the details of the system, but there was no major reform until the Reform Act 1832. It was not until 1918 that all men over 21 were given the right to vote, and it was not until 1928 that all women over 21 were given the right to vote. Suffrage in the United Kingdom was slowly changed over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries through the use of the Reform Acts and the Representation of the People Acts, culminating in universal suffrage, excluding children and convicted prisoners. Reform Act 1832 - extended voting rights to adult males who rented propertied land of a certain value, so allowing 1 in 7 males in the UK voting rights * Reform Act 1867 - extended the franchise to men in urban areas who met a property qualification, so increasing male suffrage to the United Kingdom * Representation of the People Act 1884 - addressed imbalances between the boroughs and the countryside; this brought the voting population to 5,500,000, although 40% of males were still disenfranchised because of the property qualification. Between 1885-1918 moves were made by the suffrage movement to ensure votes for women. However, the duration of the First World War stopped this reform movement. See also The Parliamentary Franchise in the United Kingdom 1885-1918. * Representation of the People Act 1918 - the consequences of World War I persuaded the government to expand the right to vote, not only for the many men who fought in the war who were disenfranchised, but also for the women who helped in the factories and elsewhere as part of the war effort.

All men aged 21 and over were given the right to vote. Property restrictions for voting were lifted for men. Votes were given to 40% of women, with property restrictions and limited to those over 30 years old. This increased the electorate from 7. 7 million to 21. 4 million with women making up 8. 5 million of the electorate. Seven percent of the electorate had more than one vote.

The first election with this system was the United Kingdom general election, 1918 * Representation of the People Act 1928 - this made women's voting rights equal with men, with voting possible at 21 with no property restrictions * Representation of the People Act 1948 - the act was passed to prevent plural voting * Representation of the People Act 1969 - extension of suffrage to those 18 and older * The Representation of the People Acts of 1983, 1985 and 2000 further modified voting * Electoral Administration Act 2006 - modified the ways in which people were able to vote and reduced the age of standing at a public election from 21 to 18. [edit]United States Main article: Voting rights in the United States In the United States, suffrage is determined by the separate states, not federally (Wyoming being the first state to instill suffrage). However, the "right to vote" is expressly mentioned in five Amendments to the U. S. Constitution.

These five Amendments limit the basis upon which the right to vote may be abridged or denied: * 14th Amendment (1868): Regarding apportionment of Representatives. * 15th Amendment (1870): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. " * 19th Amendment (1920): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. " * 23rd Amendment (1961): provides that residents of the District of Columbia can vote for the President and Vice-President. 24th Amendment (1964): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. " * 26th Amendment (1971): "The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. " Muslim world Main article: Timeline of first women's suffrage in majority-Muslim countries ------------------------------------------------- Etymology

The word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning "vote", "political support", and the right to vote. The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with some sources citing Latinsuffragari "lend support, vote for someone", from sub "under" + fragor "crash, din, shouts (as of approval)", related to frangere "to break" (related to fraction). Other sources say that attempts to connect suffragium with fragor cannot be taken seriously. Some etymologists think that it may be related to suffrago and may have originally meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone. The Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Kongreso ng Pilipinas) is the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines.

It is a bicameralbody consisting of the Senate (upper chamber), and the House of Representatives (lower chamber) although commonly in the Philippines the term congress refers to the latter. The Senate is composed of 24 senators half of which are elected every three years. Each senator, therefore, serves a total of six years. The senators are elected by the whole electorate and do not represent any geographical district. The House of Representatives is composed of a maximum of 250 congressmen. There are two types of congressmen: the district and the sectoral representatives. The district congressmen represent a particular geographical district of the country.

All provinces in the country are composed of at least one congressional district. Several cities also have their own congressional districts, with some composed of two or more representatives. The sectoral congressmen represent the minority sectors of the population. This enables these minority groups to be represented in the Congress, when they would otherwise not be represented properly through district representation. Also known as party-list representatives, sectoral congressmen represent labor unions, rights groups, and other organizations. The Constitution provides that the Congress shall convene for its regular session every year beginning on the 4th Monday of July.

A regular session can last until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session in the succeeding year. The President may, however, call special sessions which are usually held between regular legislative sessions to handle emergencies or urgent matters. ------------------------------------------------- History Spanish era When the Philippines was under Spanish colonial rule, the colony was not given representation to the Spanish Cortes. It was only in 1809 where the colony was made an integral part of Spain and was given representation in the Cortes. On March 19, 1812, the Constitution of Cadiz was approved, which led to the colony's first representatives at the Cortes in September 24, 1812 by Pedro Perez de Tagle and Jose Manuel Coretto.

However, with Napoleon I's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, his brother Joseph Bonaparte was removed the Spanish throne, and the Cadiz Constitution was rejected by the Cortes on May 24, 1816 with a more conservative constitution that removed Philippine representation on the Cortes, among other things. Restoration of Philippine representation to the Cortes was one of the grievances by the Illustrados, the educated class during the late 19th century. Revolutionary era The Illustrados' campaign transformed into the Philippine Revolution that aimed to overthrow Spanish rule. Proclaiming independence on June 12, 1898, President Emilio Aguinaldo then ordered the convening of a revolutionary congress at Malolos. The Malolos Congress, among other things, approved the 1899 Constitution of the Philippines.

With the approval of the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish sold the Philippines to the United States. The revolutionaries, attempting to prevent American conquest, launched the Philippine-American War, but were defeated when Aguinaldo was captured on 1901. American era When the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from 1900 to 1907. ThePresident of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission. Furthermore, two Filipinos served as Resident Commissioners to the House of Representatives of the United States from 1907 to 1935, then only one from 1935 to 1946. The Resident Commissioners had a voice in the House, but did not have voting rights.

The Philippine Bill of 1902 mandated the creation of a bicameral or a two-chamber Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in 1907. Through the leadership of then Speaker Sergio Osmena and then Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. In 1916, the Jones Law changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished, and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established. Commonwealth and Second Republic era The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution, side from instituting the Commonwealth which gave the Filipinos more role in government, established a unicameralNational Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was created. Those elected in 1941 would not serve until 1945, as World War II intervened. The invading Japanese set up the Second Philippine Republic and convened its own National Assembly. With the Japanese defeat in 1945, the Commonwealth and its Congress was restored. The same set up will continue until the Americans granted independence on July 4, 1946. Independent era Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, Republic Act No. was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. Successive Congresses were elected until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law on September 23, 1972. Marcos then ruled by decree. As early as 1970, Marcos had convened a constitutional convention to revise the 1935 constitution; in 1973, the Constitution was approved. It abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be known as the Batasang Pambansa in a parliamentary system of government. The parliament elected a prime minister. The Batasang Pambansa first convened in 1978.

Marcos was overthrown after the 1986 People Power Revolution; President Corazon Aquino then ruled by decree. Later that year she appointed a constitutional commission that drafted a new constitution. The Constitution was approved in a plebiscite the next year; it restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. It first convened in 1987. Summary In operation| Authority| Legislature| Type| Upper house| Lower house| 1900–07| Appointment by the President of the United States| Philippine Commission| Unicameral| Philippine Commission| 1907–16| Philippine Bill of 1902| Philippine Legislature| Bicameral| Philippine Commission| Philippine Assembly| 1916–35| Philippine Autonomy Act| Philippine

Legislature| Bicameral| Senate| House of Representatives| 1935–41| 1935 Constitution| National Assembly| Unicameral| National Assembly| 1943–44| 1943 Constitution| National Assembly| Unicameral| National Assembly| 1945–46| Amendments to the 1935 Constitution| Commonwealth Congress| Bicameral| Senate| House of Representatives| 1946–73| | Congress| Bicameral| Senate| House of Representatives| never convened| 1973 Constitution| National Assembly| Unicameral| National Assembly| 1978–86| Amendments to the 1973 Constitution| Batasang Pambansa| Unicameral| Batasang Pambansa| 1987–present| 1987 Constitution| Congress| Bicameral| Senate| House of Representatives| The powers of Congress and their limitations: 1.

A member shall not hold any other office or employment in the government. 2. No member shall appear as counsel before any court in any civil case wherein the government is the adverse party. 3. Congress cannot pass laws that will deprive a person of his life, property and in the pursuit of happiness without due process of law. 4. It can not pass ex-post facto laws. An ex-post facto law is one that imposes punishment on a crime that was not punishable at the time it was committed. 5. When making inquiries or investigations, the individual rights of the persons appearing in such inquiries shall be respected. 6. Congress can declare war only if approved by 2/3 of all members. 7.

Congress cannot increase the appropriations in the budget proposed by the President. The Privileges of Congress Members of Congress are granted by the constitution some privileges in order that the body can carry on its work without interruption. Among these are: 1. Congress may determine the rules of its proceedings; punish its members for disorderly behavior. 2. A member is immune from arrest when Congress is in session provided that the offense is punishable by not more that six years imprisonment. 3. A member shall not be questioned or held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in Congress. ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------ President of the Philippines From Wikipedia, thfree encyclopedia President of the Philippines| | | Presidential Standard| Presidential Seal| Incumbent Benigno Aquino III since 30 June 2010| Philippines| | The President of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or Pangulo (or informally, "Presidente"). ------------------------------------------------- History

Main article: List of Presidents of the Philippines Further information: List of Unofficial Presidents of the Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo, the first President of the Philippines. Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andres Bonifacio is considered by some historians to be the de facto first President of the Philippines. He was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Tagalog: Kataastaasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan secret society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils.

When the Katipunan went into open revolt in August 1896, Bonifacio had transformed it into a de facto revolutionary government with him as President. While the term Katipunanremained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic (Spanish: Republica Tagala). Although the word Tagalogrefers to a specific ethnicity, Bonifacio used it to denote all indigenous people in the Philippines in place of Filipino which had colonial origins. In place of the Spanish Filipinas he coined a Tagalog name, Haring Bayang Katagalugan (Sovereign Tagalog Nation). [8][9][10][11][12] Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay andMiguel Malvar should also be included. 13] In March 1897 Emilio Aguinaldo was elected President of a revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention. [14] The new government was meant to replace the Katipunan as a government, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899. Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Biak-na-Bato Republic. Exiled in Hong Kong after the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, with the advent of the Spanish-American War he returned to the Philippines to renew revolutionary activities and formed a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898. Revolutionary forces under his command declared independence on June 12, 1898. On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government.

On January 23, 1899, he was then elected President of the Philippine Republic (Spanish: Republica Filipina), a government constituted by the Malolos Congress. Thus, this government is also called the Malolos Republic. Sovereignty over the Philippines passed from Spain to the United States with the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo's government effectively ceased to exist on April 1, 1901, when he pledged allegiance to the United States after being captured by U. S. forces in March. The current Philippine government, formally called the Republic of the Philippines, considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first President of the Philippines and the Malolos Republic as the "First" Philippine Republic.

Miguel Malvar continued Aguinaldo's leadership of the Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902, while Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuation of Bonifacio's Katipunan. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents". Along with Bonifacio, Malvar and Sakay are not recognized as Presidents by the Philippine government. American colonial period Between 1901 and 1935, executive power in the Philippines was exercised by a succession of 16 American Governors General. In October 1935, Manuel L. Quezon was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines which had been established, still under U. S. sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on May 14 of that year. When President Manuel L.

Quezon left for the United States via Australia, he appointed Chief Justice Jose Abad Santos Acting President. President Santos was subsequently executed by the Japanese occupation May 2, 1942. The Japanese Sponsored Second Philippine Republic Jose P. Laurel became president of the Philippines in 1942 under a constitution imposed under Japanese occupation. Laurel, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, had been instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel L. Quezon, who fled to Corregidor and then to the United States to establish a government-in-exile. Presidency after World War II The 1935 constitution was reinstated after the Japanese surrender ended World War II, with Sergio Osmena as President.

That constitution remained in effect after the United States recognized the independence of the Republic of the Philippines as a separate self-governing nation on July 4, 1946. Presidency under the 1973 constitution Home provinces of the presidents. A new constitution ratified on January 17, 1973 during the presidency of Ferdinand E. Marcos, introduced a parliamentary-style government. This constitution was in effect until the People Power Revolution of 1986 swept Corazon C. Aquino into power as President. On March 25, 1986, Presidential Proclamation No. 3 promulgated a provisional constitution, supplanted on February 2, 1987 when the now-current constitution was ratified. Other issues with the Philippine presidency

Both Bonifacio and Aguinaldo might be considered to have been an inaugural president of an insurgent government. Quezon was the inaugural president of a predecessor-government to the current one, and Aquino was the inaugural president of the currently-constituted government. The Government of the Philippines considers Emilio Aguinaldo to have been the inaugural President of the Philippines, followed by Manuel Quezon and by subsequent Presidents. [15][18] Despite the differences in constitutions and government, the line of presidents is considered to be continuous. For instance, the current president, Benigno S. Aquino III, is considered to be the 15th president.

While the Philippine government considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States following the Philippine-American War, and the United States does not consider his presidency to have been legitimate. [15][19] Manuel L. Quezon is considered to be the first president by the United States and the first to win an election. The Philippines had two presidents at one point during World War II heading two governments. One was Quezon heading the Commonwealth government-in-exile (considered de jure) and the other was J. P. Laurel heading the Japanese-sponsored republic (considered de facto). Laurel was instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel L. Quezon.

Laurel was not recognized as a Philippine president formally until the Macapagal administration. [citation needed] The recognition coincided with the movement of the Philippine Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. However, in the roster of presidents it is inaccurate to consider Laurel the successor of Osmena or vice versa; Laurel's republic was formally rejected after World War II and none of its statutes or actions were considered legal or binding. The inclusion of Laurel causes some problems in determining the order of presidents. Quezon, Osmena, and Roxas, for example, were three of a continuous constitutional line; Laurel was the only President of the Second Republic.

Thus, Laurel has no predecessor and successor, while Osmena was Quezon's successor and Roxas was Osmena's successor. Timeline of the presidency ------------------------------------------------- Powers and duties Chief executive Under Article 7, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Philippines, the president heads the Executive branch of the government, which includes the Cabinet and all executive departments. Theexecutive power, as such, is vested on the President alone. Section 19 gives the president power to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment, except when the President is under impeachment.

Section 20 provides the president to contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. The president exercises general supervision over local government units. Commander-in-chief Section 18 of the Constitution of the Philippines, the president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. As Commander-in-Chief, the President can call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he or she may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law. [ Power of appointment

The president appoints, with consent of the Commission on Appointments, members of the Constitutional Commissions, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in the President in the 1987 Constitution. The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president, based on a list prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. These appointments do not need the consent of the Commission on Appointments. ------------------------------------------------- Selection process Eligibility Under Article 7, Section 2 of the Constitution of the Philippines, in order to serve as President, one must be: * at least 40 years old and above; * a registered voter, single or married; * able to read and write; * male or female a Filipino citizen by birth; and * a resident of the Philippines for at least 10 years immediately preceding election.

A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions: * Under Article 7, Section 4 of the Constitution of the Philippines, a person who has already been elected to the Office of President can no longer be eligible to the same office. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time. Election Main article: Philippine presidential election Under Article 6, Section 8 of the Constitution of the Philippines, the election of the President is done by direct vote.

The regular election for President and Vice-President shall be held on the second Monday of May, unless otherwise provided by law. The returns of every election for President and Vice-President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to the Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall, not later than thirty days after the day of the election, open all the certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session, and the Congress, upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the votes.

The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately. Inauguration Main article: Philippine presidential inauguration Further information: List of Philippine presidential inaugurations The President of the Philippines usually takes his/her oath on the noon of June 30 following the Presidential election Traditionally, the Vice-President takes his/her oath first, a little before noon. This is for two reasons: first, according to protocol, no one follows the President, and second, to establish a constitutionally authorized successor even before the President takes oath.

During the Quezon inauguration, however, the Vice-President and the legislature were sworn in after the President had taken oath first, to symbolize a new start As soon as the President takes the oath of office, a 21-gun salute is fired to honor the new head of state, and the presidential anthem "We Say Mabuhay" is played. Then the President delivers the inaugural address. Afterwards, the president then takes formal possession of the official residence, and inducts the cabinet into office. According to tradition, the President of the Philippines is inaugurated into office in one of three places: at the Barasoain Church in Malolos City, Bulacan; in front of Congress; or at Quirino Grandstand. On June 30, 2004, however, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo delivered her pre-inaugural address at Quirino Grandstand in Manila, took her oath of office at Cebu City before then Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide Jr. then the next day held the first Cabinet meeting at Butuan City in Northern Mindanao, with the intention of celebrating her inauguration at three places symbolizing the three main island groups in the country, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. In the past, elections were held in November and the President's inauguration was held on December 30, or Rizal Day. Thus, when the inauguration was usually held at Quirino Grandstand, the new President could see the monument to the national hero whose death anniversary was being celebrated that day. However, Ferdinand Marcos transferred the dates of the elections and the inauguration to May and June, and that is what is now being followed. The proper attire to wear to an inaugural is traditional formal Filipino clothing, such as the terno, baro't saya, or what is more commonly called "Filipiniana attire", and the Barong Tagalog. Oath

Under Article 7, Section 5 of the Constitution of the Philippines, before the president enters on the execution of his/her office, the President shall take the following oath or affirmation : “| I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President [or Vice-President or Acting President] of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God. | ”| [In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted] ------------------------------------------------- Impeachment Impeachment in the Philippines follows procedures similar to the United States.

Under Sections 2 and 3, Article XI, Constitution of the Philippines, the House of Representatives of the Philippineshas the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment against the President, Vice President, members of the Supreme Court, members of the Constitutional Commissions (Commission on Elections,Civil Service Commission Commission on Audit), and the Ombudsman. When a third of its membership has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the Senate of the Philippines which tries and decide, as impeachment tribunal, the impeachment case. A main difference from US proceedings however is that only 1/3 of House members are required to approve the motion to impeach the President (as opposed to 50%+1 members in their US counterpart).

In the Senate, selected members of the House of Representatives act as the prosecutors and the Senators act as judges with the Senate President and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court jointly presiding over the proceedings. Like the United States, to convict the official in question requires that a minimum of 2/3 (i. e. , 16 of 24 members) of the senate vote in favour of conviction. If an impeachment attempt is unsuccessful or the official is acquitted, no new cases can be filed against that impeachable official for at least one full year. Impeachable offenses and officials The 1987 Philippine Constitution says the grounds for impeachment include culpable violation of the Constitution, bribery, graft and corruption, and betrayal of public trust. These offenses are considered "high crimes and misdemeanors" under the Philippine Constitution.

The President, Vice President, Supreme Court justices, and members of the Constitutional Commission and Ombudsman are all considered impeachable officials under the Constitution. Impeachment proceedings and attempts Joseph Estrada was the first Philippine president impeached b

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Universal Suffrage. (2017, May 29). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/universal-suffrage/

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