“Aristotle: He argued for the existence of a divine being, described as the Prime Mover, who is responsible for the unity and purposefulness of nature. God is perfect and therefore the aspiration of all things in the world, because all things desire to share perfection. Other movers exist as well—the intelligent movers of the planets and stars (Aristotle suggested that the number of these is either 55 or 47).
The Prime Mover, or God, described by Aristotle is not very suitable for religious purposes, as many later philosophers and theologians have observed.
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Aristotle limited his “theology,” however, to what he believed science requires and can establish. ” Source: Brumbaugh, Robert S. “Aristotle. ” Microsoft Encarta 206 (DVD). Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2005 This falls under problem number one,” What is the ultimate nature of reality, existence or being. ” It is not the perfect one for me. Because it just recognizes that there is a God, who is the Prime Mover. Everything starts from him, the ultimate nature of reality, and existence. But it does not answer the relationship of God with Man or to each and everyone of us.
Other Movers are also recognized, and it confuses the proposal, Aristotle mentions the existence of a divine being, and also other intelligent movers. It did not answer how they relate to each other. Just a mere mentioning of their existence, may not be enough. Somehow, there must be a way in determining their existence and most especially to Man. It must be considered that the existence of Man has never reached a Harmonious level. But instead we are always in trouble, such as anger and hunger are everywhere. Code” 31147726 Basic Problems of Philosophy Page 2
Type of order: Research paper Deadline: March 18, 2007 5:35 2. According to Socrates, the principal speaker in The Republic, an ideal state would consist of three classes. The Philosopher-Kings would exercise political power in the service of justice and wisdom; the soldiers would protect the state as a means of acquiring honor; and the civilian population would provide for the material needs of society. A large part of The Republic is devoted to a detailed presentation of the rigorous intellectual training of future rulers.
This section also contains a fundamental analysis of metaphysical and scientific thought. The government of the state acts to enforce the virtue, and consequently the true happiness, of the individual citizen, and an ordrerly and productive public life is the result. Criticizing the doctrines of atheism and materialism, Plato reaffirmed his idealistic position and asserted this belief in the moral government of the universe and the immortality of the soul. Source: “Republic (literature). ” Microsoft Encarta 2006 (DVD). Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2005.
This is about problem number 2 and three. (3) Ethics, answering such questions as: How do we determine the basis for making moral judgments such as, this action was right and that wrong? (4) Logic, answers questions as: How should society be organized? What should be the relationship between the Government and the People? This is almost what we have today, a democratic government. Generally good, as long as the Philosopher-kings will be righteous ( I think this is equivalent to our president and the congress now. ) Because they are in power, or the one who rule. But when they become
Code: 31147726 Basic Problems of Philosophy Page 3 Type of order: Research paper Deadline: March 18, 2007 5:35 cruel and corrupt, the government or the Republic will be in trouble. Probably this is Plato’s greatest contribution to mankind. This is an exact example of how society should be organized and managed. The relationship between the government and the people, may not be perfect but at least law and order is establish. Because a decent life is offered to ordinary folks and they have a good chance of contributing their talents for a better government and society.
Ethics and Logic goes together, in such a way as how the government will deal with its people, there must be moral values and judgment such as to get the support, respect and most of all the trust of the people. That will be a healthy relationship. 3 “Anselm:Scholastic thought was less interested in discovering new facts and principles than in demonstrating the truth of existing beliefs. Its method was therefore dialectical (based upon logical argument), and its intense concern with the logic of argument led to important developments in logic as well as theology.
The Scholastic philosopher Saint Anselm of Canterbury adopted Augustine’s view of the complimentary relation between faith and reason and combined Platonism with Christian theology. Supporting the Platonic theory of ideas, Anselm argued in favor of the separate existence of universals, or common properties of things—the properties Avicenna had called essences. He thus established the position of logical realism—an assertion that universals and other ideas exist independently of our awareness of them—on one of the most vigorously disputed issues of medieval philosophy. ” Source: Carpenter, Andrew N.
“Western Philosophy. ” Code: 31147726 Basic Problems of Philosophy Page 4 Type of order: Research paper Deadline: March 18, 2007 5:35 Microsoft Encarta 2006 (DVD). Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation 2005 (2) Epistemology, answering such questions as what does it means to know something? What is the difference between knowledge, belief, faith, absolute certainty and so on? I believe in the separate existence of universals or common properties of things. —an assertion that universals and other ideas exist independently of our awareness of them.
It is my personal view that knowledge is another thing while faith must be different. Since when talking about knowledge, it starts from the mind and to be implemented physically, so its nature will be more materialistic. While Faith is another thing in a sense that it may not be necessarily materialistic, example is in the belief of God, whom we cannot see nor touch but just the strong belief and faith goes along with it. For me, when considering absolute certainly, it has something to do with our materialism and our materialistic society. Such as, when you throw a stone, it is certain that will go back to the ground, at a certain distance.
While faith is more of the mind, never physical. The relationship with belief is that it may not be necessarily logical or scientific but you still believe on it. Faith is beyond reason. 4. “Aquinas: The subject treated in Aristotle’s Metaphysics (substance, causality, the nature of being, and the existence of God fixed the content of metaphysical speculations for centuries. Among the medieval Scholastic philosophers, metaphysics was known as the “transphysical science” on the assumption that, by means of it, the scholar Code: 31147726 Basic Problems of Philosophy Page 5
Type of order: Research paper Deadline: March 18, 2007 5:35 philosophically could make the transition from the physical and theologians St. Thomas Aquinas declared that the cognition of God, through a casual study of finite sensible beings, was the aim of metaphysics. With the rise of scientific study in the 16th century the reconciliation of science and faith in God became an increasingly important problem. ” Source: “Metaphysics” Microsoft Encarta 2006 (DVD). Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2005 (2) Epistemology, answering such questions as what does it means to know something?
What is the difference between knowledge, belief, faith, absolute certainty and so on? Though, I don’t consider this proposal as the exact points of Aquinas. Because when talking about God, Truly it is not only faith but absolutely about the exact opposite of materialism. So, faith is not enough either, but you shall live with it. And that must be impossible in our materialistic society now. One example is, can you live without money? I stand that God and science are the exact opposite. My proposal is, “why look for food when the Omnipotent Being already provided us everything.
” And when you say, so many are hungry…. blame Yourself, Man or Us. 5. Discartes: The most famous exponent of dualism was the French philosopher Rene’ Descartes, who maintained that body and mind are radically different entities and that they are only fundamental substances in the universe. Dualism, however, does now show how there basic entities are connected. Source: “Metaphysics. ” Microsoft Encarta 2006 (DVD). Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2005. Code: 31147726 Basic Problems of Philosophy Page 6
Type of order: Research paper Deadline: March 18, 2007 5:35 (1) What is the ultimate nature of reality, existence, or being. (2) Epistemology, answering such questions as what does it mean to know something? What is the difference between knowledge, belief, faith absolute certainty and so on? Both of these problems may not be the exact points of Dualism. Since the body, or the physical composition of man is like any material objects. While in the mind, where knowledge and faith resides, it is not material, I mean you cannot see or touch them. And I believe that is the “True Knowledge”.
Descartes got it right, that body and mind are radically different entities. I believe that it is not only ideas or anything else which comes out of the mind, because it is a lot more. Such as no matter how scientist work for years to duplicate the human brain, I believe it is a useless endeavor because success is impossible. Because God is deep within us, and nobody could copy our Creator, the Omnipotent Being. You may create duplicates, but it is only physically and never the inside, because the Truth is in there…and it is not made of anything material. 6. Lucretius:He is an exponent of Classical Materialism.
There are other more recent schools of metaphysics, which also versions of materialism. Although classical materialism seems at times naive in its scientific outlook, it is not altogether out of date. Classical Materialism is the standard variety of atomic materialism- the view that all that exist if composed of matter, matter is constituted by combination or juxtapositions of ultimate particles, which are called atoms and are solid, indestructible, ever-lasting, and Code: 31147726 Basic Problems of Philosophy Page 7
Type of order: Research paper Deadline: March 18, 2007 5:35 indivisible; and-for Lucretius-all there is in the universe is just matter, and empty space or vacuity. (1) What is the ultimate nature of reality, existence, or being? If Lucretius call it as Classical Materialism, I believe that is the same thing with the nature of reality, existence, or being. Since the Truth must be indestructible, ever-lasting and indivisible. But I wonder why he called it as Classical Materialism, since it might be the exact opposite of materialism. Because a wooden chair.
Will have the atoms of a wood and no longer a chair, same thing also with a chair made of steel. And the human body after all is composed of its smallest parts the atoms of water? And who put them together to become what we are now, a human being. My answer is the Energy coming from a divine source, the Creator. Who knows absolutely and exactly who we are, male or female. Is it the same energy that binds this smallest particles together to form a certain entity, is the atoms we know today the smallest or is there something else much smaller than the atoms.
Such that, it is not these atoms which matter but the energy that will combine or bind them together to create objects or materials. What is that energy all about. Where it came from, I believe it is an energy coming from an Omnipotent Being Lucretius only mentioned about the atoms, but matter cannot be formed with a single atom, it must be more than one and bound together at a certain energy. And what kind of energy is it, is it inherent between the atoms combining together. But I believe that energy comes from an Omnipotent Being and not from anything else.
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