Sociology Final Exam Review

White Males
What race/ethnic group comprises the majority of today’s power elite?
C. Wright Mills
Described critical thinking as the sociological imagination, which is an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past.
Sociological Imagination
Allows us to comprehend links between our immediate, personal social settings and the remote, impersonal social world that surrounds and helps to shape us.
Sociological Imagination
allows us to go beyond personal experiences and observations to understand broader public issues.
Sociological Imagination
Allows us to look beyond a limited understanding of human behavior to see the world and its people in a new way and through broader lenses than we might otherwise use.
Sociological Imagination
A key element of this : the ability to view one’s own society as an outsider world, rather than only from the perspective of personal experiences and cultural biases.
C. Wright Mills
advocated using the sociological imagination to view divorce not as simply an individual’s personal problem, but rather as a societal concern. Using this, we can see that an increase in the divorce rate actually redefines a major social institution- the family.
Cultural universals
Values of models of behavior shared by all human cultures.
Sociocultural Evolution
Societies range from simple to the technologically complex; societies simple in technology tend to resemble each other; more technologically complex societies reveal striking cultural diversity.
Gerhard Lenski
Who created sociocultural evolution?
Political System
The social institution that is founded on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving society’s goals.
The wealth and resources of a country or region, especially in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services.
Industrial society
As the industrial revolution proceeded, a new form of social structure emerged: a society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services. What is it?
Capitalism and Socialism
What are two basic types of economic system that distinguishes contemporary industrial societies?
In preindustrial societies, land was the source of virtually all health. The Industrial revolution changed this. It required CERTAIN individuals to be willing to take risks in order to finance new businesses. Eventually, holders of large sums of $ replaced landowners as the most powerful economic force, so people competed by investing their $ in hopes to become owners. What is this called?
Economic system in which means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits.
Laissez-faire (Let them do)
The term means “Let them do”.
Form of capitalism which was endorsed by British economist Adam Smith. People could compete freely with minimal government intervention in the economy. Business retained the right to regulate itself and operate essentially without fear of government interference.
Capitalism that tolerates monopolistic practices. This exists when a single business firm controls the market. This allows them to control be dictating pricing. Buyers have little choice but to yield to the firm’s decisions; there’s no other place to purchase the product or service.
The means of production and distribution in a society are collectively rather than privately owned.
– They meet to people’s needs rather than maximizing profits.
= Believe that the central government, acting as the representative of the people, should make basic economic decisions.
– Tolerate private ownership.
Karl Marx
Who believed that socialist societies will drift away and evolve into communist societies?
7.5 billion
As of 2005, how many gallons of water does the U.S. consume annually?
A “State of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” (Leavell and Clark 1965:14)
The “healthy” end of the continuum of Health represents an _______ rather than a precise condition.
Sick Role
Societal expectations about the attitudes and behaviors of a person viewed as being ill.
What sociological perspective is associated with the sick role?
Talcott Parsons
(1951, 1975)
Well known for his contributions to functionalist theory, outlined the behavior required of people who are considered sick.
Sick role behavior
They are exempt from their normal, day to day responsibilities and generally do not suffer blame for their condition. They feel obligated to try and get well, which includes seeking professional care. Their obligation for seeking care is because of the common view that illness is dysfunctional because it can undermine social stability.
Criticism of Sick Role
Patient’s judgement regarding their own state of health may be related to their gender, age, social class, and ethnic group. Younger people may fail to detect signs of a dangerous illness, while the elderly may focus too much on the slightest physical disease.
Short-term Illnesses
The sick role may be more applicable to people who are experiencing ____________.
Criticism of Sick Role
Simple factors, such as whether a person is employed, seem to affect one’s willingness to assume the sick role- as does the impact of socialization into a particular occupation or activity. Ex. At the beginning of childhood, athletes learn to define certain ailments as “sports injuries” and therefore do not regard themselves as “sick.”
Functionalist Analysis
Sociologists continue to rely on Parson’s model for _____________ of the relationship between illness and societal expectations of the sick.
Eliot Freidson
A sociologist that has likened the position of medicine today to that of state religions yesterday. Both previous state religions and current medicine has had an officially approved monopoly of the right to define health and illness and to treat illness.
What type of theorists observe that the medical profession has assumed a preeminence that extends well beyond whether to excuse a student from school or an employee from work?
Medicalizing of society
Used/Coined by conflict theorists.
Social control involves techniques and strategies for regulating behavior in order to enforce the distinctive norms and values of culture.
Conflict theorists use this term to refer to the growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control.
Complex human scores
How does medicine manifest its social control?
Medicine has greatly expanded its domain of expertise in recent decades.
Physicians now examine a wide range of issues, among them sexuality, old age, anxiety, obesity, child development, alcoholism and drug addiction.
We tolerate these boundaries so experts can bring cures to _______________.
Expanding Medicalization
The purpose of___________ is that once a problem is viewed, it becomes more difficult for common people to join the discussion.
___________ serves as an agent of social control by retaining absolute jurisdiction over many health care procedures. It does this by placing health professionals outside the realm of acceptable _____________.
Social Change
Significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture (W. Moore 1967).
Ex. The industrial revolution.
Describes how material must travel through a series of gates (or checkpoints) before reaching the public. Thus, few are selected to decide what image to bring to a broad audience.
Charles Darwin
Discovered Biological Evolution.
Biological Evolution
The theory of the progressions of life-forms.
Ex. From chimp like creatures to homosapiens.
Needs More Improvement
How did Auguste Comte see how societies move?
Simple to Complex
How did Emile Durkheim contend the way societies progressed?
Social Movements
Used by sociologists to refer to an organized collective activity to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society (Benford 1992.)
Social Movements
A type of group action. They are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues.
Make our clothes
What was the main concern in Kelsey Timmerman’s book “Where Am I Wearing?”
The people who ________________.
Societal concern
C. Wright Mills advocated using the sociological imagination to view divorce not as concern an individual’s personal problem, but as a ______________.
Sociological Imagination
An empowering tool that allows us to look beyond a limited understanding of human behavior to see the world and its people in a new way and through a broader lens that we might otherwise use.
Relative Deprivation
The conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and the present actualities. In other words, things aren’t going a good as you hoped they would. This may be characterized by scarcity rather than a complete lack of necessities.
A relative deprived person is dissatisfied because he or she feels ___________relative to some appropriate reference group.
right, better, cannot
In addition to Relative Deprivation, two other elements may be present before discontent will be channeled into a social movement:
– People must feel that they have a _______ to their goals, that they deserve ______ than what they have.
– The disadvantaged group must perceive that its goals ________ be attained through conventional means. This belief may or may not be correct.
(Seperate answers by commas)
Collective Action
Groups will not mobilize into a social movement unless there is a share perception that members can end their relative deprivation only through_______________. (D. Morrison 1971).
Critics of relative deprivation may have noted that people don’t need to feel ________ to be moved to act. In addition, this approach fails to explain why certain feelings of deprivation are transformed into social movements, whereas in similar situations, no effort is made to reshape society.
What sociologists would most likely observe at public events such as sporting events or parades?
What type of sociologist was C. Wright Mills?
The scientific study of social behavior and human groups. It focuses on social relationships; how those relationships influence people’s behaviors; and how societies, the sum total of those relationships, develop and change.
The body of knowledge attained by methods based on systematic observation.
Social Problem
How would a sociologist study divorce in society?
As a _______________.
-Assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.

-“The haves and the have nots”

This theory is concerned primarily with fundamental or everyday forms of interaction, including symbols and other types of nonverbal communication.
Often allied with the conflict perspective, sees inequality in gender as central to all behavior and organization.
Emphasizes the way in which the parts of society are structured to maintain its stability.