Chapter 2 AP World History Summery Each civilization faces challenges from politics to environment and everything in between. This chapter explains how each society became urbanized even though it was very tough. Nubia, China, Olmec, and Chavin are connected though each are separated by millions of miles and geological isolation. In China, dynasties rule all over the land; the Shang dynasty begins China’s history with the rise of power of it’s clans. It contains the earliest recorded writing documents, and they introduced bronze during 2000 B.
C. E. The region was ran by a warrior aristocracy who loved warfare, hunting, exchanging, feasting, and wine revelry; the King of Shang always traveled for courts of his subordinates to reinforce their loyalty. Nomadic people that owned desert regions, or steppe lands were given demonstration power also. Religion in the Shang dynasty was enforced, the Kings used divination to determine the will of their ancestors and Gods to win favor. Nubia is located in the Nile River Valley and was over run by the Egyptians because of they have gold mines.
After Egypt took charge, Nubia became Kush and adapted the Egyptian culture. Nubia decided to help local Palestine who struggled with the Assyrians in 701 B. C. E. ; this was a mistake because the Assyrians invaded and overthrown Egypt so that made a downfall for Nubia. After a while, Nubia became in control again, they still kept the Egyptian language, however Sub-Saharan culture replaced the Egyptian culture when Meroe became better suited for agriculture and trade. On the other side of the world, the Olmec civilization is completely isolated from the world.
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It’s located in Mesoamerica which is one of the most impressive early civilizations. The King’s Power was used to make people build large scale irrigation and drainage works, and by the 1000 B. C. E, they have become a civilization. In addition to the geological isolation, Olmec have frequent volcanic eruptions and earth quakes, and mountains that separate the region into micro environments. Evolution developed into urbanization and appearance of powerful political and religious elites. The people were very advanced for their time; they made he calendar and based their urban centers to reflect astronomical observations. The Olmec civilization influenced the Mayans and considered the most influential earliest Mesoamerican civilization. The most impressive early Urban South American civilization is Chavin. It’s home to the most dense population. Maize increased the food supply of the coast and interior foothills, thus, allowing greater leverage for civilization. They have a form of political integration and trade dependency on it’s neighbors that may have relied on military force.
Their religion was based on praising their royal ancestors and gods that can take on animal form. The most praised animal is the Jaguar; human sacrifices were made at temple platforms. These civilizations became very complex as they advance with technologies, science, and math mathematics. Power was taken away, and given to in each society, and some are diminishing before us. They may be separated and isolated from each other by mountains, water, and hemispheres, but that doesn't separate the development of each economic institutions politically, socially, and economically.
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