Tarek Sahyoun AP World History Unit 3 Vocabulary * Bedouins are pretty much the stereotypical Arabs because of their culture based on herding camels and goats * I would have liked to be a Shaykh if I lived in a Bedouin society because they usually possessed large herds. * It is a Muslim practice to pray toward the city of Mecca. * I was surprised to hear that Muhammad's flight to Medina began the Muslim calendar. * The Umayyad clan dominated Mecca, and later became a Muslim dynasty. * Muhammad is the prophet that started the religion of Islam, which even today is a major religion. My grandmother reads the Qur'an in her free time. * If one is Muslim, one must always have faith in the Umma. * Muslims must pay zakat to the mosques to allow them to keep functioning. * The Five Pillars are the set of rules that all Muslims must follow. * Caliphs were doubted by many because they took the place of Muhammad although there were no official procedures to have someone follow the prophet. * Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. * Abu Bakr had the privilege of succeeding Muhammad as the first caliph. * The Ridda Wars following Muhammad's death restored the unity of Islam. Jihad was the Islamic holy war. * Mu'awiya was the first Umayyad caliph and had a capital was Damascus * Today, Sunnis make up most of the Muslim population. * Today, Shia’s make up the minority of the Muslim population * Mawali people had many restrictions, although they were granted the right convert to Islam. * Dhimmis were known as "the people of the book" who originally included the Jews and the Christians. * The Abbasids dynasty succeeded the Umayyads after a long rivalry had ended. * Hadiths are “traditions" of the prophet Muhammad Wazir was the chief administrative official under the Abbasids * Dhows were used by Arab merchants, and helped them be very successful in quick trade. * The Ayan was the wealthy landed elite that emerged under the Abbasids * Al-Mahdi failed to reconcile Shi'a moderates to his dynasty and to resolve the succession problem. * Harun al-Rashid was the most famous of the Abbasid caliphs * Buyids were Persian invaders of the 10th century that captured Baghdad * The Seljuk Turks were nomadic invaders from central Asia * There have been several accounts of Crusades in history of the world. Salah-ud-Din reconquered most of the crusader kingdoms. * Ibn Khaldun was a great Muslim historian * Al-Razi was a scientist who was incorrect, and classified all matter as animal, vegetable, and mineral. * Al-Biruni –was an advanced scientist who calculated the specific weight of major minerals. * The Ulama was made up of Islamic religious scholars. * Al-Ghazali was a brilliant Islamic theologian * Sufis were Islamic mystics, and spread Islam to many Afro-Asian regions. * Mongols were central Asian nomadic peoples, and later had one of the largest empires in the world. Chinggis Khan was a Mongol ruler, who would later play a large role in the history of the Mongols. * Mamluks were rulers of Egypt who descended from Turkish slaves * Muhammad ibn Qasim is respected because he was once the Arab general who conquered Sind and made it part of the Umayyad Empire * Although they are Arabic numerals, they are actually Indian. * Mahmud of Ghazni was ruler of an Afghan dynasty. * Muhammad of Ghur was a Persian ruler of a small Afghan kingdom. * Sati was a very cruel way of dying, for widowed women had to be burned with their deceased husbands. Bhaktic cults were Hindu religious groups who stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the gods or goddesses. * Kabir was Muslim mystic who played down the differences between Hinduism and Islam * Shrivijaya was the trading empire based on the Malacca straits * Malacca was a flourishing trading city in Malaya that was established a trading empire after the fall of Shrivijaya. * Demak was most powerful of the trading states on the north Java coast. Stateless societies -societies of varying sizes organized through kingship and lacking the concentration of power found in centralized states * Maghrib is the Arabic term for northwestern Africa * The Almoravids built an empire reaching from the African savanna into Spain * The Almohadis built an empire reaching from the African savanna into Spain * Ethiopia is a Christian kingdom in the highlands of eastern Africa * Sahel is the term for the extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara. Sudanic states are states trading with north Africa and mixing Islamic and indigenous ways * Mali is a state of the Malinke people centered between the Senegal and Niger rivers * Juula were Malinke merchants who traded throughout the Mali Empire and west Africa * Mansa was title of the ruler of Mali * Ibn Batuta was an Arab traveler throughout the Muslim world * Kankan Musa was legendary because of the wealth distributed along the way on a pilgrimage to Mecca. * Sundiata created a unified state that became the Mali Empire. * Songhay was the successor state to Mali. * Hausa states combined Islamic and indigenous beliefs. East African trading ports were urbanized commercial centers mixing African and Arab cultures. * Demographic transition is the term for the change from slow to rapid population growth. * Nok was the central Nigerian culture with a highly developed art style. * Yoruba was a highly urbanized Nigerian agriculturists organized into small city-states. * Luba peoples created a form of divine kingship where the ruler had powers ensuring fertility of people and crops. * Great Zimbabwe incorporated the greatest early buildings in sub-Saharan Africa * Justinian was a Byzantine emperor who failed to reconquer the western portions of the empire. The Body of Civil Law was the emperor Justinian's codification of Roman law. * The Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water was known as Greek fire. * Icons are images of religious figures venerated by Byzantine Christians. * Iconoclasm was the action of breaking of icons. * Manzikert was the Seljuk Turk victory which resulted in loss of the empire's rich Anatolian territory * Cyril and Methodius were Byzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and Balkans. * Kiev was a commercial city in Ukraine established by Scandinavians. Rurik is regarded as founder of Kievan Rus' in 855. * Vladmir I was a ruler of Kiev that converted kingdom to Orthodox Christianity. * Russian Orthodoxy was a Russian form of Christianity brought from Byzantine Empire. * Yaroslav was the last great Kievan monarch. * Boyars were Russian land-holding aristocrats. * Tatars were Mongols who conquered Russian cities. * The Middle Ages is known as the period in western European history between the fall of Roman Empire and the 15th century. * Gothic architecture is an architectural style developed in Western Europe. Vikings were seagoing Scandinavian raiders who disrupted coastal areas of Europe. * Manorialism was a rural system of reciprocal relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages. * Serfs were peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system. * The three-field system was the practice of dividing land into thirds, rotating between two different crops and pasturage. * Clovis was a king of the Franks. * The Carolingians was royal house of Franks. * Charles Martel was the first Carolingian king of the Franks. * Charlemagne was a Carolingian monarch who established large empire in France and Germany. Holy Roman emperors were political heirs to Charlemagne's empire in northern Italy and Germany. * Feudalism was a personal relationship during the Middle Ages by which greater lords provided land to lesser lords in return for military service. * Vassals were members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty. * The Capetians were a French dynasty. * William the Conqueror invaded England from Normandy. * The Magna Carta represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy, and the supremacy of law. Parliaments are bodies representing privileged groups. * The Hundred Years War was a major conflict between England and France. * Pope Urban II organized the first Crusade in 1095. * Investiture is the practice of appointment of bishops * St. Clare of Assisi is the founder of a woman's monastic order * Gregory VII is a pope who attempted to free church from secular control; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture of bishops * Thomas Aquinas was a creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning. Scholasticism is a dominant medieval philosophical approach. * Troubadours gave a new value to the emotion of love in Western tradition. * The Hanseatic League was an organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance * Jacques Coeur’s career as banker to the French monarchy demonstrates new course of medieval commerce * Guilds stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeships, guaranteed good workmanship; held a privileged place in cities * The Black Death significantly reduced Europe's population. Columbus referred to the Native Americans as Indians. * Toltecs established capital at Tula following migration into central Mesoamerican plateau; strongly militaristic ethic, including cult of human sacrifice. * Aztecs also known as the Mexica established a large empire. * Tenochtitlan became center of Aztec power. * Calpulli were clans in Aztec society. * I think it would be pretty cool to work on a Chinampa. * Pochteca specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items. Inca socialism was an interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia * The Inca was a group of clans centered at Cuzco. * Pachacuti began the military campaign that marked the creation of an Inca empire * Huayna Capac brought the empire to its greatest extent * Split inheritance is an Inca practice of ruler descent * Curacas were local rulers who the Inca left in office in return for loyalty. * Tambos were supply centers for Inca armies Quipu -system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records * Period of the Six Dynasties -era of continuous warfare (220-589) among the many kingdoms that followed the fall of the Han * Wendi -member of prominent northern Chinese family during the era of Six Dynasties; established Sui dynasty in 589, with support from northern nomadic peoples * Li Yuan -Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over the empire after the assassination of Yangdi; 1st Tang ruler * Ministry of Public Rites -administered the examinations for state office during the Tang dynasty * Jinshi -title given students who passed the most difficult examinations; became eligible for high office * Chan Buddhism -call Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite * Mahayana (Pure Land) Buddhism -emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among the masses * Wuzong -Tang emperor (841-847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and reduced influence of Buddhism in favor of Confucianism * Khitan nomads -founded Liao dynasty of Manchuria in 907; remained a threat to Song; very much influenced by Chinese culture * Zhao Kuangyin -general who founded Song dynasty; took royal name of Taizu * Zhu Xi -most prominent Neo-Confucian scholar during the Song dynasty; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life * Wang Anshi -Confucian scholar and chief minister of a Song ruler in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms based on Legalism; advocated greater state intervention in society * Southern Song -smaller surviving dynasty (1127-1279); presided over one of the greatest cultural reigns in world history * Jurchens -founders of Jin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of Yellow River basin and forces Song to flee south * Grand Canal -great canal system begun by Yangdi; joined Yellow River region to the Yangtze basin * Junks -Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula * Flying money -Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; reduced danger of robbery; an early form of currency * Footbinding -male imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to educe size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household * Bi Sheng -11th c artisan; devised technique of printing with movable type; made it possible for China to be the most contemporary literate civilziation * Taika reforms -attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army * Fujiwara -mid-9th c Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power * Bushi -regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies * Samurai -mounted troops of the bushi; loyal to local lords, not the emperor * Seppuku -ritual suicide in Japan; also known as hari-kiri; demonstrated courage and was a means to restore family honor * Gumpei wars -waged for five years from 1180 on Honshu between the Taira and Minamoto families; ended in destruction of Taira * Bakufu -military government established by the Minamoto following Gumpei wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai * Shoguns -military leaders of the bakufu Hojo -a warrior family closely allied with the Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; ruled in name of emperor * Ashikaga Takuaji -member of Minamoto family; overthrew KamaKura regime and established Ashikaga shogunate (1336-1573); drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino * Daimyos -warlord rulers of small states following Onin war and disruption of Ashikaga shogunate; holding consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states * Choson -earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han in 109 BCE * Koguryo -tribal people of northern Korea; established an independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification * Sinification -extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions * Yi -dynasty (1392-1910); succeeded Koryo dynasty after Mongol invasions; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence * Trung Sisters -leaders of a rebellion in Vietnam against Chinese rule in 39 CE; demonstrates importance of women in Vietnamese society * Khmers and Chams -Indianized Vietnamese peoples defeated by northern government at Hanoi * Nguyen -southern Vietnamese dynasty with capital at Hue that hallenged northern Trinh dynasty with center at Hanoi * Chinggis Khan -born in 1170s; elected supreme Mongol ruler (khagan) in 1206; began the Mongols rise to world power; died 1227 * Tumens -basic fighting units of Mongol forces; made up of 10,000 cavalrymen divided into smaller units * Tangut -rulers of Xi-Xia kingdom of northwest China; during the southern Song period; conquered by Mongols in 1226 * Shamanistic religion -Mongol beliefs focused on nature spirits * Batu -grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of Golden Horde; invaded Russian in 1236 * Golden Horde -one of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after death of Chinggis Khan; conquered and ruled Russua during the 13th and 14th c * Prester John -a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom supposedly had been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; some thought he was Chinggis Khan * Ilkhan khanate -one of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol empire after the death of Chinggis Khan; eventually included much of Abbasid empire * Hulegu -grandson of Chinggis Khan and rule of Ilkhan khanate; captured and destroyed Abbasid Baghdad * Mamluks -Muslim slave warriors; established dynasty in Egypt; led by Baibars defeated Mongols in 1260 * Kubilai Khan -grandson of Chinggis Khan; conquered China; established Yuan dynasty in 1271 * Chabi -influential wife of Kubilai Khan; demonstrated refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Confucian China * Nestorians -Asian Christian sect; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions * White Lotus Society -secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty * Ju Yuanzhang -Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan; founded Ming dynasty * Timur-i-Lang -last major nomad leader; 14th c, known to the West as Tamerlane; Turkic ruler of Samarkand; launched attacks in Persia, Fertile Crescent, India, southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405 * Ottoman Empire -Turkish empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending through the Middle East and the Balkans; conquered Constantinople in 1453 and ended Byzantine Empire * Ming Dynasty -replaced Mongal Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted large trade expeditions to southern Asia and Africa; later concentrated on internal development within China * Zheng He -Muslim Chinese seaman; commanded expeditions throughout the Indian Ocean * Renaissance -cultural and political elite movement beginning in Italy circa 1400; rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; produced iterature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the European Middle Ages * Portugal, Castile, and Aragon -regional Iberian kingdoms; participated in reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda * Vivaldi brothers -Genoese explorers who attempted to find a western route to the "Indies"; precursors of European thrust into southern Atlantic * Henry the Navigator -Portuguese prince; sponsored Atlantic voyages; reflected the forces present in last postclassical Europe * Ethnocentrism -judging foreigners by the standards of one's own group; leads to problems in interpreting world history
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