chapter 33

Cecil Rhodes
monopolized diamond mining in south Africa, was active in the gold mining business, served as prime minister of the British Cape Colony, and led the movement to enlarge the colony by absorbing nearby territories.
Which of the following was not an economic motivation for imperialism?
Coal was not among the items colonies supplied to Europe and the United States.
The “white man’s burden” proposed by Rudyard Kipling refers to
Kipling defined the “White Man’s Burden” as the duty of European and Euro-American peoples to bring order and enlightenment to distant lands
All of the following improved communication between India and Britain except
It was the completion of the Suez Canal, not the Panama, that helped to improve communications between India and Britain.
The Battle of Omdurman clearly demonstrated that
Incorrect. In five hours of fighting, the British lost 368 men but, using modern weapons, they killed about 11,000 Sudanese.
The Mughal dynasty fell primarily because
The East India Company established powerful coastal trading forts that it used as bases of operation for accessing interior regions once the Mughal dynasty began to weaken. When the Sepoys failed in their revolt, India became subject to British royal authority.
Under British imperial rule, India was governed
A viceroy represented British royal authority in India and administered the colony through an elite Indian civil service staffed almost exclusively by the English, with Indians serving in low-level bureaucratic positions.
One social goal of the British authorities in India was to
The British suppressed Indian customs that conflicted with European laws or values. Most prominent among these was sati, the custom of burning widows with their husbands’ bodies.
Unlike the British in India, the French in Indochina
Unlike the British in India, the French in Indochina encouraged indigenous peoples to convert to Christianity, with the result that Roman Catholicism became prominent throughout Indochina, especially Vietnam.
The colonization of the Belgian Congo is noted for
Working conditions in the Congo Free State were so brutal and abuses so many that humanitarians protested Leopold’s colonial regime. Predatory rule culminated in the death of four to eight million Africans.
The term “Great Game” refers to
In the nineteenth century, Russians undertook a systematic effort to extend their influence and authority south of the Caucasus, as did the British. British agents referred to this as the “Great Game.”
The Berlin Conference in 1884-1885 established
The Berlin Conference produced agreement that any European state could establish colonies in Africa, after notifying other states of their intent, and occupying previously unclaimed territory.
Why had most European governments abandoned concessionary companies in Africa by the early twentieth century?
Most European governments abandoned concessionary companies in Africa because the brutality with which companies used forced African labor provoked a public outcry in Europe.
One striking difference between the British and the French imperial models in Africa is that
Unlike the French, the British preferred systems of indirect rule, which featured the use of indigenous institutions to control subject populations
Which of the following is not true about the settlement of Australia?
Migrants to Australia were mostly British; Australia did not draw settlers from all over the Pacific.
The scramble for Pacific island colonies in the late nineteenth century was motivated by
European countries wanted to establish strategic ports and refueling stations in the Pacific Ocean, and they also desired tropical products of that region, e.g., sugar, dried coconut, nickel, and guano.
Panama was supported in its uprising against Colombia by U.S. president
Under President Theodore Roosevelt, an enthusiastic champion of imperial expansion, the United States supported a rebellion against Columbia in 1903 and helped rebels establish the breakaway state of Panama.
The United States acquired Hawai’i by
A group of planters and businesspeople overthrew Lili’uokalani, and invited the United States to annex the islands, after which they became U.S. possessions in 1898.
Japanese imperial expansion in the late nineteenth century was primarily motivated by
Japanese leaders strove to join the ranks of imperial powers in the late nineteenth century because they deeply resented the unequal treaties that the United States and European powers had forced them to accept in the 1860s.
Which of the following would not be typical of labor migration patterns in the age of empire?
German migrants would not have gone to the Congo, as the typical pattern was for European migrants to go to temperate lands, where they worked as free cultivators or industrial laborers. By contrast, migrants from Asia, Africa, and the Pacific islands moved largely to tropical and subtropical lands where they worked in mines, on plantations, or as construction workers.
British rule undermined the Indian cotton industry by
The British encouraged cultivators to produce cotton for export, and allowed the import of inexpensive British textiles, which undermined Indian cotton cloth production. These policies transformed India from the world’s principal center of cotton manufacture to a supplier of raw cotton and a consumer of textiles produced in Britain.
Colonial rule dramatically altered the environment in which of the following places?
Tea plantations in India and Ceylon, and rubber tree plantations in Malaya and Sumatra, transformed the landscape in each of these places.
Proponents of “scientific racism” argued that
Proponents of “scientific racism” believed that race could be biologically defined and characterized, and they used Darwin’s theories to justify European dominance of non-European peoples, whom they regarded as morally and racially inferior.
Pressure for reform in British India came from
Indian elites who had often been educated at British universities, helped to forge a sense of Indian identity and drew inspiration from European Enlightenment values as they sought Indian self-rule.