Introduction to Terrorism Susanne Prestininzi April 19, 2013 4:21 pm One cannot avoid long-standing debates, going back as far as Aristotle, over when it is politically and morally acceptable to use unconventional tactics such as violence and fear to bring about political and social change. History is replete with the ideas of great thinkers who believed that, under the right circumstances, unconventional tactics were not only smart, but a moral or civic duty.
Religious leaders over the centuries have contributed thoughts about when unjust warfare is just, when "holy terror" is justified, and military thinkers have advocated less-than-honorable tactics. Most terrorism throughout history has been directed against governments also called political or revolutionary terrorism, but terrorism can also be global or take the forms of state terrorism or state-sponsored terrorism. These latter types occur when governments turn on their own citizens, or try to stir up trouble among the citizenry of another nation.
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In fact, it was state terrorism that put modern use of the term "terrorism" in our English vocabulary. Title 22 of the U. S. Code, Section 2656f(d) defines terrorism as “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. ” (National Institute of Justice) The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. (fbi. gov) Both definitions of terrorism share a common theme: the use of force intended to influence or instigate a course of action that furthers a political or social goal. In most cases, NIJ researchers adopt the FBI definition, which stresses methods over motivations and is generally accepted by law enforcement communities. The first story isn’t terrorism. According to the definition, is this terrorism?
No, this action is not terrorism. The group who committed the action had an objective, which was to push the US out of Iraq. This is the nly trademark consistent with a terrorist activity. The target was solely a military target carrying U. S. soldiers and the terrorists employed a conventional weapon. Civilians were not targeted during this operation. Therefore, this action was a guerilla military action employed against an opposition force in a realm of conflict. These individuals were freedom fighters seeking to control their country.
If I am wrong in my understanding it may be considered domestic terrorism. The second story again isn’t terrorism. This was a U. S. issile strike killed 25 people in Pakistan's North Waziristan region that signaled that Washington's use of drones against militants along the Afghan border will continue despite intensifying opposition from Pakistani leaders. The third one definitely is an act of terrorism by a suicide bomber terrorist. A suicide bomber steered a truck loaded with the equivalent of six tons of TNT down the airport road in Beirut, Lebanon. He plowed into the four-story barracks where more than 300 U. S. troops from a U. N. peacekeeping mission slept and detonated what the FBI called the largest non-nuclear bomb in history.
This is an example of “Tactical Terror” in order for the Free Islamic Revolutionary Movement in order to bring international attention to their cause. The last story of Columbine was an act of domestic terrorism. It was an act of terrorism. However, most people wouldn't think of it as a terrorist act. Terrorism mostly has to do with political ideology; however, it’s not restricted to that. In a perverted way, the perpetrators of Columbine were making a statement, and that is terrorism. There are several different typologies of terrorism.
Terrorism classified by place:
- Domestic: by residents of a country within that country
- International: by representatives of a country against another country
- Non-state: extremism and revolution for its own sake
- State-sponsored: by a government against its own people or in support of international terrorism against another government
- Internecine: conflict that spills over into another country or fought on foreign soil.
- Crusaders: sacrificial, death attitude; blends politics and religion; seldom willing to negotiate; task-oriented and indifferent to risk; seeks publicity and largest group possible.
- Criminals: strong self-preservation attitude; selfish; seeks gain and is task-oriented; avoids high risk; predictably targets small groups (Hacker 1976) Terrorism Classified by Purpose
- political: for ideological and political purposes
- Nonpolitical: for private purposes or gain
- Quasi-terrorism:skyjacking and hostage taking
- Limited political: ideological but not revolutionary
- Official or state: used by nation against nation or people Terrorism Classified by Target
- Mass terror: targets general population
- Dynastic terror: selective targeting of individuals or groups
- Random terror: targets anybody in wrong place at wrong time
- Focused random terror: targets specific public places frequented by opposition
- Tactical terror: attacks government or politically attractive targets (Combs 2003) Terrorism Classified by Issue
- Revolutionary: aims to replace the existing government by drawing out repressive responses which can be exposed as inhumane (Red Army Faction, PLO, Hizballah)
- Political: heavily armed groups tending to be focused around supremacy, government intrusion, or religious revisionism (Aryan Nation, Posse Comitatus, Freemen)
- Nationalist: promotes the interests of a minority or religious group that has been persecuted under majority rule (Sikh radicals, Muslim fundamentalism)
- Cause-Based: groups devoted to a social or religious cause using violence to address their grievances (Islamic Holy War, Abortion clinic bombings)
- Environmental: groups dedicated to slowing down development they believe is harming animals (Animal Liberation Front, Earth 1st)
- State-sponsored: when a repressive regime forces its citizens into total obedience (Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Iraq, Sudan, Haiti)
- Nuclear: outlaw states possessing nuclear threats (Libya, North Korea)
- Genocide: when a government seeks to wipe out a minority group in its territory (Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia, Iraq, Turkey)
Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century Cynthia C. COmbs www. nij. com www. cia. gov Retrieved: April 19, 2013 3:12 pm You +1'd this publicly. Undo
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