In concern relationships, parties negotiate because they think they can act upon the procedure in such a manner that they can acquire a better trade than merely accepting or rejecting what the other party is offering. Ghauri ( 2003 ) says concern dialogue is a voluntary procedure of spring and take where both parties modify their offers and outlooks in order to come closer to each other.
In literature, sometimes “ bargaining ” and “ dialogue ” are used interchangeably. Negotiation, besides called “ integrative bargaining ” , refers to win-win dialogue where both or all parties involved can stop up with every bit good or attractive results. In other words, everyone can win. It is more related to a problem-solving attack, where both parties involved perceive the procedure of dialogue as a procedure to happen a solution to a common job. In integrative bargaining nevertheless, if dialogues are non decently handled, both parties can stop up with a jointly inferior trade. With dialogue, it is possible for both parties to accomplish their aims and one party ‘s addition is non dependent upon the other party ‘s grant. Business dialogue is considered by many writers as being this type of dialogue.
The power/dependence relation is another basic feature of all dialogue processes. It is closely related to the existent power relation, which is influenced by the value of the relationship to the parties and their available options. Background factors for illustration the market place – can act upon the power/dependence relation. The ability to command a relationship is related to the sensed power of two parties, their comparative expertness and entree to information. This power is a belongings of the relationship and non an property of the histrion ; in fact, it is closely related to dependance. Therefore, the power relationship is in balance if both parties perceive equal power. The power relationship is imbalanced if one of the parties perceives more power, or if one party is dependent on the other.
The dramatic growing of international trade over the last five decennaries has been non merely in footings of volume but in complexness every bit good. International sellers are now more and more concern negotiants, who invariably discuss trades across boundary lines with a assortment of people, runing from consumers to mediators and even rivals. Technology frequently plays a major function in such trades and this could misdirect people into believing that the whole dialogue procedure is chiefly an applied scientists ‘ treatment based on rational and scientific facts. In fact, proficient complexness intermingles with human complexness to render such dialogue processes hard to pull off. A considerable sum of literature is available on dialogues, some of it besides on concern dialogues but the field of international concern dialogues is rather neglected.
Strategic Negotiations. Richard Walton etal,1994 identify three primary dialogues schemes. These are “ forcing, ” “ fosterage, ” and “ flight. ” Each represents an overarching form of interaction that characterizes the dialogues. A scheme does non emerge all at one time, but over clip as a consequence of consistent forms of interaction. A forcing scheme by and large involves taking a “ distributive ” or win/lose attack to the dialogues, combined with a “ divide and conquer ” attack to internal dealingss in the other side, and an attitudinal attack that emphasizes uncertainness and misgiving. By contrast, a fosterage scheme by and large involves taking an “ integrative ” or win/win attack to the dialogues, combined with a “ consensus ” attack to internal dealingss in both sides, and an attitudinal attack that emphasizes openness and apprehension. “ Escape ” is a non-negotiations scheme in which one or more parties seek to stop or undersell the relationship. Dietmeyer and Kaplan ( 2004 ) utilize a research-based attack to dialogue that assists gross revenues professionals in making their ain concern ends, while guaranting that their clients run into budget and professional aims as well-going beyond win-win to accomplish true, mensurable concern value for all parties at the negociating tabular array.
Power and Diplomacy
Power. Susan Strange ( 1998 ) brings out that power accrues to those who can offer or deny security ; those who manage the creative activity of wealth by production ; those who create recognition to let or deny other people to pass today and pay back tomorrow ; those who ( myocardial infarction ) manage the currency in which recognition is denominated ; those who have knowledge ( advanced engineering ) which provides military high quality and laterality in other power constructions. John De La Mothe ( 2002 ) , argues that scientific discipline, engineering and invention have long been cardinal factors in the competitory advantage of states. Today, nevertheless, the new international political economic system is being progressively driven by scientific discipline and engineering in new ways. Integration, globalisation and internationalisation have all become war cries for a series of dynamic procedures in which scientific discipline and engineering are profoundly concerned. As a consequence, non merely are the policies of “ national ” authoritiess being exposed in footings of the bounds of their sovereignty, but scientific discipline and engineering are being progressively implicated in a broad array of public issues – runing from security, privateness, development and economic growing to employment, environment, foreign policy and geopolitics. Clearly, in today ‘s rising universe, the ways in which authoritiess organize their scientific discipline and engineering policy, their scientific discipline and engineering intelligence, and their research advisory constructions and resources matter more today than of all time before.
Diplomacy. James Rosenau was one of the first to propose that the domestic and international are someway ‘linked ‘ and elaborated upon what he termed ‘linkage political relations ‘ ( 1969 ) . Scholars concentrating on the regional impact of domestic political relations are Karl Deutsch ( 1957 ) and Ernst Haas ( 1958 ) . Haas high spots two types of ‘spillover. ‘ The first type, functional spillover, occurs when cooperation in certain sectors of the economic system ( or society ) creates technocratic force per unit area for cooperation in bordering sectors, thereby impeling integrating frontward. The 2nd type, political spillover, occurs when ongoing cooperation in certain countries empowers supranational functionaries to move as informal political enterprisers in other countries. In order to pull off complex technocratic issues more efficaciously, rational authoritiess must depute discretion to experts, Judgess and administrative officials, thereby making powerful new supranational histrions with an involvement in cooperation. Graham Allison in Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis ( 1971 ) excessively, speaks of an ‘overlap ‘ between international and domestic political relations.
In State Power and the Structure of International Trade, Krasner argues that that openness in the universe economic system is most likely to happen “ during periods when a hegemonic province is in its dominance ” . Equally long as the province ‘s technological lead is increasing, its leading will comprehend economic advantages to openness, since openness will spread out markets for the merchandises of its technologically sophisticated industries. The hegemon will besides derive politically, since the “ chance costs of closing ” will be low, comparative to those confronting smaller and poorer provinces. Conversely, when several big, unevenly developed provinces coexist, Krasner predicts that the more backward provinces will happen openness economically and politically dearly-won and will therefore resist it. Greater trade closing will, hence, consequence ( Keohane 1997 ) . Like Gilpin before him, Krasner excessively stresses on the influence of the ‘ strength ‘ of the province on international trade. The important point is the correlativity between what occurs within a province is related to what occurs beyond province boundaries.
Robert Putnam in Diplomacy and Domestic Politicss: The Logic of Two Level Games ( 1988 ) argues that domestic constructions and diplomatic negotiations are endlessly entangled and says that the negotiant is under force per unit area to accommodate domestic and international struggles. Putnam ‘s work challenges the ‘level of analysis ‘ attack to analyzing international dealingss which stresses the importance of sorting informations under three bunchs: the systemic, national and the person ( Singer 1961 ) . Mayer ( 1991 ) develops a theoretical account to research the deductions of domestic political divisions for international strategic battle in international trade. He explores the topic by handling international trade as a game and placing the participants and analyzing how they play. The observation that there are several overlapping games being played, a few of them being strategic and others non, is important. Policies such as duty, quotas, and export and production subsidies are the tools used by the participants to derive an advantage in the international strategic trade game ( Krugman 1986 ) . Work on ‘strategic trade policy ‘ physiques on game theoretical theoretical accounts which analyse how provinces use trade policies to leverage their economic public presentation.
India and Nanotechnology
( The literature study included, amongst others, a perusing of one-year studies of GOI MOD, DST, CSIR, TIFAC, CII ; back issues ( app 3years ) of Business universe, New Scientist, Hindu Businessline and Business Today. )
GOI enterprises include DST launched Nano Science and Technology Initiative ( NSTI ) with an allotment of Rs. 1000 crore, Government has spent about Rs. 250 crore, over the past five old ages to advance R & A ; D in the country of nanotechnology. 100 research undertakings on the synthesis and assembly of ceramic nanoparticles, nano tubings, nano wires, nanoporous solids, and DNA french friess have been supported by the Government. CII Enterprises have resulted in ; India-UK Joint Economic and Trade Cooperation, Indo-US High Technology Cooperation Group ( HTCG ) , Nanotechnology partnership with Taiwan, a figure of Nanotechnology Conclaves, Nanotechnology Cluster-CMTI, Jharkhand Nanotechnology Initiative, West Bengal Nano Park etc.
CII is working closely with the Government of India on US India High-Technology Cooperation Group ( HTCG ) formed on November 2002. The HTCG acts to ease and advance bilateral high-technology trade. The focal point countries of the nucleus group include Information Technology, Defense, Life Sciences and Nanotechnology. Gaining the potency of nanotechnology, HTCG working group on Nanotechnology is formed to ease seamless flow of cognition between both the states and joint development undertakings affecting industries. The Confederation of Indian Industry ( CII ) has put together a 10-point action program to authorise Indian industry to come out with commercial nanotechnology merchandises, which it believes will drive the hereafter of industry worldwide. The action program includes awareness creative activity, preparation and accomplishments development, engineering facilitation and networking and easing collaborative undertakings.
The Nano Science and Technology Consortium works to make a platform conducive for the growing, publicity and partnering in the field of Nano Science and Technology taking together industries, faculty members and authorities through consultative, consultative and educative procedures which will supply growing platform for organisations, faculty members and authoritiess for tackling the Nano potency at Global degree.
Companies like Samsung have already entered the Indian market with a scope of merchandises utilizing nanotechnology such as icebox, rinsing machine and air-cooler. Samsung uses nano-silver in assorted composings in its merchandise scope. Further, companies like Tata Steel, Tata Chemicals, Mahindra & A ; Mahindra, Nicholas Piramal and Intel have invested around $ 250 million in the domestic market towards this terminal. Yash Nanotech has inked understandings with IIT Mumbai, NCL Pune and the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre of Advanced Research, Bangalore, to set about planetary contract research and set up nanotech fabrication installations.
Civil Applications. These can be grouped under four caputs, viz. , sensing, including imagination, detectors and detector webs for the sensing of pathogens and chemicals ; protection, including decontamination equipment and filters, and personal protection ; designation, including anti-counterfeiting and hallmark, forensics, quantum cryptanalysis and the market for forgery and gray goods ; social impacts, including current regulative and ethical models, possible impacts on moralss and human rights, and public perceptual experience.
Application in the field of medical specialty is one of the most absorbing countries that include new malignant neoplastic disease therapies, drug bringing systems, and biomaterials for implants or prosthetic device or diagnostic tools, which are under development or already in market. An of import country of application of nanotechnology includes fresh drug bringing techniques, which are quicker & A ; less hazardous, compared to the costs of developing new drugs.
Military Applications. These besides flow out from civil applications in countries like ; higher public presentation platforms ( aircraft, ships, bombers, boats and orbiters ) , enhanced feeling through more sensitive and selective detectors, enhanced human public presentation, information laterality through enhanced information engineering, improved battleground casualty direction, lower life rhythm costs with improved stuffs, coatings, and condition-based care etc.
Stake holders. The assorted interest holders include ; authoritiess, Industry, Entrepreneurs, R & A ; D, Institutions, Academic Research Institutions, and Society.
Case Studies. These can be subdivided into those which pertain to PSUs, R & A ; D constitutions and Defense and the private sector endeavors. The private sector industries which can be studied for dialogues ensuing in assorted types of partnerships/JVs/MOUs/TOTs etc. are listed below: –
Measuring devices & A ; equipments: Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd, Icon Analytical equipment. Ltd. , Veeco.Health Care: Dabur Research Foundation, Bharat Biotech International Ltd. , Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd. Materials processing: Tata Chemicals, Pune. Reliance India Limited. Car: Mahindra & A ; Mahindra, Tata Motors, United Nanotechnologies Pvt. Ltd. Electronics: Bharat Electronics Ltd, SemIndia Systems, Samtel India.