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Job Satisfaction

BHALCHANDRA INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION AND MANAGEMENT PROJECT REPORT ON “JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES” (BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICAL LIMITED IP JAGDISHPUR) SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF “MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION” Submitted by RICHA DIXIT Under the Guidance of Mr. S. N.

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TIWARI 1 PREFACE The project work entitled “A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES OF BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICAL LIMITED IP JAGDISHPUR” Job Satisfaction is the favorableness or un-favorableness with which the employee views his work.

It expresses the amount of agreement between one’s expectation of the job and the rewards that the job provides. Job Satisfaction is a part of life satisfaction. The nature of one’s environment of job is an important part of life as Job Satisfaction influences one’s general life satisfaction. Job Satisfaction, thus, is the result of various attitudes possessed by an employee. In a narrow sense, these attitudes are related to the job under condition with such specific factors such as wages.

Supervisors of employment, conditions of work, social relation on the job, prompt settlement of grievances and fair treatment by employer. However, more comprehensive approach requires that many factors are to be included before a complete understanding of job satisfaction can be obtained. Such factors as employee’s age, health temperature, desire and level of aspiration should be considered. Further his family relationship, Social status, recreational outlets, activity in the organizations etc. Contribute ultimately to job satisfaction. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A large number of individuals have contributed to project.

This project is a humble attempt to sketch done the contribution of all those persons who have directly or indirectly given their precious time and help along with proper guidance for making this report in the following shape. First of all I would like to thank Mr. S. N. Tiwari, project co-ordinater (manager H. R), B. H. E. L. , . P Jagdishpur without whose permission project of B. H. E. L. , I. P would have been castle in the air. Who always helped me and provided me relevant books and data in the subject to enable to prepare the project. And also I would like to give thank to Mr.

Janmejay sing, Asst. Engineer (H. R) who’s supported to me, and my teacher Ms Shikha. Lastly but not the least, I pay my gratitude to my parents, family members, friends, faculty members of B. I. E. M and all executives of B. H. E. L. , I. P Jagdishpur for their morel support and whole hearted co-operation in drafting this report. Richa Dixit 3 DECLARATION I, shalini verma student of third SEM B. I. E. M College have completed the Project on ‘job satisfaction’ For the Academic Year 2008-10. The information given in this project is true to the best of my knowledge. CONTENT Sr. No.

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 7 Topic Company Profile Job satisfaction Objectives Research Methodology Observation & Findings Suggestions 4 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Bibliography Annexure . 5 PART 1 6 COMPANY PROFILE BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICAL LIMITED An OverviewThe first plant of what is known as BHEL was established nearly 51 Years ago at Bhopal and was the genesis of the heavy electrical Equipment industry in India. BHEL is, today the largest engineering Enterprise of it kind in India with a well recognized track record of performance making earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and achieved a sales turnover of Rs. 1608 crores with a profit before tax of more than Rs. 4000 in 2008-09. BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy VI. Power generation & transmission, industry, transportation, telecommunication, Renewal energy, defense, 7 etc. The wide network of BHEL’s 14 manufacturing divisions (working) & 2 manufacturing units under construction, 4 power sector regional centers, 8 service centers, and 18 regional offices and large number of project sites spread all over India and abroad enable the company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and services efficiently and at competitive rates.

The World Bank in its report on the Indian public sector has described BHEL as “one of the most efficient enterprises in the industrial sector as per with international standards of efficiency” 8 Certificates: BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 and all the major units/ division of BHEL have been upgraded to the latest ISO 9000:2000 version of quality management. BHEL has secured ISO 14001 certification for environmental management systems and OHSAS 18001 certification for occupational health and safety management systems for its major units/ divisions.

The company’s inherent potential coupled with its strong performance over the years, has resulted in it being chosen as one of the“NAVRATNA” Public sector enterprises (PSEs), which are to be supported by the government of India in their endeavor to become future global players. 9 VISION, MISSION & VALUES OF BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LTD. BHEL defines its vision, mission, values and objectives as follow: ? VISSION – To become a world class, innovative, competitive and profitable engineering enterprise providing total business solutions. MISSION – To be the leading Indian engineering enterprise providing quality products, systems and services in the field of energy, transportation, industry, infrastructure and the potential areas. ? VALUES – ? Meeting commitments makes to internal and external customers. ? Fostering learning, creativity and speed of response. ? Respect of dignity and potential of individuals. ? Loyalty and pride in the company. ? Team playing. ? Zeal to excel. ? Integrity and fairness in all matters. ? OBJECTIVES- BHEL defines its objectives as follows:?

Growth – To ensure a steady growth by enhancing the competitive edge of BHEL in existing business, new area and international operations so as to fulfill national expectation for BHEL. 10 ? Profitability – To provide a reasonable and adequate return on capital employed, primarily through improvements in operational efficiency, capacity utilization and productivity, and generates adequate, internal resources to finance the company’s growth. ? Customer focus – To build a high degree of customer confidence by providing increased value for his money through international standards of product quality, performance and superior customer services. People orientation – To enable each employee to achieve his potential, improve his capabilities, perceive his role and responsibilities and participate and contribute positively to the growth and success of the company. To invest in human resource continuously and be alive to their needs. ? Technology – To achieve technological excellence in operation by development of indigenous technologies and efficient absorption and adaptation of imported technologies to sustain needs and priorities, and provide a competitive advantage to the company. Image – To fulfill the expectation which shareholders like government as owner, employees, customers and the country at large have from BHEL. 11 POLICIES OF BHEL QUALITY POLICY: To acquire and maintain a leading position as a supplier of Quality products to national /International standards and to meet the requirements of customers. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES ? Compliance with applicable Environmental Legislation / Regulation. ? Continuous improvement in environment management system to protect natural environment and control pollution. ? Promotion of activities for conservation of resources by Environmental management. Enhancement of environment awareness among employees, customers and suppliers. our OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY: Compliance with applicable legislation and Regulations. ? Setting objectives and targets to eliminate / minimize risk due to occupational safety hazards. ? Appropriate structure training to employees on occupational health and (OH&S) aspects. 12 safety ? Formulation and maintenance of OH&S management programmes for continual improvement. ? Periodic review of OH&S management system to ensure its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness.

PARTECIPATION IN THE “GLOBAL COMPACT” TO THE UNITED NATIONS The “Global Compact” is a partnership between the UNITED NATIONS, the business community, international labour and NGOs. It provides a forum for them to work together and improve corporate practices through co-operation rather then confrontation. BHEL has joined the “GLOBAL COMPACT” of United Nations and has committed to support it and the set of core values enshrined in its nine principles. PRINCIPLES OF GLOBAL COMPACT Human Rights ? Business should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed uman rights. ? Make sure they are not complicit in human rights abuses. Labour Standards 13 ? Business should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining. ? The elimination of all forms of forces and compulsory labour. The effective abolition of child labour. Eliminate discrimination. ENVIRONMENT ? Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges. ? Undertake initiative to promote greater environmental responsibility. ? Encourage the development and diffusion of environment-friendly technologies.

By joining the “Global Compact”, BHEL would get a unique opportunity of networking with corporate with sharing experience relating to social responsibility on global basis. BHEL IN INDIA RIGIONAL OFFICES (POWER SECTORS) 1. New Delhi (Northern Region) 2. Kolkata (Eastern Region) 14 3. Nagpur (Western Region) 4. Chennai (Southern Region) BUSINESS OFFICES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Bangalore Bhubaneshwar Chandigarh Chennai Guwahati Jabalpur Jaipur Kolkata Lucknow Mumbai New Delhi Patna Ranchi Secunderabad Vadodara BHEL’s MANUFACTURING UNITS Bangalore A. Electronic Division B.

Industrial systems group 15 C. Electro porcelains Division 2. Bhopal: 3. Gowindwal: 4. Haridwar: 5. Hyderabad: 6. Jagdishpur: 7. Jhansi: 8. Rudrapur: 9. Ranipet: 10. Tiruchirapally: Heavy Electrical Plant Industrial valves plant Heavy electrical Equipment Plants Heavy Power Equipment Plant Insulator Division Transformer Plant Component Fabrication Plant Boiler Auxiliaries Plant A. High pressure Boiler Plant B. SSTP & Magneto-Hydrodynamics 11. Equipment Repair Plant Varanasi: Heavy SERVICE CENTERS 1. Banglore 2. Chandigarh 16 3. kolkata 4. Nagpur 5. New Delhi 6. Patna 7. Secunderabad 8. Vadodara 9. Varanasi OTHER UNITS

Project Engineering Division, New Delhi. 1. Research & Development Division, Hyderabad. 2. Oil Rigs Division, New Delhi. 3. Regional Operation Division, New Delhi. 4. Market & Sales Division, New Delhi. 5. Power Project Division, New Delhi. BHEL’s CONTRIBUTION TO INDUSTRY 17 Since inception in 1982 the industry sector business has grown at an impressiveRate and today contributes over half of BHEL’s turnover. BHEL, today, supplies all major equipment for the industries: AC/DC Machines, alternators, centrifugal compressors, special reactor columns, heat Exchangers, pressure vessels, gas turbine based cogenerations plants, steam

Generators, complete range of steam generators for process industries, dieselPower plants, solar water heating systems, photo-voltaic systems,etc. In the transportation field BHEL range covers AC locomotives, AC/DC dual Voltage locos, traction motors & transformers, electrics for AC, DC and dual Voltage Emus diesel power car and diesel electric locos. BHEL is the leader in the power transmission field with equipment up to the Highest system voltage: power and instrument Transformers, shunt reactor, Insulators, energy meters, substations, static compensation schemes as well as High voltage DC transmission systems (HVDC).

AWARDS WON BY BHEL: International Awards Shri R. S. Babu, GM, BAP-Ranipat received the prestigious Keith Hartley memorial medallion for the year 2000 at the international welding conference organized by the international institute of welding for his outstanding contribution to welding technology in the country. National Awards ? ? PM’s Shram Awards National Productivity council’s productivity performance awards ? Vihswakarma Rahtriya Puruskars 18 ? National Safety Awards ? Golden Peacock National Quality Awards ? Engineering Export Promotion Council’s (EEPC) Award ? Inssan Awards ?

Value engineering Awards ? Energy conservation Awards ? Ecological Awards ? Best Executive Awards ? Samman Patra ? Best employer for physically handicapped ? Best Physically Handicapped employee Award ? Information Technology Professional Award ? Seven employees of Tiruchirapally unit won the govt. of Tamil Nadu award for outstanding workers, “Tamilaga Arasin Uyarntha uzhaipalar viruthu. ” For the year 1997. 19 BHEL’s CLIENTS – BHEL’S STRENGTH Major Clients POWER ? State Electricity Boards / Power corporations (SEBs/ PCs) ? National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) ?

National Hydroelectric power corporation Ltd. (NHPC) ? Nuclear Power Corporation ? Damodar valley corporation (DVC) ? Ahmedabad Electricity Co. ? Tata Electric Company ? Neyveli Lignite Corporation ? Durgapur Projects Limited ? Kolkata Electric Supply Co. ? Gujarat Industries Power Co. ? Power &Development Department (J&K) ? North Eastern Electric Power Corporation ? Bombay sub – urban Electric supply Co. (BSES) ? Independent Power Producers (IPPs) 20 TRNSMISSION ? State Electricity Boards / Power Corporations (SEBs/PCs) ? West Bengal Power Development Corporation Ltd. Temigjat vidyut Nigam Ltd. ? National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) ? Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. ? Indian Organic & Chemicals Ltd. ? National Fertilizer Ltd. INDUSTRY ? National Aluminum Co. (NALCO) ? Hindustan Aluminum Co. (HINDALCO) ? Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) ? BALCO ? Tata Iron & steel Co. (TISCO) ? Hindustan Copper Ltd. (HCL) ? Hindustan Zinc Ltd. ? JP Rewa cement 21 ? L&T Cement ? Raymond Cement ? Rajshree Cement ? Cement Corporation of India ? Hindustan Fertilizers &Chemical Ltd. ? Indian Farmer & Fertilizers Cooperative (IFFCO) ?

Hindustan paper Corporation ? JK paper mill ? Grasim Industries ? Hindustan sugar ? Mysore Sugar ? Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) ? IPCL ? HPCL ? Reliance Industries ? Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) ? Gas authority of India Ltd. (GAIL) ? Defense Ministry TRANSPORTATION ? Indian railways ? Port Trusts 22 ? Steel Plants ? Cement Plants INTRODUCTION BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED IP JAGDISHPUR 23 INTRODUCTION BHEL JAGDISPUR UNIT – AN INSIDE VIEW BHEL 11th manufacturing unit located at Jagdishpur U. P in Sultanpur district is North India’s first integrated insulator plant.

It is located on the Lucknow – Sultanpur national highway 78 k. m. From Lucknow. The land (150 acres for factory and 50 acres for township) for the establishment of Jagdishpur unit was purchased in November 1981 and the foundation stone of this plant was laid down by MR. RAJIV GANDHI on 10th February,1982 and was inaugurated by prime minister of India SMT. INDIRA GANDHI on 3rd March,1984 . BHEL’s previous experience in ceramic field blended with that of NKG, Japan world’s Leader in insulator technology set the pace for commissioning of this plant.

This unit has been provided with the most modern and sophisticated facilities, and was commissioned in record time of 18 months. The plant is geared to produce 19 thousand tons of disc insulator annually and one thousand tons of Ly. Of insulators. Over the year lot of technological innovation have taken place in the plant, which has streamlining of manufacturing processes and has taken it in to the level of best industry. 24 New type of disc insulator has also been introduced periodically and today it manufactures disc insulators up to 160-KN strength ranging from normal to anti-fog type.

Since 1994 low-tension types of insulators are also been introduced in the product range in addition to supplies to domestic market quantity have also been exported to countries like UK and South Africa. The Plant has till date executed many prestigious export contrac5t and has supplied these insulators to Turkey, Malaysia, Tobago, Ghana and Nigeria etc. In present era of liberalization the company has not only gone for diversification but also has taken concrete measures or organizational and product improvement adopting the TQM (Total Quality Management) approach.

In present world an attempt has been made to system erotically analyze the export market requirements of insulators and identify the product forming bulk Exports. The world market scenario of insulators imports has been presented with a view to provide strategic global market information for insulators exports. BHEL’s Jagdishpur insulator plant has developed into one of the India’s biggest disc insulator manufacturing centers with the most stream lined layout and modern technology it has provisions to cope up with latest technological advances in the ceramic need. 5 PRODUCTS OF BHEL,IP JAGDISHPUR 26 PRODUCTS This unit of BHEL was setup for the production of insulators, but at present, it is also manufacturing one more product i. e. Ceramic Liner (ceralin). Thus, there are two products – 1. Insulator (main Product) 2. Ceralin PRODUCTS INSULATOR CERALIN 27 INSULATOR INSULAOR AND ELECTICITY PYLON 28 INTRODUCTION OF INSULATORS The insulators for overhead lines provide insulation to power conductors from ground. The insulators are connected to cross arms conductors pass through the clamp of the insulators.

The insulators are mainly made up of either glazed porcelain or toughened glass. The materials used for porcelain are silica-20% feldspar 30% and clay 50%. The porcelain should be ivory white, sound and free from defects. It should be vitrified because the presence of air lowers the dielectric strength of the porcelain. It is therefore desirable that porcelain to be used for insulator should be air free and impervious to the entrance of liquid and gases. The dielectric strength of porcelain should be 15 to 17 KV for every 1/10th inch thickness.

Normally it is difficult to manufacture homogenous porcelain, therefore for an operating voltage two or more piece construction is adopted in which each piece is glazed separately and then they are cemented together. Porcelain is mechanically strong, less by temperature and has minimum leakage problem. Toughened glass is also sometimes used for insulators because it has higher dielectric strength (53 for 1/10th inch thickness), which makes it possible to make use of single piece construction The unit was established for manufacturing the Disk 29

Insulators of different ratings (45 KN to 160 KN) for high voltage transmission line (up to 400 KV). The production volume has been continuously stepped up to 6190 CMT whereas installed capacity is of 6050 CMT. The unit is India’s manufacture of High-Tension Porcelain Disk Insulator and Distribution Line insulator like Hobbin/ Shackle, pin guy/ stay/ strain, cap and pin type insulators. This unit is equipped with highly sophisticated plant and machinery. The unit also offers wear resistant high- Alumna Ceramic lining material for power steel, Cement and mining industries, as well as a wide range of industrial Ceramics.

TYPE OF INSULATORS There are there types of insulators for overhead lines. They are: (1) Pin tube (2) Suspension type (3) Strain type PIN TYPE The pin type insulators are normally used up to 33 KV. In any case it is not desirable to use them beyond 50 KV as the cost of the insulators become very high. SUSPENSION TYPE 30 Suspension insulators in addition to being economical as compared to pin type for voltages more than 33 KV have the following further advantage: (1) Each insulator is designed for 11 KV and hence for any operating voltage a string of insulators can be used. 2) In case of failure of one of the units in the string, only that particular unit needs replacements. (3) Adding suitable number of discs can increase the operating voltage of existing transmission. STARIN TYPE Strain insulators are placed in horizontal plane than the vertical plane as in case of suspension. These are used to take the tension of conductors at the line terminals, angle towers, road crossings and the junction of the overhead lines with cables. For low voltages of the order of 11 KV, the shackle insulators are used. 31 CERALIN 32 Ceralin is a brand name of Ceramic Lining.

Ceralin the ceramic wear resistant material is designed and developed to resist wear for optimum performance of such industries in most arduous conditions. Ceralin is special Aluminum Oxide Ceramic developed specifically as resistant material with most modern facilities to product undue abrasion and erosion of material handling equipments to avoid wasteful downtime of industry. Ceralin has hoster resistant characteristics compared to conventional materials like alloy steel, Bassett. Rubber and polymers due to its extreme hardness coupled with a strong tough matrix that holds the Alumna wide crystals in place.

Ceralin is the best economical choice to protect the undue wear of abrasive handing equipments of industry and application of Ceralin results in better operation and maintenance. PRODUCT OF CERALIN Ceralin is manufactured in the form of tiles, which can be assembled as lining on to surface to be protested against wear. Depending on geometry and functional requirements, these are made in various shapes, listed below: ? Curved plain tiles ? Curved weld on tiles ? Flat plain Tiles ? Flat weld on tiles 33 ? Other shapes based on Application. AREAS OF APPLICATION

Ceralin has a very wide range of applications in all industries handing with abrasive and erosive materials due to its superior wear resistant characteristics coupled with chemically inert and high temperatures characteristics as explained above. The few applications are as below: POWER SECTOR Pulverized fuel bends, classifier cones of bowl mills, mill discharge valve, multiple port outlet, fuel inlet elbows, mill outlet, ore hopper, coke oven plant (chutes, coke bunkers). COAL SECTOR 34 Feed chutes, centrifuge bowl, screw conveyor, lauders, slurry pipes, Hoppers. STEEL SECTOR

Sinter plants (cyclone chutes, Hoppers), Blast furnace (venture scrubber from ore discharge chute, ore hopper), coke oven plant (chute, coke bunkers). CEMENT SECTOR Feed chutes, dust collectors, cyclones air separators. REFINERIES Pump boxes, chutes, centrifuge bowls, ceramic nozzles. QUALITY CHECKS A series of quality and process checks, ensure a high degree of quality of ceralin. Periodic checks both and sample basis are made to maintain the process parameters within limits and to eliminate directs. MAN POWER OF BHEL- IP JAGDISHPUR Total manpower of unit isExecutive: Worker & supervisors: 55 479 35

Total manpower is: 524 AWARDS BHEL, Jagdishpur unit has also won the award of safety for many years. The award known by the name of average frequency rate have been won for the year, 1986-87,1990, 1992, 1994. The jagdishpur unit has got certification of ISO: 9001 on December 1993 which which certifies this unit for “Design and manufacturing of porcelain insulators, Abrasion resistant ceramic lines, and steel casing lined with ceramic liners. ” This plant has also achieved ISO: 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certification. BHEL sets up new Centralized Stamping Unit at Jagdishpur; Sh.

Rahul Gandhi, MP, dedicates the new plant to the Nation. BHEL has been committed to the nation’s power development programmed and has reaffirmed its commitment to the Indian Power Sector by equipping itself for the future, by way of technology, facilities and trained manpower to meet the country’s power forecast for the 11th Plan and beyond. For this, it has already enhanced its manufacturing capacity to 10,000 MW per annum and is further augmenting it to 15,000 MW per annum which is proceeding apace and plans are afoot to hike it further to 20,000 MW by 201112. 36 Seeking collaboration in human resource development

BHEL’s Human Resource Development Institute (HRDI) has skills in the areas of Management training, Research, Consultancy, Organizational Development and Manpower Planning. Over the years, the institute has acquired proficiency in imparting training to professionals in the field of Strategic management, Contract management, Marketing management, Project management, Human Resource management, Activity based costing, Performance management, Emotional Intelligence, Values Laboratory, Human-process Laboratory, Leadership Development, Team Building, Trainer Development, and other functional and behavioral areas of management.

The institute has acquired core competency in consultancy services specifically in the field of Contract management, Performance management, Human Resource management and Organization Development, and being an experimentation ground for innovations in Human Resource management, has set a number of benchmarks. Further, in order to enable the Human Resource Development strategies and interventions to extend more support to enhance the self-renewal capability of individuals and to optimize the use of emerging information techniques in management, initiatives have been taken to constitute three areas of excellence viz.

Business development Organization development Technology development BHEL’s Human Resource Development Institute, with its standing of a respectable center of learning, seeks collaboration in the above activities with other Management Institutes and in-house 37 Human Resource Development institutes of national and international repute with a prime objective of mutually sharing the resources and expertise for competency building in various areas by jointly conducting training programmers, seminars, workshops, conferences, consultancy, action research, case-study development and academic activities to achieve greater heights.

The main focus of such collaborative ventures would be to bridge the gaps and overcome the barriers, which are likely to emerge in the turbulent future. BHEL’s Human Resource Development Institute is extending its invitation and intends to collaborate with leading Management Institutes and in-house Human Resource Development Institutes in India and abroad to identify and work together on new frontiers of Human Resource Development. 38 S- STRENTH W- WEAKNESS O- OPPORUNITY T- THEARTS 39 SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS: ? World-wide Network ? Government Support. ? Grand Financial Sources of the Organization. Easy Availability of Labour. ? No Direct Marketing to Individuals. ? Production at large scale. ? Fewer Competitors in the Private Sector. 40 WEAKNESSES: ? Lack of Quick Availability of Raw Materials at the work place. ? High Sensitivity of some products (like insulators) ? Inherent weakness of public sector undertakings. ? Political interference. ? Remote Locations. ? Limited Capacity of Plants. OPPORTUNITIES: ? Managing Working Capital and Financial Sources. ? Managing Human Resource (Main Power). ? Expansion of Plant. ? Increasing Workers Participation in Management. ? Compete to Private Sector Firms. Provide better Quality Products to the Industry. 41 ? To enhance better work –culture. ? Increasing Net Profit. THREATS: ? Government Privatization. ? Government Intention to Create New PSOs for Power Project. Policies of Globalization and Production of ? Increasing Labour Cost (Market Price). ? Increasing Political Interference in Internal matters of Company. 42 Organizational Chart 43 44 PART 2 45 JOB SATISFACTION 46 AN OVERVIEW JOB SATISFACTION INTRODUCTION Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation. It is more if an attitude, an internal state of the person concerned.

It could, for example, be associated with a personal feeling of achievement. Job satisfaction is an individual’s emotional reaction to the job itself. It is his attitude towards his job. Definitions: “Job satisfaction does not seem to reduce absence, turnover and perhaps accident rates”. -Robert L. Kahn 47 “Job satisfaction is a general attitude towards one’s job: the difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive. ” -P. Robbins Job satisfaction defines as “The amount of over all positive affect (or feeling) that individuals have toward their jobs. ” -Hugh J. Arnold and Daniel C.

Feldman “Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If you like your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your job intensely, you will experience job dissatisfaction. ” By Andrew J DuBrins, The practice of supervision, New Delhi Job satisfaction is one part of life satisfaction. The environment influences the job. Similarly, since a job is important part of life, job satisfaction influences one’s general life satisfaction. Manager may need to monitor not only the job and immediate work environment but also their employees attitudes towards other part of life. 8 JOB FAMILY POLITICS LIFE LEISURE RELATED ELEMENT OF LIFE SATISFACTION Human life has become very complex and completed in now-a-days. In modern society the needs and requirements of the people are ever increasing and ever changing. When the people are ever increasing and ever changing, when the peoples needs are not fulfilled they become dissatisfied. Dissatisfied people are likely to contribute very little for any purpose. Job satisfaction of industrial workers us very important for the industry to function successfully.

Apart from managerial and technical aspects, employers can be considered as backbone of any industrial development. To utilize their contribution they should be provided with good working conditions to boost their job satisfaction. Any business can achieve success and peace only when the problem of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of workers are felt understood and solved, problem of efficiency absenteeism labour turnover require a social skill of understanding human problems 49 and dealing with them scientific investigation serves the purpose to solve the human problems in the industry. ) Pay. b) The work itself. c) Promotion d) The work group. e) Working condition. f) Supervision. PAY Wages do play a significant role in determining of satisfaction. Pay is instrumental in fulfilling so many needs. Money facilities the obtaining of food, shelter, and clothing and provides the means to enjoy valued leisure interest outside of work. More over, pay can serve as symbol of achievement and a source of recognition. Employees often see pay as a reflection of organization. Fringe benefits have not been found to have strong influence on job satisfaction as direct wages. THE WORK ITSELF

Along with pay, the content of the work itself plays a very major role in determining how satisfied employees are with their jobs. By and large, workers want jobs that are challenging; they do want to be doing mindless jobs day after day. The two most 50 important aspect of the work itself that influence job satisfaction are variety and control over work methods and work place. In general, job with a moderate amount of variety produce the most job satisfaction. Jobs with too little variety cause workers to feel bored and fatigue. Jobs with too much variety and stimulation cause workers to feel psychologically stressed and ‘burnout’.

PROMOTION Promotional opportunities have a moderate impact on job satisfaction. A promotion to a higher level in an organization typically involves positive changes I supervision, job content and pay. Jobs that are at the higher level of an organization usually provide workers with more freedom, more challenging work assignments and high salary. SUPERVISION Two dimensions of supervisor style: 1. Employee centered or consideration supervisors who establish a supportive personal relationship with subordinates and take a personal interest in them. . The other dimension of supervisory style influence participation in decision making, employee who participates in decision that affect their job, display a much higher level of satisfaction with supervisor an the overall work situation. WORK GROUP Having friendly and co-operative co-workers is a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The working groups also serve as a social support system of 51 employees. People often used their co-workers as sounding board for their problem of as a source of comfort. WORK CONDITION

The employees desire good working condition because they lead to greater physical comfort. The working conditions are important to employees because they can influence life outside of work. If people are require to work long hours and / or overtime, they will have very little felt for their families, friends and recreation outside work. Determinants of job satisfaction: While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind that: all individuals do no derive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job in the same job environment and at the same time.

Therefore, it appears that besides the nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus, all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job, and situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what these factors are. Individual factors: 52 Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. If their expectations are met from the jobs, they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individual’s level of education, age and other factors. Level of education:

Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example, several studies have found negative correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied. In their case, Peter’s principle which suggests that every individual tries to reach his level of incompetence, applies more quickly. Age: Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life.

Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage, gets gradually reduced, starts rising upto certain stage, and finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this. When individuals join an organization, they may have some unrealistic assumptions about what they are going to drive from their work. These assumptions make them more satisfied. However, when these assumptions fall short of reality, job satisfaction goes down. It starts rising again as the people start to assess the jobs in right perspective and correct their assumptions.

At the last, particularly at the fag end of the career, job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement and future outcome. 53 Other factors: Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction. If an individual does not have favourable social and family life, he may not feel happy at the workplace. Similarly, other personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction. Personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction. Nature of job:

Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation level and job content. Occupation level: Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels. This happens because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of satisfaction for the job holders. For example, professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people: factory workers are least satisfied. Job content: Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills for performing it, and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers.

A higher 54 content of these factors provides higher satisfaction. For example, a routine and repetitive lesser satisfaction; the degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment. Situational variables: Situational variables related to job satisfaction lie in organizational context – formal and informal. Formal organization emerges out of the interaction of individuals in the organization. Some of the important factors which affect job important factors which affect job satisfaction are given below: 1.

Working conditions: Working conditions, particularly physical work environment, like conditions of workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine job satisfaction. These work in two ways. First, these provide means job performance. Second, provision of these conditions affects the individual’s perception about the organization. If these factors are favourable, individuals experience higher level of job satisfaction. 2. Supervision: The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of supervision; the degree of importance attached to individuals varies.

In employee-oriented supervision, there is more concern for people which is perceived favourably by them and provides them more satisfaction. In job oriented supervision, there is more emphasis on the performance of the job and people become secondary. This situation decreases job satisfaction . 55 3. Equitable rewards: The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and rewards determines the degree of job satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on the job performance and equitable, it offers higher satisfaction.

If the reward is perceived to be based on considerations other than the job performance, it affects job satisfaction adversely. 4. Opportunity: It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the context of job nature and work environment by they also attach importance to opportunities for promotion that these job offer. If the present job offers opportunity of promotion is lacking, it reduces satisfaction. 6. Work group: Individuals work in group either created formally of they develop on their own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace.

To the extent such groups are cohesive; the degree of satisfaction is high. If the group is not cohesive, job satisfaction is low. In a cohesive group, people derive satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes satisfying leading to job satisfaction. Effect of Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an individual’s physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover. 56 Physical and Mental Health: The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual’s physical and mental health.

Since job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling, its favourableness or unfavourablesness affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical health. For example, Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse, alcoholism and mental and physical health result from psychologically harmful jobs. Further, since a job is an important part of life, job satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. The result is that there is spillover effect which occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction. Productivity: There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity: . A happy worker is a productive worker, 2. A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker. The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and productivity; when job satisfaction increases, productivity increases; when satisfaction 57 decreases, productivity decreases. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put more efforts for job performance. However, this may not be true in all cases. For example, a worker having low expectations from his jobs may feel satisfied but he may not put his efforts more vigorously because of his low expectations from the job.

Therefore, this view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. The another view: That is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explains the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Various research studies also support this view. This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors: effect of job performance on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for job performance. 1. Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round.

The basic factor for this phenomenon is the rewards (a source of satisfaction) attached with performance. There are two types of rewardsintrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic reward stems from the job itself which may be in the form of growth potential, challenging job, etc. The satisfaction on such a type of reward may help to increase productivity. The extrinsic reward is subject to control by management such as salary, bonus, etc. Any increase in these factors does not hep to increase productivity though these factors increase job satisfaction. 3.

A happy worker does not necessarily contribute to higher productivity because he has to operate under certain technological constraints and, therefore, he cannot 58 Extrinsic reward Perceived equity of rewards go beyond certain output. Further, this constraint affects the management’s expectations from the individual in the form of lower output. Thus, the work situation is pegged to minimally acceptable level of performance. However, it does not mean that the job satisfaction has no impact o productivity. A satisfied worker may not necessarily lead to increased productivity but a dissatisfied worker leads to lower productivity.

Performanc e Intrinsic reward THE RELATION BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION Satisfaction Absenteeism: Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of job holder from the workplace either unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due to some unavoidable reasons. It is the former type of absence which is a matter of concern. This absence is due to lack of satisfaction from the job which produces a ‘lack of will to work’ and alienate a worker form work as for as possible. Thus, job satisfaction is related to absenteeism. HIGH TURNOVER 59 JOB SATISFACTION ABSENCES LOW LOW HIGH

TURNOVER AND ABSENCES RELATIONSHIP OF JOB SATISFACTION, EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ABSENCES Employee turnover: Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organization within a given period of time. When an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization, he tries to overcome this through the various ways of defense mechanism. If he is not able to do so, he opts to leave the organization. Thus, in general case, employee turnover is related to job satisfaction. However, job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover, the other cause being better opportunity elsewhere.

For example, in the present context, the rate of turnover of computer software professionals is very high in India. However, these professionals leave their organizations 60 not simply because they are not satisfied but because of the opportunities offered from other sources particularly from foreign companies located abroad. 61 DIMENSIONS OF JOB SATIFACTION Job satisfaction is a complex concept and difficult to measure objectively. The level of job satisfaction is affected by a wide range of variables relating to individual, social, cultural, organizational factors as stated below:- DIMENSIONS INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL FACTORS

ORGANIZATIONAL FACTOR ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR CULTURAL FACTOR ? Individual:- Personality, education, intelligence and abilities, age, marital status, orientation to work. ? Social factors:-Relationship with co-workers, group working and norms, opportunities for interaction, informal relations etc. ? Organizational factors:- Nature and size, formal structure, personnel policies and procedures, industrial relation, nature of work, technology and work organization, supervision and styles of leadership, management systems, working conditions. ? Environmental factors:-Economic, social, technical and governmental influences. 62 Cultural factors:-Attitudes, beliefs and values. These factors affect job satisfaction of certain individuals in a given set of circumstances but not necessarily in others. Some workers may be satisfied with certain aspects of their work and dissatisfied with other aspects . Thus, overall degree of job satisfaction may differ from person to person. 63 IMPORTANCE TO STUDY JOB SATISFACTION The importance to the study of job satisfaction level is very important for executives. Job satisfaction study importance can be understood by the answer of the following question 1) Is there room for improvement? 2) Who is relatively more dissatisfied? ) What contributes to the employee satisfaction? 4) What are the effects of negative employee attitudes? 64 Benefits of job satisfaction study Job satisfaction surveys can produce positive, neutral or negative results. If planned properly and administered, they will usually produce a number of important benefits, such as1. It gives management an indication of general levels of satisfaction in a company. Surveys also indicate specific areas of satisfaction or dissatisfaction as compared to employee services and particular group of employee. 2. It leads to valuable communication brought by a job satisfaction survey.

Communication flow in all direction as people plan the survey, take it and discuss the result. Upward communication is especially fruitful when employee are encouraged to comment about what is on their minds instead of merely answering questions about topics important to management. 3. as a survey is safety value, an emotional release. A chance to things gets off. The survey is an intangible expression of management’s interest in employee welfare, which gives employees a reason to feel better towards management. 4. Job satisfaction surveys are a useful way to determine certain training needs. . Job satisfaction surveys are useful for identifying problem that may arise, comparing the response to several alternatives and encouraging manager to modify their original plans. Follow up surveys allows management to evaluate the actual response to a change and study its success or failure. 65 Importance to Worker and Organization Frequently, work underlies self-esteem and identity while unemployment lowers self-worth and produces anxiety. At the same time, monotonous jobs can erode a worker’s initiative and enthusiasm and can lead to absenteeism and unnecessary turnover.

Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and selfdevelopment. To the worker, job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that often leads to a positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative, flexible, innovative, and loyal. For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. Increased productivity the quantity and quality of output per hour worked seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life.

It is important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent.. Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of job loss, will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. Though fear is a powerful motivator, it is also a temporary one, and as soon as the threat is lifted performance will decline. Tangible ways in which job satisfaction benefits the organization include reduction in complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker morale.

Job satisfaction is also linked to a more healthy work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, Brown (1996) notes that some employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers, thus protecting the “bottom line. ” No wonder Andrew Carnegie is quoted as saying: “Take away my 66 people, but leave my factories, and soon grass will grow on the factory floors.

Take away my factories, but leave my people, and soon we will have a new and better factory” SATISFIED EMPLOYEE 67 Creating Job Satisfaction So, how is job satisfaction created? What are the elements of a job that create job satisfaction? Organizations can help to create job satisfaction by putting systems in place that will ensure that workers are challenged and then rewarded for being successful. Organizations that aspire to creating a work environment that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following: • • •

Flexible work arrangements, possibly including telecommuting Training and other professional growth opportunities Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to “put his or her signature” on the finished product • • • • Opportunities to use one’s talents and to be creative Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one’s own work A stable, secure work environment that includes job security/continuity An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides timely feedback as well as congenial team members • • •

Flexible benefits, such as child-care and exercise facilities Up-to-date technology Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from one worker to another and from day to day. Apart from the factors mentioned above, job satisfaction is also influenced by the employee’s personal characteristics, the manager’s personal characteristics and management style, and the nature of the work itself.

Managers who 68 want to maintain a high level of job satisfaction in the work force must try to understand the needs of each member of the work force. For example, when creating work teams, managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing people with similar backgrounds, experiences, or needs in the same workgroup. Also, managers can enhance job satisfaction by carefully matching workers with the type of work. For example, a person who does not pay attention to detail would hardly make a good inspector, and a shy worker is unlikely to be a good salesperson.

As much as possible, managers should match job tasks to employees’ personalities. Managers who are serious about the job satisfaction of workers can also take other deliberate steps to create a stimulating work environment. One such step is job enrichment. Job enrichment is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in the work itself. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction.

Good management has the potential for creating high morale, high productivity, and a sense of purpose and meaning for the organization and its employees. Empirical findings show that job characteristics such as pay, promotional opportunity, task clarity and significance, and skills utilization, as well as organizational characteristics such as commitment and relationship with supervisors and co-workers, have significant effects on job satisfaction. These job characteristics can be carefully managed to enhance job satisfaction. 69

Of course, a worker who takes some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction will probably find many more satisfying elements in the work environment. Everett (1995) suggests that employees ask themselves the following questions: • • • • • When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation? What did it look like? What aspects of the workplace were most supportive? What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying? What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation? 70 Workers’ Roles in Job Satisfaction

If job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own satisfaction and well-being on the job. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job satisfaction: • Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to more challenging work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in pay and other recognition. • Develop excellent communication skills. Employers value and reward excellent reading, listening, writing, and speaking skills. • Know more. Acquire new job-related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks ore efficiently and effectively. This will relieve boredom and often gets one noticed. • Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are valued by most organizations and often result in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and rewards. • Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job success is the ability to work well with others to get the job done. • Accept the diversity in people. Accept people with their differences and their imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively. • See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead o satisfaction with the work itself. This helps to give meaning to one’s existence, thus playing a vital role in job satisfaction. 71 • Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burnout by developing healthy stress-management techniques. 72 Assuring Job Satisfaction Assuring job satisfaction, over the longterm, requires careful planning and effort both by management and by workers. Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as Herzberg’s(1957) and Maslow’s (1943) Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a stimulating, challenging, supportive, and rewarding work environment is vital.

Because of the relative prominence of pay in the reward system, it is very important that salaries be tied to job responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance rather than seniority. So, in essence, job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience on their jobs. Brief (1998) wrote: “If a person’s work is interesting, her pay is fair, her promotional opportunities are good, her supervisor is supportive, and her coworkers are friendly, then a situational approach leads one to predict she is satisfied with her job” (p. 1). Very simply put, if the pleasures associated with one’s job outweigh the pains, there is some level of job satisfaction 73 MODEL OF JOB SATISFACTION 74 THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION Affect Theory Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e. g. he degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B.

This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory]. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction 75 tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also ndicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general selfefficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction.

Having an internallocus of control (believing one has control over herhis own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction[]. Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively.

An employee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organization goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p. 133). Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the 76 job, or the work carried out.

Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions While Hertzberg’s model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hack man & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg’s original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured. According to Herzberg following factors acts as motivators: • Achievement, • Recognition, • Advancement, • Work itself, • Possibility of growth, & • Responsibility. Hygiene factors are : 77 • Company policy & administration, • Technical supervision, • Inter-personal relations with supervisors, peers & Subordinates, • Salary. • Job security, • Personal life, • Working Conditions, & • Status. Need Fulfillment Theory :

Under the need-fulfillment theory it is believed that a person is satisfied if he gets what he wants & the more he wants something or the more important it is to him, the more satisfied he is when he gets it & the more dissatisfied he is when he does not get it. Needs may be need for personal achievement, social achievement & for influence. a) Need for personal achievement : 78 Desires for personal career development, improvement in one’s own life standards, better education & prospects for children & desire for improving one’s own work performance. ) Need for social achievement : A drive for some kind of collective success is relation to some standards of excellence. It is indexed in terms of desires to increase overall productivity, increased national prosperity, better life community & safety for everyone. c) Need for influence : A desire to influence other people & surroundings environment. In the works situation, it means to have power status & being important as reflected in initiative taking and participation in decision making.

In summary, this theory tell us that job satisfaction is a function of, or is positively related to the degree to which one’s personal & social needs are fulfilled in the job situation. Social References – Group Theory : It takes into account the point of view & opinions of the group to whom the individual looks for the guidance. Such groups are defined as the ‘reference-group’ for the individual in that they define the way in which he should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the environment (including himself).

It would be predicted, according to this theory that if a job meets the interest, desires and requirements of a person’s reference group, he will like it & if it does not, he will not like it. 79 A good example of this theory has been given by C. L. Hulin. He measures the effects of community characteristics on job satisfaction of female clerical workers employed in 300 different catalogue order offices. He found that with job conditions held constant job satisfaction was less among persons living in a well-to-do neighborhood than among those whose neighborhood was poor.

Hulin, thus provides strong evidence that such frames of reference for evaluation may be provided by one’s social groups and general social environment. 80 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY OBJECTIVES – 81 The objective of the study is to find out the satisfaction level of employee in BHEL, JAGDISHPUR. • To find that whether the employees are satisfied or not. • To analyse the company’s working environment. • To check the Degree of satisfaction of employees. • To find that they are satisfied with their job profile or not. •

To study the relationship between the personal factors of the Employee (Income, Designation, Educational qualification, Gender, etc. ,) 82 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 83 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the problem. It may be understood has a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that all generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research method. Meaning of Research

Research is defined as “a scientific & systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic”. Research is an art of scientific investigation. Research is a systemized effort to gain new knowledge. It is a careful inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is a research. RESEARCH DESIGN A research is the arrangement of the conditions for the collections and analysis of the data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.

In fact, the research is design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blue print of the collection, measurement and analysis of the data. As search the 84 design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implication to the final analysis of data. The design is such studies must be rigid and not flexible and most focus attention on the following 2; Research Design can be categorized as: TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH DESIGN DESCRIPTIVE & DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH DESIGN

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN The present study is exploratory in nature, as it seeks to discover ideas and insight to brig out new relationship. Research design is flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of problem under study. It helps in bringing into focus some inherent weakness in enterprise regarding which in depth study can be conducted by management. 85 DATA COLLECTION For any study there must be data for analysis purpose. Without data there is no means of study. Data collection plays an important role in any study.

It can be collected from various sources. I have collected the data