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Operations Management

QUESTION 1 Operations management must be managed properly in order to improve an organization’s productivity and profitability. In the Cadbury World case, several micro and macro processes are involved and those processes bring some impacts to Cadbury World. Thus, Cadbury World must possess a sustainable micro and macro processes to achieve the best outcome and performance.

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Micro processes that involved are easily to manage compared to macro processes because macro processes are hard to manage or manipulate (Jae, Shim, Joel & Siegel, 1999).

As a result, Cadbury World must put more efforts in solving the obstacles and troubles that occurred within the macro processes. First of foremost, we will be discussing the micro processes that involved in Cadbury World case. Within the micro processes, they can make some planning on their operation and strategic management processes to enhance their business and profitability. Micro Processes| Explanation and elaboration| Company| * Cadbury has set up a team to improve their operation management. * More tickets collectors have been assigned in the exhibition centre to manage and help visitors when they need assistance. Cadbury is always open for criticism, feedbacks and recommendation to improve their operation management. | Customers | * Cadbury always attempting to fulfill all the requirements and needs from their customers and ensure their customers will have a wonderful trip in their exhibition centre. * This is because customers will affect their reputation and brand name if they are not satisfying with the services and products that provided (Galloway, 1998). * Other than that, Cadbury has launched some new products and add more elements into their exhibition programme to attract more visitors and customers. Competitors| * Cadbury World has implemented SWOT analysis to identify their strengths and weaknesses and also the opportunities and threats from their outside environment. So that, they are able to gain the competitive advantage among their competitors. | Intermediaries| * Cadbury requires several marketing intermediaries in promoting their activities and products. * As such, they have selected some marketing intermediaries to promote this Cadbury World exhibition event and help them to gain the profits. | Suppliers| * It is crucial to select the best suppliers to enhance the production of Cadbury.

Due to this, Cadbury has implemented some analysis and works when choosing their suppliers because they always ensure their products have the high quality that can fulfill every customer’s requirements. | Table 1: Micro processes as applied to the case Cadbury World Macro Processes| Description | Demographic| * Several analysis have been implemented to analyze the preference and needs among people from different demographic profile. * This is because demographic profile is crucial when managing the requirements from different customers. Those analysis can be done according to several groups such as gender, age group, nationality, likeliness. | Natural| * Cadbury always seek for alternatives although their natural resources are still available and still able to support their operation and production. * This is because they believed that natural resources will be finished exploited in one day. So that, they want to put some efforts before the day to come. | Economic| * Economic trend must be aware from time to time to prevent Cadbury World business being affected during the economic crisis. Technological| * Cadbury always conscious and aware with the new technological and applied the technological elements into their operation system to gain the higher profits. * Besides, with the technological elements such as automated system or centralized system can help their operation system become more efficient and easy to manage the visitors that entering their exhibition centre. | Table 2: Macro processes as applied to the case Cadbury World Figure 1: Input-Transformation-Output model (Cadbury World case) The model of input-transformation-output in Cadbury World case has been displayed in Figure 1 above.

This model consisted of micro and macro processes because as mentioned earlier, micro and macro processes are very important for the operation processes in an organization. From the figure above, we will be discussing the micro processes of Cadbury World case in the form of input-transformation-output model. Those micro processes are company, customers, suppliers and competitors. Cadbury needs a lot of human resources such as manpower to carry out their daily operations process. Those manpower with the technological methods are essential to convert the raw materials from the input to the transformation process  (Tilanus, 1997).

After that, the incomplete goods that in the transformation process will turn into the outputs which are products and goods that introduce to the markets. When the products introduced to market, Cadbury may get some feedbacks from publics or their customers and also their competitors. Hence, Cadbury must do some amendment on their operation processes within the internal management in their organization or review their suppliers to enhance their operation process. QUESTION 2 Process flow chart to show the ways of customers are being processed through the operation from start to finish

The process design that adopted by Cadbury World case is the product-based layout because the arrangement of the equipments in every section of the exhibition centre are clearly displayed in a logical sequence. Hence, the process design can provide the better understanding to their visitors if they wish to take a tour without guiding. This is because the product-based layout can eliminate the confusion of the visitors as the process flow is predictable and repeatable (Thompson, 1967) . QUESTION 3 3. 1: The capacity of each processes in question 2 above The entrance 5-20 visitors x (60 minutes / 2-1/2 minutes) = 360-480 visitors per hour The Marie Cadbury room * Original design (70 visitors x 1/3) x [60 minutes / (5 minutes + 1-2 minutes + 4 minutes)] = 131-144 visitors per hour * Peak times 70 visitors x [60 minutes / (5 minutes + 1-2 minutes + 4 minutes)] = 382-420 visitors per hour The packaging plant 30 visitors x [60 minutes / (3 minutes + 8 minutes) = 164 visitors per hour The demonstration area (15 visitors x 8 guides) x (60 minutes / 6-17 minutes) = 424-1200 visitors per hour * The shop [(60 minutes x 60 seconds)/15 seconds] x 3 checkouts = 720 visitors per hour * The restaurant: If the tables are allowed to sit with different families or groups of visitors (60 minutes/25 minutes) x 169 covers = 406 visitors per hour * If the tables are allowed to sit with one family or same group of visitors (60 minutes/25 minutes) x 53 tables = 128 visitors per hour The coffee and ice-cream parlour (60 minutes/18 minutes) x 46 covers = 154 visitors per hour 3. 2: The projected annual, weekly and hourly demand from the data in the case (Mid August to end of December 4. 5 months). Explain the impact of seasonality on these figures. 1. The Entrance: 2. 5 minutes 2. The Marie Cadbury Room: 10 – 11 minutes 3.

The Packaging Plant: 11 minutes 4. The Demonstration Area: 6 – 17 minutes 5. The Shop: 15 seconds = 0. 25 minutes 6. The Restaurant: 25 minutes 7. The coffee and ice-cream Parlour: 18 minutes After reviewing the case of Cadbury World, we can understand that the time required for each station in the case of Cadbury World when during the normal period are 84. 75 minutes / 3. 53 hours and 72. 75 / 3. 03 hours during the peak periods. Therefore, the projected demand are as below:- 1. Annual demand = 4. 5 x 30 x (3. 03 – 3. 53) = 409. 05 – 476. 55 hours 2. Weekly demand = 7 x (3. 03 – 3. 53) = 21. 21 – 24. 71 hours 3.

Hourly demand = 3. 03 – 3. 53 hours Holiday season, weather, national celebration or event such as election can cause some impacts of seasonality that affect Cadbury World business and operation. From the Cadbury World case, the period of the exhibition event is held from mid of August to the end of December. During that period, Halloween and Christmas might influence their operation as people may wish to take a short travel to refresh themselves during these holidays. As such, Cadbury World can be a better selection. However, when the demand of seasonality increased, Cadbury World needs extra capacities to support their operation.

If not, they will face some bottlenecks and affect their overall performance and profitability. QUESTION 4 4. 1 The ways that Cadbury world management has varied capacity to respond to changes in demand When the business of an organization is boosted up, this means that the demand has been increased as well. Thus, the organization need more capacities to prevent they fall into bottlenecks (Stevenson, 2010). In Cadbury World case, some bottlenecks might be occurred if they didn’t varied the capacity to respond to the changes of demand. Firstly, more ticket collected have been arranged accordingly in the entrance area during peak period.

Those ticket collectors will apply the technological system such as automation system to handle the situation in the exhibition centre and also the safety of their visitors. Besides, Cadbury internal management team have implemented some actions to enlarge the space of parking lots during the peak period. After that, the shop, restaurant and ice-cream parlour areas will be amend to cater more visitors. 4. 2 The operations that occurred the bottlenecks in the process and the ways that service can be amended to increase bottleneck capacity. Where are the bottlenecks in the process? How could service be amended to increase bottlenecks capacity? | The entrance| * Introduce online ticketing to reduce the time that needed to purchase the tickets. * Utilize information technology system to handle the safety of visitors that enter the exhibition centre. * Enhance the dependability and speed in the exhibition centre to provide the convenience to visitors. | The exhibition area| * Boost up the efficiency of Cadbury staffs that handle the visitors that enter this area. * Apply micro operation system and information technology method to reduce the delays problems and also eliminate the workload of attendant. Improve the process flow in Marie Cadbury room as it is the bottlenecks in this section. | The packaging plant| * Change the areas that show the brief videos. * Such as displaying the brief videos in the areas before entering the packaging plant to give a brief explanation and understanding to visitors. | The restaurant| * Amend the process flow because current process flow is inconvenient to visitors. * Redesign the serving points and serve more variety of food in each serving point. * So that, visitors can enjoy their favorite food without passing every serving points. The restaurant design can amend to a round shape instead of row arrangement to increase the flexibility to visitors. | LIST OF REFENCES Galloway, L. (1998) Principles of Operations Management. India: ITP. Jae, K. , Shim, Joel, G. & Siegel (1999) Operations Management. USA: Barron’s Educational Series. Stevenson, W. J. (2010) Operations Management. An Asian Perspective (9th Edition). New Zealand: McGraw-Hill. Thompson, J. (1967) Organizations in Action. New York: McGraw-Hill. Tilanus, B. (1997) Information Systems in Logistics and Transformation (2nd ed). USA: Elsevier Science Ltd.