| CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT| | | | ASHWINI RENGASWAMYINDEX NO – L0267KDKD0611JUN MSc 1 Hospitality & Tourism A| INDEX Introduction ………………………………………………………………Page 2 Career …………………………………………………………………... Page 3 Career Planning …………………………………………………………Page 4 Career Development ……………………………………………………Page 5 Dual Career Couples ……………………………………………………Page 8 Dual Career Couples Large Companies ………………………………. Page 10 Dual Career Couples Small Companies ……………………………….
Page 14 Ways of Small Companies Retaing Employees ………………………Page 15 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………. Page 16 References ……………………………………………………………. Page 17 INTRODUCTION Human resource is the nerve center of any organization which helps to achieve its objectives & goals. When analyzing globally managing human resource is a dynamic and challenging task of an organization. Although human resource is a popular term there is no definition defined worldwide.
Watson (2002:3) says “In its broader sense Human resource management can be used as a generic term to describe any approach to managing people. ” Boxall & Purcell (2003:1) say “All those activities associating with the management of the employment relationship in the organization. ” A philosophy based on managing people on the belief that human resources utmost necessary to retain the business success. An establishment obtains advantage by utilizing its people effectively. Drawing on their competence and adroitness to meet distinct objectives.
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Human resource management is focused at recruiting confident, adjustable and dedicated people, managing and honoring their performance and advancing competencies. Human resource development is a strategic advent to analyzing in human capital. It has an impact on other human resource formations, including resourcing and executes assessment to recognize actual and conceivable apatite. Human resource development delivers a frame work for self-establishment training programs and professional progression to meet an establishment’s future aptitude necessity.
Goal of Human resource management is to optimize the effectiveness of the employee by gradually up grading the career life of the workers and interacting them as the most precious resource to increase the productivity of the organization There is one successful way for an establishment’s human resource problems “enlightened, advanced, people first, more performance or more commitment, labor tactics to be practiced in companies. Best practices of Human Resource Management * Managers must pay more attention towards Human resource issues. The consideration of human resourcing are parts of strategic level deliberations. * More encouragement being given to the employees helps more productivity which results to the establishment’s constant improvement. * Employees show a liking towards improving their own skills to come through self-advancement and flexibility. CAREER Wilensky (1961) says; “Let us define career in structural terms. A career is a succession of related jobs arranged in a monarchy of prestige, through which persons move in an ordered sequence” (p. 23) This tells us that career has a particular way in which a person should proceed in order to achieve his vision and goals. Career is the journey towards an ultimate destination. There is a view amongst the people that career has changed from olden days organizational structure to the modern way which is based on the skills, knowledge and integration of people. Baruch (2002) presents a list of career management practices in order of the level of implementation which an earlier survey found out.
There are advertising international career opportunities, professional education as a part of career advancement, performance appraisals as an important tool for career planning, career conselling by your immediate manager or Human resource management department, recruitment programs, succession planning, mentoring, common career path, dual ladder, books on career problems, written personal career, assessment centers, 360 degree appraisals, career workshops, introduction, special programs, example: for high flyers, creating psychological contracts and secondment.
Effective career management should adhere to a number of principles. Consistency and coherency within organizations in messages about what career and career management is, proactively collaboration between employer and employee and dynamism. Goals of career management process must be explicit and that this will be most easily achieved if there is a limited number of compliable interventions. CAREER DECISION POINT International Assignment Predeparture Training Reassignment Recruiting & Selecting Exit Organization Predeparture Training Deselecting Parent Repatriation CAREER PLANNING
Career planning which is for an individual life time, a decision that has to be made life long, which includes choosing of occupation, seeking a job, progress in the job, career transition and eventual recruitment. It’s also for an individual to set goals for himself and achieve them. This helps a person to evaluate their abilities and interests. The outcome of this should be one of the following; * Developing talent effectively and efficiently. * Giving opportunities to employees for self-appraisal Career planning is built out of three components self-assessment, choosing the work of your choice and recognizing the suitable career.
CAREER DEVELOPMENT As individuals everyone is interested in their own career, it’s very unlikely that a person will spend more years with a single employer, especially when their work life begins. Due to this career development is the responsibility of the employer. Most people like to move to new areas of work due to better opportunities, chances of working with particular people and commuting time. As a result of this employers must analysis what is offered by the other employers and ensuring that employees appreciate what they are been given.
A method used to retain and establish a large group of employees with international experience is through giving them short term development assignments which will be for a few months and there onwards to a few years. (Example 1) Swedish – Swiss conglomerate ABB A multinational company have carried on the practices of developing a small carder of international employees rather than internationalizing everyone. (Example 2) Aitken Spence Hotels & Resorts (A reputed chain hotel in Sri Lanka which has its own hotel in Maldives, India & Oman)
In this organization the Assistant Vice president Mr. Sarriff o’deen conducts a meeting once in three months for the entire Management of each hotel individually to explain the company’s strategies & the Employee benefits, the last meeting was held on the 12 June at heritance Ahungalle (Example 3) Mas Holdings Pvt. Ltd. (South Asia’s biggest apparel manufacturer) The company sends a limited number of staff to a University in India to educate them in the clothing technology and in order to implement the knowledge in their local company. Example 4) Mas Holdings Pvt. Ltd. Mas Career Development center in Sri Lanka at Ambepussa, a center for staff working for Sri Lanka Mas Holdings to train and develop themselves. (Example 5) Mas Holdings Pvt. Ltd. Mr. Vithanaarachchi, who joined as a weaving supervisor rose through up to the position of Manager. As recognition of his work the company sponsored him to study Narrow Fabric technology in University of Derbyshire This reviews your work history and the key factors psychological, sociological and economical which influence the career choice.
Creating an improved approach to employee development by recognizing individual’s needs and responding for a satisfactory and rewarded career is the goal of career service. Career development is guiding people in order for them to reach where they want to be and where the organization wants them to be. Providing career development helps the organization increase the chances of their work force being willing and ready to serve the organization for the betterment of both parties. Career development creates opportunities for employees meet current as well as future business needs through professional interest and capability. Example 6) Kellogg’s Non-productive staff are requested to fill are form which gives details of employee’s career, biographical information, work experience, and development plans. This is filed in the employee’s profile which gives an overview of the employee’s current accountability development and future opportunities. People Managers have a performance management plan which is concern about the employee development. The role of Peoples manager in employee development * Update employee profile on a periodic basis. * Fill the Managers page in the Employee profile. Considering any possible development actions in the future. * Understanding the requirement of making development more successful. * Check weather employees are pursuing towards development. * Provide adequate resource, opportunities and support to employees for development. * Provide caching and obtain feedback. (Example 7) Nivea Graduate programs are conducted in different stages as follows; “Beyond borders” an 18 month program where the candidate will be trained for 5 to 6 months overseas in another company or at the headquarters in Hamburg, Germany. “Gateway to the top” a program for university graduates who want to rofessionalize on sales, marketing, human resource, supply chain management or finance. “360 degree program” a program to gain experience beyond the professionalized area. “Focusing on you” a program in order to develop professional and personal skills. (Example 8) Tesco Management programs are conducted for 7000 staff at one time on development programs to gain knowledge and skills to move to the next step of the Tesco Challenge. Each year over 10,000 prove that by changing jobs in the organisation, as a result of programs that are flexible and sought your personal needs 80% of the administration role is filled by existing team mates.. Example 9) Harrods The managers are expected to complete a monthly review with workers to follow up with consistent 1-2-1s to review objectives and career objectives. The diverse number of divisions provides a exceptional prospect for workers to develop new abilities and experience without having to alteration companies. (Example 10) Nokia, India Company conducts Management trainee programs from the year 20006 and recruiting young talents and investing in their future leadership role. The program is an in house on the job training mechanism that encourages and allows the trainees to learn and develop theme selves for future roles.
In order to make the program a better success the company has built a relationship with institutes IIM – Ahamadabad, IIM – Calcuta, IIM – Lucknow, XLRI – Jamshedpur and TISS – Mumbai The role of Employee’s in employee development * Be responsible for own career. * Successful performance in present role of job. * Achieve realistic career goals. * Discuss with the Manager about developing the career. * Pay more attention towards areas to be more professional. (Example 11) Nivea (The largest women and men beauty care product manufacture)
The company offers future support in the form of career path which focuses international and cross functional activities and development programs planned to achieve both professional and personal talents. DUAL CAREER COUPLE In 1960’s the term Dual career couples was introduced by a team of Sociologists who were husband-and-wife. Two professionals engaging in a significant relationship where both pursue a career that reflects commitment, personal growth, responsibility. In this both partners are highly skilled and committed towards career advancement and obtain financial remuneration for their career advancement.
From the recent past woman too are focusing on professional career. The couple both who are managers, professional or technicians has doubled up in the past two decades. The worry amongst Dual career couples was balancing career, personal relationship and family responsibilities. Dual career couple men experience psychological stress, since they would be judged by their capacity to support the family and gain work status. They feel their status is undermined by their wife working, who will lead to loss of control, they fear helping at home under estimates manhood.
Family problems where one partner has to be flexible enough to choose what’s best for the family. In order to this the career development should be recognized for dual couples at early stages. At all times it is wise to involve both partners in planning to enhance the success of efforts. The other problem is job transfers, these transfers in the other partner’s career due to the mobility and also a commuting relationship between each other. When relocating dual career couple the Human resource can assist in finding a suitable job for the candidates partner as well.
Also Dual career couple marriages are quite complex than other marriages where there is opportunities for mutual growth and development and in the meantime opportunities for failure. Both individuals work towards these as they find it difficult to meet these expectations as both work to develop their interpersonal relationship with one another. WIFES CAREER Job demand Organizational demand Social demand Dealing with subordinates Dealing with clients (20 – 50 hours) HOME DUTIES Home maintenance Neighborhood relationship Children activity Social planning Shopping
Self-maintenance Assisting the spouse (30 – 50 hours) HUSBANDS CAREER Job demand Career advancement Social demand Dealing with subordinates Dealing with clients (40 – 50 hours) LEISURE TIME Rest Hobbies Personal activities Religious / Social activities (48 – 78 hours) The above figure shows the amount of time spent by Dual career couples per week. The wife takes responsibility of home and work whereas the husband takes responsibility only with career. DUAL CAREER COUPLES IN LARGE COMPANIES The Human Resource should turn the “Two body problems” in to “Two body opportunities”.
Many researchers found that than men its women in dual career couples subordinate their career development with their partner. Some companies use the arrangement as the cost share arrangement for hiring spouses, some companies do provide job opportunities in different departments where as some do offer a job in another company of the same group. The overall review of this is to facilitate dual career couples with job search for partners when relocating and hiring. The reason for companies to have dual career couple policies are to be competitive, increase faculty of colour, attract “stars”, increase women and to compensate for location.
Some companies do offer temporary jobs than part time jobs for senior trailing spouses. (Example 12) Oregon State University The university has a scheme as “family employment program” where a fixed regular sum is paid as remuneration to spouses of facilities. In order to retain the employees the company gives greater responsibilities to employees which adds more value towards their career. Chain companies promote the talented employees in the same organization or to another branch. Vacant positions arising within the company is first notified to the internal employees to give them priority. Example 13) The gas and oil industry was facing problems of retaining employees in their companies. The company’s goal was to develop the engineer’s talent by giving difficult types of assignments to increase the responsibility level of the employee during his career in the company. (Example 14) John Keells Hotels (A reputed Hotel chain in Sri Lanka, which not only owns hotels but supermarkets, shipping, cargo etc. ) The company has a policy of recruiting bottom line staff, which gradually develops themselves in becoming managers of that company.
Also the company believes in promoting the staff inside to high positions rather than hiring staff from out of the company as motivation and recognition for the employees. (Example 15) Nokia, India A global concert management system which is “Invest in people” “Internal job market” is for the border, which enables movement of Nokia employees. Any vacancies arise in the company is first posted to the interior employees and thereafter to the exterior applicants. Large companies are rich in resources and have a large turnover from the business.
Due to this factor the company has the ability of paying the employees a stable salary which they would be contented with. Also the profits gained are being given as bonuses since the company has limited liabilities to cover. There companies have a fixed policy which is applicable to all of their branches where ever located in the world. There is a mind perception of employees who do consider working for large reputed companies to be of prestige. (Example 16) Harrods Hannah, Retail Managers says, "The career opportunities at Harrods are definitely unique to Harrods.
For example at the moment I'm on the Harrods management programme, which is an eight month programme that gives you the necessary training to become a manager. So by the end of the eight months you'll become a retail manager in the store. " (Example 17) Sony As a Communications Manager, Rosemary says it best: "Outside of the brand, it's easy to be proud of Sony. You tell people you work for Sony, and you don't get a glazed look - its instantaneous respect. " It's a sense of respect that starts from within. "Everybody works very hard. There's a high level of expectation, but we all focus on that challenge to deliver the best quality work.
The people are the heart and soul of this place. It's a real commitment, and it goes both ways — the company to its employees, and the people are just as committed to the company. " Companies offer benefits not only for the employee but also for the entire family, which helps them experience the same as their partners do. (Example 18) Serendib leisures (A chain hotel and resort company in Sri Lanka with a range of three and four star hotel properties) A medical scheme is in practice where the employees and their families benefit. The scheme gives life insurance to the family along with yearly free medical checkup. (Example 19)
Aitken Spence Hotels ; resorts The company offers a weekend package for all executive employees in order to spend a weekend with their family at another Aitken Spence hotel where the entire cost is barred by the company. This is offered twice a year for each employee (Example 20) Harrods They offer staff a very high salary of ? 15,000+ and upwards, apart for this staff receive many other rewards such as; Harrod staff reward cards 50% discount on business dresses Season ticket loan Discount brochures at restaurants, fitness clubs, and holiday companies. Opportunities to join the company’s pension and health plan
Holiday payments Dual career couples ; parents working in companies are offered flexible working hours, which helps them balance family and work. Apart from the day off extra leave with pay, non pay leave for a long period policies are in existence. Advice and financial support is offered for the well being of the employees. A pension schemes are introduced for future benefits. (Example 21) Wal-Mart (The largest retail stores in the word, first introduced in the USA, found in many other countries) A policy is introduced for employees who are not USA citizens, the company many post-employment beneficial plans. Example 22) Mark ; Spencer A policy is in existence for adoptive parents, comparable adoption leave and pay within a policy exclusively planned for adoptive parents by providing extra provision leading up to adoption. (Example 23) Mark ; Spencer For employees who face problems with regard to work or family, the business uses an independent 24hour confidential helpline staffed by advisors who provide assistance in giving advice on debts or financial problems, legal problems, abuse, relationship difficulties, state benefits and even general counseling. They can be contacted on 07659145671 Example 24) Mark ; Spencer There is a policy for dads / parents, where 1 week paid paternity leave is being given when the baby arrives. Also parents have the benefits of taking unpaid leave for 13 weeks for every child till the age of 5 years. (Example 25) Mark ; Spencer For married female employee’s time off is being given for midwife, fitness visitor and parent craft lessons. Maternity pay and leave. The company professional health tem is accessible to carryout fitness checks at any time prior and after the birth including risk assessments where suitable. Example 26) Mark ; Spencer Flexible working hours are part-time, job sharing or term- working. For staffs who wishes to study or take a complete break of work nine months unpaid leave is given under the companies “Career Break” policy (Example 27) Mark ; Spencer Company offers dependency leave of 4 weeks paid leave which may be followed by 3 to 9 months unpaid leave or furthermore a longer break where the employee can take a dependency break for up to 5 years.
Companies that have succeeded in generating opportunities for dual career couples follow four strategies, they are as follows; * A dual career office with a person who would address the problems of dual career couples. * The top management who are willing to give solutions for creative and flexible in hiring. * Amongst the department the cross-discipline cooperation that exists due to administrative support. * Issuing financial incentives to departments apart from the department resources that are willing to hire partners. DUAL CAREER COUPLES IN SMALL COMPANIES
Small businesses are mostly independent owners. Most small companies are at the infantry stage, which face a lot of financial crisis. There are companies with barriers for dual career couple policies such as, lack of communication, coordination, administration, more attention only over departmental work and lack of resources. The employees are mostly recruits on contract basis where job security is limited and salaries are of a standard rate. The company is focused towards the profits than on employee growth due to high cost involence new technology is not introduced which demotivate employee. Example 28) Tendon Lanak Pvt. Ltd. (A small scale electrical manufacturing company in Sri Lankan) Old fashioned electronical technology with no development as the industry was growing, due to this situation the company employees were demotivated doing the same job over and over again which lead them to leave the company. As an end result of this the company had to close down on June 2009. (Example 29) Earl’s Regency – Sumiko Lanka Hotels Pvt. Ltd. (A 5 star resort property in the Central Province of Sri Lanka owned by Sumiko Lanka Hotels Pvt. Ltd. )
The executive Chef of this hotel resigned, and at that point the hotel had to recruit a new candidate for that position since the second in line were not capable enough to cope up with the work and be promoted to a higher position. The route cause for this was lack of training been provided for the management level staff. In the meantime some of these companies have a policy where dual career couples are not allowed to work in the same organization, due to the fear that when the first partner leaves the second also tends to leave, very few exceptional cases in which one does remain.
The reason for companies to not have a policy is due to less competitive, ad hoc accommodation can lead to resentment. (Example 30) Sumiko Lanka Hotels Pvt. Ltd, The company has a policy, as an employee’s spouse cannot work in the same company, which goes to the extent of not allowing any blood relations of employees also to work in the same company. Small companies don’t have the facility of providing employment to both couples since the establishment is small and not many branches available. WAYS OF SMALL COMPANIES RETAINING EMPLOYEES MOVING TOWARDS LARGE COMPANIES
Small companies need to find ways of being innovative and creative to retain employees. Loosing an experienced worker is a great productivity loss for t he company therefore constant support must be given towards work. Effective management practices and leadership skills, positive corporate culture and pleasurable work environment encourage employees retain. The employers must have a clear understanding about the expectation of the employees. The company can focus on recruiting staff from the same location, in order to retain staff due to travelling conveniences. On the job training should be rovided introducing new technology. For job security they should be provided each employee a job description which gives a clear picture of what is expected from them. Rewards and recognition is the best way for staff motivation. Health care benefits, new-hire orientation programs, open communication strategy, defined involvement programs, onsite parking, compensation for training cost ; casual dress programs such programs not only help retain employees, increase loyalty and productivity. The employers should take time in celebration staff birthdays and anniversaries to make them feel special.
Te best employees of the month can be nominated in order to recognize the hard working employees and to motivate the rest. (Example 31) Nesto Pvt. Ltd. (A chocolate and biscuit factory in Sri lanka) The company recruits employees from its location and an introduction program is carried out for the employees during the first week with regardsto the entire company profile and the operation taking place. CONCLUSION When analyzing the theoretical part and the practical situations faced by Dual career couples in companies, the large companies are much more efficient in handling these types of situations as they are enriched with many resources.
Most large companies have great financial resources with many sub companies of its own. This helps employee’s benefit in ways of wages, additional allowances, bonuses, paid leave and transfers on request. Many employees expect this in return of their service to the company. But in term of small companies, they have a very limited amount of resource which is mostly utilized for the benefit and growth of the company. Their main concern is about gaining profits for the company rather than focusing on employee growth. To overcome this situation small companies must engage staff welfare activities.
The company must make the employee feel they are special and wanted. REFERENCES BOOKS PRINT Beardwell J. ; Claydon T. (2007) Human Resource Management, Pearson Education Limited. Fifth Edition (page 358 – 398) Becker B. E. et. al (2001) The Human Resource Scorecard, Pearson Education Limited. Chrish et. al (2010) International Human Resource Management, charted Institute of Personnel ; Development (IPD House) Second Edition Dowling P. J et. al (1999) International Human Resource Management, Southwest College Publishing. Third Edition Foot M. ; Hook C. (2008) Introducing Human Resource Management, Pearson Education Limited.
Fifth Edition Hall B. W. PhD (2008) The Human capital Strategy, Library of Congress Cataloging. Loopold J. et. al (2005) The Strategic Managing of Human Resource, Pearson Education Limited. Mathis R. L. ; Jackson J. H (2008) Human Resource Management, Thomson South West. Twelfth Edition Price A. (2007) Human resource Management, Cengage Learning EMEA. Third Edition Redman T. ; Wilkinson A. (2009) Contemporary Human Resource Management, Pearson Education Limited. Third Edition Torrington D, Hall L. ; Taylor S. (2008) human Resource Management, Pearson education Limited.
Seventh Edition (page 465 – 476) BOOKS ELECTRONIC Bruce W. M ; Reed M. C. (1991) Dual Career Couples in the Public Sector, library of Congress Cataloging. (Page 2 to 4) Available from http://books. google. co. uk/books? id=unBG-ablVW0C;printsec=frontcover;dq=dual+career+couples+in+the+public+sector;hl=en;ei=zbQ_TvWVJpTC8QPOqNSPAw;sa=X;oi=book_result;ct=result;resnum=1;ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage;q;f=false (Accessed on 15th July 2011) David Russo (2010) 17 Rules, Successful Companies Use to Attract ; Keep top Talents, Pearson Education Limited.
Available from http://books. google. com/books? id=kVsnbZ23uYcC;pg=PA147;dq=how+do+companies+retain+employees;hl=en;ei=yKlDTqzkDcyq8APz673sBQ;sa=X;oi=book_result;ct=result;resnum=1 p;ved=0CDgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage;q=how%20do%20companies%20retain%20employees;f=false (Accessed on 10th August 2011) Fielden S. L. et. al (2005) International Handbook of Women ; Small Business Entrepreneurship, Edward Elgar Publishing limited. (Page 3 to 13) Available from http://books. google. co. k/books? id=myRC5ngQffoC;printsec=frontcover;dq=International+Handbook+of+Women+%26+Small+Business+Entrepreneurship;hl=en;ei=lLY_TsbpJoah8QO004mTCA;sa=X;oi=book_result;ct=result;resnum=1;ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage;q=International%20Handbook%20of%20Women%20%26%20Small%20Business%20Entrepreneurship;f=false (Accessed on 15th July 2011) Ferber M. A. ; Loeb J. E. (1997) Academic Couples Problems ; Promises, Library of Congress Cataloging. Available from http://books. google. o. uk/books? id=7GXk7upc6DAC;pg=PA270;dq=dual+career+couples+in+the+public+sector;hl=en;ei=zbQ_TvWVJpTC8QPOqNSPAw;sa=X;oi=book_result;ct=result;resnum=10;ved=0CF4Q6AEwCQ#v=onepage;q=dual%20career%20couples%20in%20the%20public%20sector;f=false (Accessed on 15th June 2011) WEB PAGES AND WEB SITES http://www. acadamices. com/science/focus_on_research_dual_career_couples_36593. html http://advance. ei. colombia. edu/sitefiles/file/dual_career_reading_30105. pdf http://www. beiersdorf. om/career/working_at_beiersdorf/working_at_beiersdorf http://corporate. marksandspencer. com/mscareers/rewards_benefits/lifestyle_options/supporting_working_parents http://www. essaypride. com/essays. php? free_essay=4788576;title=Retaining-Employees-In-Small-Business http://hr. blr. com/HR-news/Staffing-Training/Leadership/Growing-Leaders-Retaining-Employees-in-Small-and-M/ http://www. harrodscareers. co. uk/page/career_development http://www. masholdings. com http://www. nokia. co. in/careers http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Retaining-Employees-Small-Business/62126
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