Tourism: Brazil’s Location
Brazil which is the biggest country in the South America is a unique country with wonderful destinations and attractions. With half of South America’s land and one-third of the population of all Latin Americans, Brazil is a land of the marvelous, transcendent and the tragic. The gross area of Brazil covers approximately half of South America as it is the mainland’s biggest nation. At just over 3. 3million square miles, it is slightly larger than the continental United States (Eakin 1997).
It extends 4,772 km from North to South and 4,331 km from east to west. Also, border of Brazil meet other nations on the continent excluding Ecuador and Chile.
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The east side of Brazil is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. The north side of Brazil is surrounded by Guyana, French Guiana, Venezuela, and Suriname. On the northwest, Colombia edges Brazil. On the west, Brazil is edged by Bolivia and Peru. On the southwest, Argentina and Paraguay edge Brazil. On the south, Brazil is placing Uruguay (Infoplease 2000).
The population composition of Brazil. According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2013) which is the government statistical agency, Brazil’s population had increased to approximately from139. 8m in 1990 to 175. 9m in 2003. Also, it is predicted to reach about 200. 3m in 2020. Thus, it is obviously that Brazil’s population has been continually increasing. Brazilian society progressed from succeeding waves of immigration from Europe and Africa. As illustrated by the 1996 census, 83m Brazilians are of European origin including about 60m of mixed race. The black inhabitants are of 7. m and Brazilians of Asian origins are about 700,000. Also, indigenous Indians who live in Brazil are about 162,000.
Furthermore, the massive majority of research on racial dynamics in Brazil concentrates on the black-to-white variety. Brazil’s large-scale social surveys usually use three ethnic or color to capture the variety of identifications on this continuum including white (branco), brown (pardo, or “mixed”), and black (preto). It was surveyed that about 99% of the Brazil’s population included in one of these three classes in the three polls 1991, 2000, and 2010 (Stanley et al. 013). ?The cultural and economic features of Brazil Brazilian identity has been mainly formed by the Portuguese, who delivered its major language and religion. However, it has been shaped by also native indios, Africans and the many migrants from Europe, the Middle East and Asia. According to Burity (2008), even though Indigenous culture has frequently overlooked by urban Brazilians, it has assisted to shape modern Brazil and its traditional myth, dance as well as music. The influence of African culture is also obvious, particularly in the Northeast.
Portuguese brought not only a large number of black slaves but also their religion, music and cuisine which have developed a part of Brazilian identity. It is obviously that Brazil is a very racially and culturally compound nation. Brazil’s economy has become a major object of speculation for international stakeholders, researchers, specialists, and policymakers over the world. With filled natural resources, and gradually energetic global corporations, Brazil has been notably selected as BRIC which are the four very large, rapidly emerging economies countries including Russia, India and China.
There are several major factors that Brazil can be emerged as a rising star. Those are the strong global demand for the country’s key products, wide-reaching successes for the country’s main corporations, and proper economic policies which have improved confidence. Although once Brazil’s economy stagnated with debt crisis, macroeconomic volatility and high inflation during the 1980s, today, Brazil is more intensely incorporated with the global economy than at any time in the past half century (Brainard & Martinez-Diaz 2009).
Brazil’s economic management has been respectable however, public debt quiet remains high, which may pressure on government finances and menace social security. This is one of the major issues in Brazil’s sustained economic strength for the future and sustaining growth to generate employment and reducing government debt can be considered (St Louis 2010). ?Features of Brazil’s natural environment Brazil boasts some of the most marvelous plant and animal life in the world. Brazil has the world’s largest rain forest, as well as the greatest wetlands.
Rain Forest covers much of the Amazon river drainage basin while Wetland which is the largest fresh water swamp in the world, is half the size of France. This is mainly flooded grasslands from the River Paraguay which starts in Brazil and flows south to Argentina. This area is called the Pantanal. In Brazil, around 55,000 species of plants, 3000 freshwater fish, 770 amphibians and 520 mammals are found. More than one-third of the reptiles and over half the amphibians take place nowhere else and new species are being discovered constantly.
Brazil has five principal biomes which are Amazonia, Atlantic rain forest, Caatinga, Cerrado and the wetlands of the Pantanal. Brazil is huge country and its flora and fauna are scattered across vast regions (St Louis 2010). ?The history of tourism in Brazil Although Brazil is the biggest country in South America and has an abundance of cultural and environmental diversity, tourism has been generally ignored by both policy makers and the private division (Santana 2000).
As the challenge of fostering the socioeconomic development by increasing the number of tourists, there was something the federal government took up only in the beginning of 1990s. Its application involved a series of public and private investments which have transformed both the region and social relationships in the areas directly influenced. Until the 1966 establishment of the Brazilian Tourism Institute named EMBRATUR, there was fundamentally no authorized policy of supporting tourism. EMBRATUR regulated several terms which can be considered as the creation of a national tourism policy.
However, the initial role allocated to EMBRATUR was inadequate to consolidating the internal market and increasing external demand. In the beginning of the 1990s, an institute made the basic agent for developing official policies for the sector (Bartholo et al 2008). ?The place of tourism in the economic life of Brazil Although Brazil is not a tourism-dependent nation, tourism indicates one of the most vital areas for the successful Brazilian economy as well as the constant country’s development.
According to Santana (2000), the tourism industry in Brazil has also been generally recognized as a promoter of social and economic development by the introduction of the Ministry of Sports and Tourism. With supported by increasing economic development, most tourism indicators had experienced extraordinary growth by 1998. The deregulation of air transport helped out to raise domestic travel to record levels in 1998 the number of air passengers rose by 25 percent between 1997 and 1998. Also domestic travel increased by 43 percent over 1997, when 38. million Brazilians travelled within the country. The contribution to overall tourism receipts in 1998 was significant, with over US $6 billion.
The economic stability and strong currency have also made it possible for Brazilians to travel abroad. In 1997 Brazil experienced an unprecedented tourism deficit that destabilized the country’s balance of payments. More than four million Brazilians went abroad compared to 2. 9 million international arrivals. According to the EMBRATUR, domestic and international tourism contributed over US $billion to the Brazilian economy, or 3. percent of the nation’s GDP (Santana 2000). Therefore, it is expected that there is a significant correlation ship between Brazilian tourism and Brazilian economic. Factors influencing tourists’ choice of Brazil as a destination ?Push factors that create tourist demand for tourism in Brazil Push factors refer to the fundamental necessary for engaging in tourism that is for using the facilities provided by the tourism industry (Weaver & Lawton 2006). There are several push factors that create a demand for tourism activity in Brazil.
First of all, natural environment such as abundant natural resources are widely used to promote the nation’s tourism. International tourists inclined to be attracted by Brazilian regions which have various attractions such as rivers, waterfalls, national parks, beaches and native forests. These attractions strengthen Brazilian local economy. Also economic and technological development has made Brazil become the world’s fourth-largest internal flight market in terms of the number of travelers transported on scheduled airlines.
The number of total internal air travelers in Brazil reached about 77. 4 million in 2011. Furthermore, infrastructure quality affects destination competitiveness in important ways. The quality of a destination’s infrastructure may serve to attract tourists. In the process of choosing a destination, the image of infrastructure will play important role. Another factor can be a political issue that tourists should have the approval of their government to enable them to travel to Brazil.
The Brazilian government concludes a number of open skies contracts with several countries during 2009 and 2010 to open its air transportation provision and draw more foreign visitors into Brazil. Furthermore, the development of social tourism can be one of the factors. Vilela de Almeida (2011) mentions that in contemporary society, social tourism has been emphasized because, social tourism provides opportunities for travel and holidays for Brazilians who do not have access to large amounts of discretionary income.
There have been attempts by the Brazilian government to provide holiday opportunities for low income local people, for elderly people and for students. Those mentioned factors can be significant roles to develop Brazilian tourism. Components of the tourism supply-side in Brazil ?The ways in which Brazil and its attractions are promoted and interpreted The Brazil’s military government created Embratur, the Brazilian Tourist Agency, with the purpose of reshaping the tarnished image of the country, caused by reports of torture and abuse by the dictatorship.
Thus, Embratur became an important instrument for the formation of Brazil’s image abroad (Bandyopadhyay & Nascimento 2010). Also Filho (2005) mentioned that in its advertisements Embratur emphasized Brazilian woman’s physical assets such as big bottoms, their tanned skin and ease of being seduced. Furthermore, Alfonso commented that Embratur, the governmental body responsible for the regulation of the national tourist sector, disseminated images of almost naked women, mostly in Rio de Janeiro, in leaflets and banners.
This city and symbols like the mulatta and samba, representing the beauties of Brazilian beasches and the national carnival were chosen to structure Brazil’s image in the international market between 1970s and 1990s. However, today public and private officials are trying to revitalize tourism image as part of more diversified tourist products which includes fishing within rural and eco-tourism. Eco-tourism is promoted in the media by marketing the Pantanal as a ‘paradise’, an ‘El Dorado’ and an ‘ecological sanctuary’.
Officials are keen on developing ecotourism in a more planned way which would be coherent with maintaining local natural and cultural resources rather than encourage mass tourism which could provoke the opposite. The development of local rural and eco-tourism was first promoted by government tourist agencies and then taken up by the regional residents (Araujo& Bicalho 2009). ?Services available to tourists in Brazil including transport and hospitality Sustainable services which include transport and hospitality is one of the most significant component of the tourism supply-side in Brazil.
Lowry (2012) reports that the tourism plan for the FIFA World Cup 2014 which is developed by the World Cup Executive Group (GECOPA), provide better tourism information to tourists. Also it offers quality services and accommodation, and promotes tourism destinations in Brazil. The plan provides for the construction, renovation or expansion of tourist service centers, the establishment of tourist signage, and civil construction projects to ensure accessibility for persons with disabilities. Also Araujo and Bicalho (2009) mentioned that there has been constantly development of amenities for tourism in Pantanal.
A new airport was constructed in Bonito municipality and another new airport is scheduled for Porto Murtinho municipality. A paved freeway was built across the Pantanal between Corumba and the state capital Campo Grande. Existing roads within the swamps have been converted into park routes. Also a historic railway between Campo Grande, Miranda and Aquiduana has been restarted as a tourist attraction since 2009. Also there is a network of tourist services in urban and rural areas which include hotels, restaurants, night clubs and other attractions.
Furthermore, urban facilities were demanded by tourists so that since 1995, electricity has been available to remote rural areas. Most lodges started to install electric lighting, running water, air conditioning, cable television, internet and mini-refrigerators in the guest rooms and saunas and swimming pools for guests. Tourist facilities also include parking lots, public bathrooms, and access roads to lakes for recreation fishing so it allows tourists easy and safe access to natural attractions. Tourist experiences in Brazil ?performance experiences
Many international tourists visit Brazil to get virtuous tourist experience and to gaze the Brazil’s image through Carnival which is the best well-known festival in Brazil and has developed a national event of huge sizes. The country breaks for almost a week and events inclined to be intense, day and night, mainly in coastal cities. Carnival in Brazilian culture is considered as much more than a simple celebration. Delgado (2012) mentioned that it is one of the pieces that make up the Brazilian identity. To establish an identity is meaningful to Brazilian.
It is through the difference with respect to each other that the idea of ??unity of the nation is built. Thus, the carnival is an element of differentiation with respect to each other, serving as a mark of a Brazilian. There was naturally basic characteristic change over time in terms of a traditional carnival; however, the contact with tourists as well as the growing popularity of communication, technologies and globalization has accelerated the process. There is plurality of identities, constructed by different social groups in different historical moments.
Thus, similar to authentic identity, the original representations are built up and modified as changes social and historical moments. The importance for the Brazilian carnival is undeniable, most popular party in the country which is a place where the transgression is possible, the world of street is transformed temporarily into space. ?Photography Hillman (2007) defines that the photography generates and transmits images and tourist symbols such as sites, memorials and masterpieces and its important role is to construct and interpret the tourist destination image in special historic, social and cultural background.
The use of postcards, tourist leaflets, and photographic evidence of journey by tourists is a way of justifying their journey and tourism experience through visual authentication. Also the expanding spaces of cameras and video increasingly are able to represent themselves both to tourist and academics. The best-known example is probably the Kayapo in Brazil. They were supplied with video cameras after work with visual anthropologists and Amazonian Indians in Kayapo are represented by broadcast (Crang 1997).
The vivid images of life of Amazonian Indians makes people actually travel around the area. Then they will go back to home with the proof of travel to distant and exotic places, and visual authentic verification that they were actually present in the location. ?Slum experience In Brazil, there is a special place where tourists can have a slum experience. The name of place is Rocinha which is the largest favela in Latin America, and is located in Rio’s South Zone. It has not been well-known since until slum tourism have become a recognized form of dark tourism.
Ma (2010) contended that slum tourism provides a distinctive experience that today’s traveler seeks meaning in their vacations and is moving away from the trend of fun and pleasure. Freire (2008) commented that one of the most popular slum tour organizations is Favela Tours which has seen an average of 3,000 tourists per month for the past ten years. A total of 98% of its market is foreigners, a trend seen across all organized slum tours. Also, Frenzel & Koens (2012) mentions that more than 50,000 tourists participated in organized favela visits in Rio in 2011.
And a number of tourists will probably growth with the coming FIFA World Cup in 2014 and Olympic Games in 2016. More recent year the favela tours are also offered in Sao Paulo and Salvador de Bahia. The figure from Brazil indicates that slum tourism is already a highly professionalized business in the country. Apart from guided tours, the destination also offer elements of adventure tourism such as bicycle and motorbike tours, accommodation in the slum and specialized tours focusing on music, food or ecological aspects.
Therefore, it is expected that slum tourism stimulate local entrepreneurship and local economic development, and support poverty alleviation. Impacts of tourism on tourists and the host society ?Impact of tourism on Brazilians The impacts of tourism on Brazilians can be both a positive and negative. Tourism has increasingly become a key economic activity for Brazilian. According to Puppim de Oliveira (2003) especially Northeast region possesses a significant potential for the development of tourism such as a warm climate year round, cultural diversity and over 2. thousand kilometers of seashore with attractive beaches. Thus, tourism in this area improves the regional economy, attracting investments, creating jobs and generating income to diminish poverty. Similarly, tourism activities can bring positive externalities to society. For instance, the infrastructure for tourism can be used for other purposes as well. Airports can also be used by locals who want to travel.
Roads can be used for transportation of local passengers, and agricultural or manufactured products. In the State of Bahia, Brazil, the paving of the touristic road connecting the small town of Itacare to the arger town of Ilheus allowed the creation of new bus lines. Before the construction, Itacare had only few bus routes so that there were always limited transportation options of the local population. The new road increased access by the local population to Ilheus for shopping, recreation and medical purpose. Therefore, it is clear that tourism industry can improve local economic and employment benefits. On the other hand, there is negative tourism impact on Brazilians. The local environment and society has a limited capacity to absorb and recover from impacts of tourism.
If these impacts exceed the carrying capacity, their effects on the environment and local society can become permanent and cause serious environmental, social and cultural problems. Also uncontrolled competition within the tourism industry over environmental resources such as water, land, environmental amenities, can generate undesirable impact on the whole industry. An increasing demand for an attractive unexplored beach can produce a growing construction of hotels and houses at the sea side that can degenerate the primary environmental quality of the beach.
This can also cause a series of environmental problems such as deforestation, air and water pollution, degeneration of the landscape, which can negatively affect the quality of tourism or even the whole tourism industry in a region. For example, the Pantanal wetlands face serious threats, including the rapid spread of intensive soy, cotton and sugarcane farming on Brazil’s central plains, which are the source of most of the Pantanal’s water. Furthermore, on Brazil’s coasts, growth of cities and growing tourism developments threaten many delicate coastal marine ecosystems (St Louis 2010).
Thus, an uncontrolled growth of tourism in one region can potentially undermine its tourism by damaging its environmental or cultural resources, if proper intervention is not in place. Conclusion ?What are the prospects for the future of Brazil as a tourist destination and what should be done to ensure a successful future for Brazil? As it mentioned above, there is no doubt that Brazilian tourism already shows a major role in the Brazilian economy and that it also represents a substitute for development.
There is a constant development of infrastructural in tourism area based on exotic natural environment to attract tourists. Therefore, it is boosting a significant increase of a number of international tourists in Brazil. With 2014 Brazil world cup and 2016 Brazil Olympic, it is expected that tourism industry will be more developed and a number of tourists will be more visited ever before. However, unfortunately, Brazil is now also renowned for the destruction of its natural environment that all of its major ecosystems are threatened and over 200 animal species are endangered.
Thus, the amount of protected territory continues to grow. At least 20 new national parks have been created since the late 1990s (St Louis 2010). Also, there is also another negative issue that the sexual exploitation of women and children has made a Brazil portrayed as a sexual playground (Bandyopadhyay & Nascimento 2010). Likewise, the country’s reputation as an erotic playground continues to attract the wrong type of tourist with special tour purpose. Thus, it is obvious that protecting Brazil’s natural wonders and changing tourism image should be resolved as essential for Brazilian tourism future.
To ensure successful future for Brazil, all stakeholders of Brazilian tourism including government should have an important role to play that not only ensures tourism development which minimizes harm to the ecology, but also provides an economic incentive which encourages preservation and protection. Brazilian tourism has the potential to be beneficial in the several sectors in national economic and local development; however, the tourism also has the potential negative impacts such as some negative images and environmental issues.
Thus, the tourism is needed several implications in order to be sustainable. Therefore, to improve Brazilian tourism, this report recommends that firstly it should be enhanced a destination’s competitiveness through the target market’s awareness of the destination and through its positive image. Also, it should be developed a desirable plan to adopt a comprehensive approach which integrates tourism economic development, international or inter regional trade, social development and other marketing goals into an integrated strategy.
Secondly, the environmental problems can be minimized by the governments which generate governmental environmental organizations and educate government officials in environmental issues, and enforce environmental regulations. Furthermore, it is important to control of development and tourist flow and creation of protected areas by Brazilian governments which are responsible for creating protected areas for providing incentives for private actions towards environmental protection.