Before the set up of the analytical model, it is a must to analyze the correlativity between the sustainable development, new urbanism, garden metropolis construct and new town construct. So the survey can be more specific and meaningful. First it discuss about the connexion between new urbanism and sustainability. Second, it discuss the about the connexion between the sustainable development and garden metropolis construct.
For the following portion, the survey methodological analysis which includes the analytical model, informations aggregation methods and the justification for the indexs and choice of instance survey will be delivered as below. Besides, for easiness of illustration, a flow chart of the survey attack is shown in Figure 1.
Connection between new urbanism & sustainability
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This is a demand to place the relationship between the new urbanism and sustainability by analysing how to societal, economic and environmental sustainability can be achieved through the rules of new urbanism. It can be a strong mention in measuring the sustainability of New Town development in Hong Kong.
Social sustainability can see as the four elements. There are societal inclusion, societal equality, societal coherence and societal stableness.
Different land usage would be brought different lodging mix in a community. It would convey people from different background and it assist accomplish societal inclusion. Besides societal inclusion can set up harmony civilization in a community.
The low-income category can bask a comparable life environment as the rich people do. Besides the bing broad scope of lodging types can convey occupation chances ; it should guarantee hapless can acquire a occupation from it. All in all, Social equality should be achieved by guaranting an equal distribution of benefit and resources.
Social coherence is the engagement of citizens in societal life. By the creative activity of walkers friendly environment and unfastened infinite can supply topographic point for societal assemblage and promote interaction. Besides historical and cultural heritage should be good preserved. As a consequence a sense of belonging would be established.
Social stableness is critical to supply a harmoniousness environment to occupants. Urban safety is a must in advancing societal stableness. Safety can construe as low offense rate and unemployment rate.
Economic sustainability can be achieved by striking a balance between the production and the ingestion of a community. In other words, to supply a ego contained community to accomplish the economic sustainability.
For the production, the lodging mix within the town will convey different type of occupation chances, such as retails, commercial and industrial. So that the different type of people can happen a suited occupation within the town in order to hike the concern. Besides from the point of views of occupants, it can decidedly salvage transit disbursal and the commutation clip.
For the ingestion, most likely, as the new town have a distance to the metropolis Centre. It should supply shopping installations for the occupants. It increases the ingestion and boosts the economic system of the new town.
Government besides plays a dominant and of import function when sing the sustainability of a new town. For illustration, plan a threshold population to back up the economic feasibleness of the public theodolite system. Besides authorities should supply different supports to hike the concern environment and chances.
Environmental sustainability could be achieved by environmental protection, resources preservation. A good planned new town can to the full use and efficaciously utilize the land and can forestall urban conurbation and protect environmentally vulnerable country. For illustration, by supplying sufficient green belt can supply more unfastened infinites for recreational land usage.
On the other manus, it can besides advance resources conversation. High denseness development is the characteristic of new town development. High denseness of development favours the public conveyance system. By the debut of environmentally friendly conveyance can decidedly diminish and command air pollution. Besides a good planned public conveyance system can promote occupants to cut down the usage of private auto, consequence in conserving resources cut down dodos fuel ingestion.
Furthermore, with a different types of land us within new town, people can run into their demands within new town. They did non necessitate to go to the metropolis Centre. It is decrease the commutation clip. Besides, it encourages cycling and walking within the town, so that it can accomplish the environmental sustainability.
Connection between Sustainable Development & Garden City Concept
As said, fundamentally, sustainable development means to run into the demands of nowadays without consisting the ability of the hereafters coevalss to run into their ain demands and accomplish the balance in the environment, economic system and society. On the other manus, garden metropolis is the beginning of new town construct ; its aims are self-contained and balanced development. With the aims of garden metropolis construct, it should concern with the three countries. In this chapter, it will province out the connexion between the sustainable development and garden metropolis construct.
For societal sustainability, it chiefly deals with the issues of societal life and sufficient community installations to keep a self-contained community.
For community installations, as discuss, garden metropolis construct concern about the sufficiency of community installations, infirmaries, constabulary station and fire Stationss, to keep to self-contained community. On the other manus, sufficient community installations can heighten the societal sustainability of new town.
The end of garden metropolis is to develop a balanced town in the facet of economic, societal and environment. The proviso of green belt as an border is utile in supplying a high criterion life environment. Furthermore, the original end of new town is to supply a self-contained community and balanced development. So that occupants can bask higher populating standard. On the other manus, sustainable development negotiations about the quality of life which the construct is similar to new town construct and garden metropolis construct.
Harmonizing to Garden City Concept, it proposes production and ingestion should be in the same topographic point. Besides, by be aftering different types of land usage within the town, for illustration, commercial land usage ; it can supply different employment chances to local occupants. It can heighten the economic sustainability and carry through the end of self-containment.
Harmonizing to the theoretical account of Garden City, it clearly shows the form, sequence and location of different land utilizations. Community installations are located at the chiseled town centre. It can move as a focal point of the community and it can heighten a strong sense of belonging.
Besides, harmonizing to the garden metropolis construct, it stated the bound of maximal population. Therefore, this can hold better resources allotment.
For garden metropolis construct, it concerned the life environment to the rural countries. For the new town in Hong Kong, there are many environment steps to command the air pollution, noise pollution and H2O pollution and supply a better life environment.
For the sustainable development, all the environment protections should be done in order to supply a pleasant environment for our following coevals.
For the garden metropolis construct, the border of the town is surrounded by a green belt. For the new town, saving of green belt and natural environment are besides the major issue, there are plentifulness of green belt and besides organize an border for some of the new towns. It can supply a pleasant and harmony environment.
For the garden metropolis construct, it is suggested that the town should be linked with the railroad web. Besides pathway and bike way are well-planned to associate up within the town. For the new town, it besides suggests that the usage of rail-based development, environmental-friendly conveyance for illustration, bikes, so that it can cut down the usage of energy ingestion, heighten the environmental sustainability.
The outgrowth of garden metropolis construct, new urbanism and sustainable development are indispensable to supply better life environment. After the survey of these constructs, the analytical model can be set to measure the sustainability of new town development in Hong Kong.
Given the significance of new town constructs and popularity of new town, in the first portion of the survey, literature reappraisal about sustainability, new town construct and the Principles of New Urbanism will be by and large reviewed.
In the 2nd portion of the survey, new town development in Hong Kong will be illustrated under the same model used in the old portion. For put to deathing a utile rating, a full and clear statement of standards is a must. In order to explicate a typical set of rating standards for new town public presentation in Hong Kong, the pertinence of the rating standards will be based on the Principles of New Urbanism, Hong Kong Planning Standards & A ; Guidelines, and the SUSDEV 21 Indexs. By utilizing the three different criterions, the more accurate and convincing rating can be found. In regard of each identified standard, appropriate measuring yardsticks will besides be determined for bespeaking new town public presentation.
In the 3rd portion of the survey, the public presentation of the selected instance, Tai Po, will be evaluated. Tai Po New Town will be analyzed in two degrees. They are the major degree and the micro degree. The rating consequences will exemplify the extent of new towns in accomplishing the aims. Last, recommendation will be given to acquire better be aftering to NDAs.
Evaluation criteria and evaluation indexes
By and large, the aim of this survey is to reexamine the sustainability of new town development in Tai. Po. After the literature reappraisal on the old new town plan in Hong Kong, I do believe physical planning is the most cardinal portion and give birth to the development of new town. So to transport out a utile research, it is meaningful to transport out a survey chiefly concentrate on the planning issues.
In order to transport out meaningful survey, foremost, it is a must to place all the cardinal issues. Second, from the cardinal issues, it should be able to abstract some indexs from the cardinal issues. Third, the standards should be comprehensive, utile and have supportive grounds to demo the direct linkage between the indexs and standards.
After the literature reappraisal, I would wish to utilize the measurement theoretical account that set up by Kan ( 2008 ) as a base. The ground that I choose her theoretical account is that her theoretical account is base on the rules of new urbanism. In her theoretical account, she summarizes all the cardinal points from each degree and identifies all the cardinal issues and put indexs to mensurate it. This is rather similar to my preliminary planning, as I would wish to analyze the sustainability in the position of physical planning.
Furthermore, in order to transport out a more comprehensive survey, base on Kan 's theoretical account, Hong Kong Planning Standards & A ; Guidelines ( HKPSG ) , 2030 Evaluation Criteria, SUSDEV 21 Indicators will function as a mention and criterion to modify some indexs and standards.
Environmental friendly transport measures
- Number of Stations Provided.
- At least one station should be provided for each major vicinity in every new town to let 10-minutes walking trip.
- Resident 's Satisfaction Towards Fares of Public Transit.
- The higher the occupants ' satisfaction towards the menus of public theodolite, the most sustainable it is.
- Time Required to Travel to City Centre.
- The shorter the clip required to go to the metropolis Centre, the more sustainable it is.
High density development
- Domestic Plot Ratio.A maximal domestic secret plan ratio of 5 should be applied for any new town development in Hong Kong.
- Residents ' Satisfaction Towards Built Form and Quality of the Environment.The higher satisfaction towards built signifier and quality of the environment, the more sustainable it is.
- Areas that Zoned Under ''Green Belt ''.Around 25 % to 40 % of the land within a New Town should be zoned for environmental preservation that needs to accomplish environmental sustainability. Around 10 % to 15 % of the land within a new town should be zoned for recreational and leisure chase that needs to accomplish environmental and societal sustainability
- Presence of Town Centre. A town Centre that can run into occupants ' day-to-day necessities demands should be provided.
- Presence of Edge. Manmade barriers and natural barriers should be provided to make a well defined border.
Walkable and cyclable environment
- User Friendly Cycling Paths and Bicycle Parking Areas.The higher the use of bike waies and bike parking countries per hebdomad, the more sustainable it is.
- Connectivity Between Residential Estates and Neighbourhood Centre.
- Presence of uninterrupted prosaic pavements and prosaic crossings.
- Presence of Bridges and metros.
- Ratio of Population and Housing Mix.
- A 50:50 split between private and public lodging should be adopted to develop a sustainable new town.
- Types and Areas of Open Spaces Provided.
- Green unfastened infinite within residential estates should be provided.
- Types of Activities and Services Offered.
Social, educational, retail, medical, cultural and transit activities should be provided within the vicinity. Residents ' Satisfaction Towards Mix of Activities Provided. The higher the occupants ' satisfaction degree towards the mix of activities the vicinity, the more sustainable it is. Walk-to Time and Distance to Transit Stations and Major Shopping Centres. Walking clip should be within 10 proceedings to let easy walking. Walking distance should be within 1000m to let easy walking
Justifications of selected New Town
Recent old ages, there are several papers or theses related to the rating of first and 3rd coevals of new town. They are normally making the comparing between the first coevals and the 3rd coevals of new town. In no uncertainty, this is good to hold such theses with the end of doing betterment planning in the hereafter.
On the other manus, the clip spread between first and 2nd coevals is comparatively short comparison with others, so it finds that the 2nd coevals of new towns is ever being ignored. There is a deficiency of comprehensive theses to mensurate or reexamine the 2nd coevals of new towns.
In order to acquire an overall reappraisal of different coevals of new towns, so that it can complement with other bing rating of new town development between the first and the 3rd coevals. Therefore, it is a must to hold a deep rating of the 2nd coevals of new town.
Tai Po is the 2nd coevals of new town. Tai PO New Town, covers a development country of about 2898 hectares for current population of 292 600, is the biggest graduated table along the 2nd coevals of new town ( Civil Engineering and Development Department, 2009 ) . With such sort of graduated table of development, it is utile to carry on an rating in it.
Data aggregation can be divided into two parts. They are the primary informations and secondary informations.
Site Visits will be conducted in Tai Po New Town to roll up the primary informations. Besides photos will be taken for a clearer account.
Surveies will be conducted to obtain occupant 's sentiment about the sustainability of their living topographic point. Surveies were carried out on 15th-17th February 2010 from 12p.m to 6p.m. the entire sample size is 100 occupants which live in Fu Ming Sun. A questionnaire has been set for this specific study activity .
Supplying an alternate beginning to carry on the qualitative information, a societal worker who works in Tai Po Community Center will be interviewed. To specify the range of survey, the desktop researches chiefly come from the books, diaries from library.
To explicate the rating standards and rating of the new town, informations from Outline Zoning Plans, the authorities planning papers and paper, Census and Statistics.
The methodological analysis can acquire a comprehensive reappraisal of the selected new town.
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